ESDU AZ Index: NNZ
 see
 Cowls
 see also
 Aerodynamic Loading
 Bodies of Revolution
 Cowls
 Calculation of Contribution of Rigid to Wing Deformation Using Orthogonal Modes, 97032
 Calculation of Contribution to Wing Deformation Using Normal Modes, 99033
 deformation of flexible assembly, 99033
 Effect of Propeller Type on Sideforce and Rolling and Yawing Moments Due to Sideslip
 wing mounted, 00025, TM 178
 Effect of Turbine Engine Type on Rolling Moment Due to Sideslip
 rearfuselage mounted/empennage interference, 73006
 underwing mounted, 00025, 73006
 Effect of Turbine Engine Type on Sideforce and Yawing Moment Due to Sideslip
 rearfuselage mounted/empennage interference, 79006
 underwing mounted, 00025, 79006
 Effects of Rearmounted Engine Nacelles on Sidewash at Fin, TM 184
 Estimation of Aerodynamic Centre Position for Wing/Fuselage/Nacelle (Turbine Type)
 effect of geometry and position for rearfuselage mounted, 78013
 effect of geometry and position for underwing mounted, 77012
 program for wingbodynacelle combinations, 13009
 Estimation of Nacelle and Flap Effects on LowSpeed Aerodynamic Centre and ZeroLift Pitching Moment of Transport Aircraft (TailOff), TM 200
 Estimation of Upwash Due to Turbine Engine Type, 90020
 Forces acting on
 Forces acting on singlestream nacelle, 16003
 Forces acting on twostream nacelle, 16003
 Interference With Pusher or Tractor Propeller Flow
 effect on thrust and drag, 86017
 Lift and Longitudinal Forces on Combination With Wing and Flap
 submerged in propeller slipstream, 88031
 see also
 Box Structures
 Buildings
 Crossflow Heat Exchangers
 Curved Rectangular Plates
 Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
 Curved SpeciallyOrthotropic Rectangular Plates
 Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
 Flat Panels in General
 Flat Rectangular Plates
 Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
 Flat SpeciallyOrthotropic Rectangular Plates
 Flat SpeciallyOrthotropic Square Plates
 Flat Square Plates
 Modal Density
 Pipes with Internal Flow
 Response of Buildings and Structures
 ShellAndTube Heat Exchangers
 Pressure Drop Across, 69022
 see also
 Propellers
 Definition, 82026
 Numerical Techniques for Definite Integrals

 see
 Quadrature
 Applied to Calculation of Pressure Distribution on Forebody, AERO W.S.05.03.01
 Effect on Fretting Fatigue Strength of Titanium Alloys, 88027
 see also
 Duplex Stainless Steels
 High Alloy Steels
 Composition of Specific Specifications 00932 (MMDH)
 Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
 Creep Behaviour and Elongation 00932 (MMDH)
 Density 00932 (MMDH)
 Elastic Moduli in Compression and Tension 00932 (MMDH)
 Elastic Modulus of Rigidity 00932 (MMDH)
 Electrical Conductivity 00932 (MMDH)
 Exfoliation Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
 Fracture Toughness
 variation with temperature, 83023
 Poisson's Ratio 00932 (MMDH)
 Proof Stresses in Compression and Tension 00932 (MMDH)
 Specific Heat Capacity 00932 (MMDH)
 Stress Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
 Tensile Strength 00932 (MMDH)
 Thermal Conductivity 00932 (MMDH)
 Thermal Expansion Coefficient 00932 (MMDH)
 Torsion and Shear Strengths 00932 (MMDH)
 Weldability 00932 (MMDH)
 see
 Ceramics
 Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Ducts
 variable gas property effects, 81045, 92003
 Gas Constant, AERO 00.01.09
 Pressure or Velocity
 definition, 66013
 see also
 Acoustic Absorption Coefficient
 Acoustic Impedance
 Aircraft Noise Series
 Control Systems
 Crossflow Heat Exchangers
 Noise in AirConditioning Duct Systems
 Noise Limiting Curves
 Noise Prediction for Aerospace Sources
 Noise/sound Propagation
 ShellAndTube Heat Exchangers
 TurboFan and TurboJet Engines
 Airframe noise, 90023
 Boundary layer noise, 75021, TM 58
 Cabin noise, internal noise, 07001
 Combination of Levels, 17012, 78037
 Combustor noise, combustion noise, 05001
 Comparison of Levels From Various Sources, 79037
 Conversion to R.M.S. Fluctuating Pressure, 66018
 Definition of Pressure Correlation, 20005
 Definitions of Intensity, Intensity Level, Power Level, Pressure and Pressure Level, 66013
 Estimation of sideline noise in subjective noise metrics, 82027 Addendum
 Fan noise, compressor noise, 98008
 Fans
 prediction at maximum efficiency point, 79037
 Farfield jet noise, 11002, 89041, 98019
 General Introduction to Concepts, Terminology and Units, 79037, 82001
