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Condensers
see also
Condensing Flow in Pipes
Condensing Flow Over Low-finned Tubes
Reflux Condensers
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Advantages and Limitations of Various Types
coiled tube, 85022
direct contact, 85022
graphite, 85022
plate and plate-fin, 85022
shell-side, horizontal or vertical, 85022
tube-side, horizontal or vertical co-current flow, 85022
tube-side, vertical counter-current flow (reflux condenser), 85022
Choice of Coolant in Process Plant Design, 85022
Condensate Sub-Cooling in Tubular Condenser, 85022
Discussion of Cooling Curve, 85022
Guide to Selection, 85022
Notes on Condensing Process, 85022
Operating Problems
contamination or fouling, 85022
corrosion, 85022
draining or venting, 85022
erosion, 85022
fogging or freezing condensate, 85022
parallel-path instability, 85022
part-load operation, 85022
temperature pinch, 85022
Condensing Flow in Pipes
see also
Condensers
Heat Exchangers
Pressure Drop in Gas- or Vapour-liquid Internal Flow
Two-phase (Gas- or Vapour-liquid) Flow
Calculation Procedure for Film Heat Transfer in Downward Vertical Annular Flow, 91024
accuracy, 91024
criterion for transition from annular-mist to annular flow, 91024
criterion for transition from annular to slug flow, 91024
database of experimental results and discussion of data used, 91024
local and mean coefficients, 91024
treatment of desuperheating and subcooling, 91024
Calculation Procedure for Film Heat Transfer in Horizontal Annular, Slug and Stratified Flows, 94041
accuracy, 94041
criterion for transition from annular to stratified flow, 94041
criterion for transition to plug/slug flow, 94041
effect of sub-cooling, 94041
local coefficient, 94041
provision of condensate drainage, 94041
range of experimental data used to develop correlation, 94041
use of multi-pass units, 94041
Calculation Procedure for Pressure Drop in Downward Vertical Annular/Dispersed Flow, 90024
accuracy as function of condensation number, density ratio (vapour/liquid) and quality, 90024
application to condensers, 90024
correction of predicted adiabatic pressure drop, 90024
database of experimental results and discussion of data used, 90024
program, 93014
Calculation Procedure for Pressure Drop in Horizontal Annular/Dispersed Flow, 91023
accuracy as function of condensation number, density ratio (vapour/liquid) and quality, 91023
application to condensers, 91023
correction of predicted adiabatic pressure drop, 91023
database of experimental results and discussion of data used, 91023
program, 93014
Condensing Flow Over Low-finned Tubes
Downflow Over a Single Tube or In-Line or Staggered Tube Bundles
calculation method for condensate mass and film heat transfer, 01009
discussion of flow regimes, 01009
effect of fin and tube geometry, 01009
effect of fluid properties, 01009
effect of material thermal conductivity, 01009
effect of retained fluid between fins, 01009
gravity- or shear-controlled flow, 01009
range of experimental data used to develop calculation method, 01009
Conditional Probability
see
Random Processes
Statistics
Conduction Heat Transfer
see
Cylinders of Laminated Construction
Flat Rectangular Heated Plates
Heat Transfer
Joints
Refractory Lining Materials
Spherical Shells of Laminated Construction
Conductivity
see
Thermal Conductivity
Cone and Plate Viscometer
see
Viscometers
Cone Cylinders
see also
Base Drag (without Blowing or Jet Efflux)
Base Drag with Central Propulsive Jet
Boat-tailing
Bodies of Revolution
Boundary Layer
Equilibrium Surface Temperature
Flow Separation
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Skin Friction Drag
Centre of Pressure and Pitching Moment With or Without Nose Blunting
incidences to 90 degrees and Mach numbers to 5, 89014, 90034
Lift Distribution and Pitching Moment
oscillating in bending, heave or pitch, 83010
Normal-Force-Curve Slope
zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
Normal Force With or Without Nose Blunting
incidences to 90? and Mach numbers to 5, 89014, 90034
Pitching-Moment-Curve Slope
zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
Pitching Moment Derivatives Due to Rate of Pitch and Acceleration in Heave
low incidence at supersonic speeds, with or without boat-tailing and fins, 91004
Planform Area and Its Centroid
with or without truncation or nose blunting, 77028