 Ground reflection effects, 94035
 Jetbyjet noise shielding, 88023
 Lateral attenuation, 81035, 82027
 Methods Used to Model Subjective Response of Human Ear, 02020
 use of A, B or Cweighting, 79037, 82002
 use of Aweighting and table of values, 02020
 use of various other noise measures and their definitions, 02020
 Nearfield jet noise, 99006
 Noise shielding by barriers, 79011
 Propeller noise, 11005, 76020, 96027
 Section properties of fuselage stiffeners, 07001 Addendum
 Sound absorption coefficients of liners, 74003, 74004
 Sound attenuation due to air absorption, 78002, 78003
 Sound attenuation in circular ducts, 00012
 Sound attenuation in rectangular and annular ducts, 00024
 Sound Power Radiated by Dynamically Isotropic Excited Flat Rectangular or Square Plate
 effect of coincidence frequency, 00002
 effect of damping and stiffeners, 00002
 effect of edge rotational constraint and of support angle to plate, 00002
 program for modal averaged radiation efficiency, 00002
 use of principle of reciprocity to determine plate response from, 00002
 use of resonance frequencies to estimate edge constraint, 00002
 Sound Power Radiated by One Plate of Double Wall Construction
 when opposite plate is dynamically excited, 00002
 Sound propagation, 94036
 Sound propagation in the presence of wind and temperature gradients, 89036
 Sound radiation from circular ducts, 01015
 Sound Radiation From Dynamically Excited Orthotropic Flat Rectangular or Square Plate
 design curves for modal averaged radiation efficiency of simplysupported, 02009
 effect of coincidence frequency, 02009
 program for modal averaged radiation efficiency of simplysupported, 02009
 use of method for corrugated sandwich panels through equivalent orthotropy, 02009
 use of method for honeycomb sandwich panels through equivalent orthotropy, 02009
 use of method for ribbed (integrally stiffened) panels through equivalent orthotropy, 02009
 validation of method, 02010
 Statictoflight effects, 87011
 Turbine noise, 12001
 see also
 Fan Noise
 Noise/sound Propagation
 Attenuation in Circular or RectangularSection Ducts, 81043
 at 90? bends, lined or unlined, 81043
 at outlets, 81043
 effect of external lagging and internal lining, 81043
 Attenuation in Plenum Chambers, 82002
 Cylindrical Silencers With or Without Central Pod
 airflow generated noise, 82002
 static insertion loss, 82002
 total pressure loss, 82002
 Design Considerations for Acoustic Control, 82001
 Duct Vibration and Rumble Noise, 81043
 Flanking Transmission Prediction, 81043
 Flow Generated Noise
 dampers, 81043
 grilles with double or single deflection, 81043
 square section 90? bends with or without splitters, 81043
 sudden or gradual contractions, 81043
 Tjunctions, 81043
 General Discussion of Effect of Lining and Use of Silencers, 82002
 Introduction to Acoustics for, 82001
 Noise Breakout, 81043
 Noise Limiting Curves to Define Sound Pressure Level Over Frequency Range
 noise criterion and noise rating curves and their definitions, 82001
 Rectangular Splitter Silencers
 airflow generated noise, 82002
 static insertion loss, 82002
 total pressure loss, 82002
 Room Sound Pressure Level Prediction, 81043
 Typical Absorption Values for Various Room Surface Materials and Fittings, 82001
 Typical Room Reverberation Times and Their Use in Prediction, 82001
 Worked Example on Use of Prediction Methods, 82003
 Use to Define Sound Pressure Level Over Frequency Range
 noise criterion and noise rating curves and their definitions, 82001
 BuzzSaw Tones
 farfield, 75020
 within intake duct due to supersonic fan, 75020
 Coaxial Static Subsonic Jet FarField

 see also
 Noise/sound Propagation
 database, 11002
 program to interpolate in or extrapolate database, 11002
 Compressors in TurboFan or TurboJet Engines
 farfield with or without inlet guide vanes, single or multistage, 98008
 Discrete Frequency Far and NearField for Single Propeller With Axial or NonAxial Inflow (Static/Flight)
 estimation of unsteady lift coefficient for input to prediction program, 96027
 program for estimation from steady or unsteady loading data, 11005
 Discrete Frequency FarField for Single Propeller/Rotor
 graphical estimation of maximum component of rotational noise, 76020
 Fans in TurboFan Engines
 farfield with or without inlet guide vanes, single or multistage, 98008
 FarField Radiation Pattern From Open End of Unflanged HardWalled Cylindrical Duct
 effect of external flow parallel to axis, 01015
 multimode source assuming equal energy in each mode, 01015
 multimode source assuming specified modes and amplitudes, 01015
 multimode source using distribution of mono or dipoles, 01015
 single or multimode sources, 01015
 variation forwards of aft with angle from duct axis and distance, 01015
 Prediction of Airframe Noise ComponentbyComponent
 program for aeroplanes not propeller powered, 90023
 Shielding Effect of Two Identical SIngleStream Parallel Jets
 program for estimation, 88023
 SingleStream Static Jet NearField, 72002, 99006

 see also
 Noise/sound Propagation
 databases, 99006
 program for interpolation in or extrapolation of database, 99006
 SingleStream Static Subsonic Jet FarField
 database, 98019
 program to interpolate in or extrapolate database, 98019
 use of data to predict under flight conditions, 87011
 Turbulent Boundary Layer
 surface pressure fluctuations, 75021, TM 58
 Correction of Measurements for Atmospheric Attenuation
 broadband noise, 78003
 discrete frequency noise, 78002
 Correction of Measurements for Ground Reflection, 94035, 94036
 basis of theory, 94035
 discussion of effect of distributed sources, 94035
 effect of real filter characteristics, 94035
 effect of source velocity, 94035
 effect of turbulence on coherence of direct and reflected waves, 94035
 ground impedance twoparameter model for use in prediction, 94035
 minimisation by choice of microphone height, 94035
 sensitivity of results to choice of parameters in ground impedance and turbulence models, 94035
 Correction of Measurements for Temperature and/or Wind Gradients Near Ground
 program, 89036
 Correction of Measurements of Propagation Close to Ground
 atmospheric attenuation, spherical spreading and ground reflection, 94036
 Estimation of Attenuation Due to Barriers
 program, 79011
 Estimation of Lateral Attenuation in Subjective Units
 aircraft with rearfuselage turbofan or turbojet engines Addendum, 82027, 82027 Addendum
 aircraft with underwing turbofan or turbojet engines Addendum, 82027, 82027 Addendum
 Estimation of Sound Power Attenuation in Lined Annular or Rectangular Straight Ducts
 ducts with liners on one wall, opposite walls or all four walls, 00024
 ducts with sections having liners with different impedances, 00024
 including effect of subsonic flow and boundary layer velocity profile, 00024
 program, 00024
 Estimation of Sound Power Attenuaton in Lined Circular Straight Ducts
 ducts with sections having liners with different impedances, 00012
 including effects of subsonic flow and boundary layer velocity profile, 00012
 program, 00012
 with various modal structures including effect of fan/stator interaction, 00012
 Estimation of ThirdOctave Pressures Due to Lateral Attenuation
 aircraft with rearfuselage turbofan or turbojet engines, 82027, 82027 Addendum
 aircraft with underwing turbofan or turbojet engines, 82027, 82027 Addendum
 Speed of Sound
 use in temperature measurement, 02006
 Table of OneThird Octave Frequency Bands Due to Atmospheric Attenuation
 geometric centre, lower and upper frequencies, 78003
 Transmission of Vibrational Power Through Lightweight Structures
 Acoustic and Vibration Techniques, 91027
 Advantages and Limitations of Various Methods, 91027
 Applications of Various Methods, 91027
 Detection Capability of Various Methods, 91027
 Eddy Current Methods, 91027
 Endoscopy Methods, 91027
 Liquid Penetrant Methods, 91027
 Magnetic Field and Particle Methods, 91027
 Probabilistic Nature, 91027
 Radiographic Methods, 91027
 Selection of Appropriate Method, 91027
 Ultrasonic Methods, 91027
 Use of for InService Inspection or During Manufacture, 91027
 Use of Stress Jacking, 91027
 Visual Examination Methods, 91027
 Characterisation by Viscometric Measurements

 see
 Viscometers
 Classification by Flow Curve Under Steady Shear
 Bingham plastic, 95012, 97034
 shearthickening or dilatant, 95012, 97034
 shearthinning or pseudoplastic, 95012, 97034
 viscoplastic or yieldpseudoplastic, 95012, 97034
 Classification by Phase Condition as Homogeneous or Pseudohomogeneous, 95012, 97034
 determination of whether settling or nonsettling for pipeline design, 95012
 Classification by Rheological Type
 timedependent behaviour of thixotropic or viscoelastic, 95012, 97034
 Constitutive Equations to Model Flow Curves
 Bingham plastic, 91025, 95012, 97034
 Casson, 97034
 Cross, 97034
 HerschelBulkley, 91025, 97034
 MetznerReed generalised method, 91025
 power law, 91025, 97034
 Typical Flow Behaviour of Real Under Range of Shear Rates, 97034
 Typical Range of Shear Rates in Various Flow Processes, 97034
 Typical Variation of Viscosity With Shear Rate
 effect of concentration, molecular weight and temperature for polymeric, 97034
 effect of concentration on particulate, 97034
 see
 Statistics
 Bodies of General Cross Section
 elliptical, 05015
 square with corner rounding, 07005
 square without corner rounding, 04007
 triangular without corner rounding, 04007
 Controls, AERO F.05.01.01
 Flaps, AERO F.05.01.01
 Flat Plates Inclined to Flow
 circular, 70015
 elliptical, 70015
 rectangular, 70015
 semielliptical, 70015
 square, 70015
 triangular, 70015
 Flat Plates Normal to Flow
 annular, 70015
 circular, 70015
 effect of turbulence, 70015
 elliptical, 70015
 interference effects between parallel pair, 70015
 perforated, 70015
 rectangular, 70015
 semielliptical, 70015
 shear flow effects on rectangular, 70015
 square, 70015
 triangular, 70015
 ForebodyCylinders With BoatTailing
 incidences to 90? and Mach numbers to 5, 87033, 89014, 90034
 ForebodyCylinders Without BoatTailing
 incidences to 90? and Mach numbers to 5, 89014, 90034
 Grid Constructed of Flat Strips Normal to Flow, 70015
 In Plane of Single or ContraRotating Propellers at Low Forward Speeds
 due to local angle of attack, 89047
 SharpEdged Delta, Cropped Delta and Rectangular Wings of Low Aspect Ratio
 in combination with axisymmetric body in supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 91042
 isolated in subsonic flow to high angles of attack below stall, 93034
 isolated in supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 90013
 SharpEdged Low Aspect Ratio Wings MidSet on Axisymmetric Body
 cruciform or monoplane, angle of attack to 60? in supersonic flow, 91042
 Slender Wings
 increment due to ground effect, 71007
 nonlinear effects in free air, 71006
 SphericallyBlunted Cone and Tangent Ogive Forebodies Due to Pressure Only
 at low angles of attack and transonic speeds, 89033
 TwoDimensional CircularSection Cylinders Inclined to Flow, 80025
 distributed roughness effects, 80025
 turbulence effects, 80025
 TwoDimensional Stranded Cables Inclined to Flow, 80025
 see also
 LiftCurve Slope
 see
 Melting Point
 see also
 Response of Buildings and Structures
 Response of Structures
 equation for calculating response of buildings to wind loads, 77032, 83009, 91001
 introduction to use in calculation, 77032, 97033
 use in calculating response of cylinders to vortex shedding, 96030
 use in calculating response to turbulence, 87035, 88019, 89049
 Use in Calculating Deformation of Flexible Aircraft, 99033
 see
 Shock Waves
 see
 Hinge Moment
 Effect on Fatigue Strength

 see also
 Aluminium Alloys
 Austenitic Stainless Steels
 Fatigue Under Variable Amplitude Loading
 High Tensile Low Alloy Steels
 Maraging Steels
 Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
 Stress Concentration
 Titanium Alloy (Ti4Al4Mo2Sn0.5Si)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti5Al2.5Sn)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al6V2Sn)
 effect of mean stress, FAT A.00.02
 effect of scale, 87016
 Fatigue Strength Reduction Factors, 75022
 Stress Concentration Data
 Wings
 Stress Concentration Due to Tensile Loading
 stress concentration factors for fillets and optimised shape fillets in large plates, 15006
 Axial Load or Bending
 stress concentration data, 09014
 Axial Load
 stress concentration data, 79008
 see also
 TurboFan and TurboJet Engines
 Compressible Flow Equations and Curves
 Convergent Nozzle in Altitude Test Facility, TM 189
 Use of Liners to Attenuate Noise Transmission
 VectoredJetThrust Aircraft
 Pressure Drop Across, 66030
 Noise Rating
 Rectangular ExternalCompression DoubleRamp Intakes
 limiting Mach number on second ramp, 75005
 see also
 Double Lock Nuts
 Steel
 fatigue strength under axial load, 84037
 see also
 Inverse Nyquist Diagram
 Approximation by CircleFit to Frequency Response Measurements
 determination of undamped natural frequency and damping of modes, 90006, 93016
 Explanation With Worked Example, 74021
 Use in Control System Assessment and Design
 advantages and limitations, 81008
 examples in practical situations, 81040
 flowchart, 81008
 Use to Estimate Characteristic Equation Roots, 74021