Sideforce at Mach Numbers Below 1.2 and Incidences Above 20 Degrees
discussion of sources, 89014
effect of Mach number and Reynolds number, 89014
effect of nose blunting, 89014
envelope of overall maximum with crossflow Mach number, 89014
typical axial distribution, 89014
Surface Area and Volume, Nose Angle or Radius of Curvature
with or without truncation or nose blunting, 77028
Coned Disc Springs
see
Disc Springs
Cones
see also
Afterbody
Boundary Layer
Cone Cylinders
Equilibrium Surface Temperature
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Forebody
Skin Friction Drag
Aerodynamic Characteristics at Zero Incidence in Subsonic or Transonic Flow
normal-force-curve slope, 89008
pitching-moment-curve slope, 89008
Aerodynamic Characteristics at Zero Incidence in Supersonic Flow
flow deflection in conical flow field, 70009
Mach number for surface sonic flow, 70008, 70009, AERO S.00.03.13
Mach number in conical flow field and on surface, 70010
normal-force-curve slope, 89008
pitching-moment-curve slope, 89008
shock angle, 70008, AERO S.00.03.13
shock detachment conditions, 70008, 70009, 70010, AERO S.00.03.16
surface pressure, AERO S.00.03.13
Heat Transfer Through Truncated
see
Heat Transfer
With or Without Nose Truncation or Blunting
planform area and its centroid, surface area and volume, 77028
Configuration Factors
see
Radiation Heat Transfer
Conical Afterbody
see
Afterbody
Conical Cowl
see
Spillage Drag
Conical Diffusers
see also
Diffusers
Flow Regimes, 73024, 90025
Geometrical Relationship
area ratio, length and divergence angle, 73024, 90025
Methods of Improving Performance, 87015
Optimum Geometry for Maximum Pressure Recovery in Compressible Flow, 90025
Optimum Geometry for Maximum Pressure Recovery in Incompressible Flow, 73024
Static Pressure Recovery in Compressible Flow
fairing of inlet/diffuser junction effects, 90025
geometry effects, 90025
inlet velocity profile shape effects, 90025
Mach number effects (including approach to choking), 90025
Reynolds number effects, 90025
tailpipe effects, 90025
turbulence effects, 90025
upstream shock wave/boundary layer interaction effects, 90025
Static Pressure Recovery in Incompressible Flow
distributed roughness effects, 76027
geometry effects, 73024
inlet boundary layer effects, 73024
inlet swirl effects, 76027
tailpipe effects, 73024
turbulence effects, 73024
Total Pressure Loss
approximate derivation from static pressure recovery in compressible flow, 90025
derivation from static pressure recovery in incompressible flow, 73024
with tailpipe in incompressible flow, 73024
Conical Shock Waves
see
Shock Waves
Constitutive Equations
see
Non-newtonian Fluids
Constrictions in Ducts
see
Sudden Contractions in Ducts
Contact Phenomena
see also
Cams
Geneva Mechanisms
Determination of Film Thickness in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
acceptable thickness for roughness of contacting components, 85027, 89045
three-dimensional (or point) contacts, 89045, 91038
two-dimensional (or line) contacts, 85027, 91037
Effect of Type of Contact on Wear Mechanism, 86040
Normally-Loaded Components
calculation procedure for stresses anywhere on or within components, 85007
contact area dimensions, 78035, 94034
deflections, 78035, 94034
depth of maximum shear stress below surface, 78035, 94034
discussion of effect of roughness, 78035
discussion of effect of tangential loading, 78035
discussion of effect of thin films, 78035
effect of circular, elliptical or rectangular contact area, 78035
failure prediction in brittle or ductile materials, 84017, 85007, 94034
graphs of maximum cyclic stress for fatigue failure prediction, 84017
graphs of maximum tensile and equivalent shear stresses, 84017
location of maximum range of orthogonal shear and its value, 94034
location of maximum tensile and equivalent shear stresses and their values, 94034
maximum shear stress below surface, 78035, 94034
program for stresses anywhere on or within components, 94034
stress distribution around contact area perimeter, 94034
stress distribution over cross section or along line through contact volume, 94034
surface stresses, 78035, 94034
Normally-Loaded Components With Gross Sliding
calculation procedure for stresses anywhere on or within components, 85007
contact area, dimensions and orientation, 94034
deflections, 94034
directions of contact motion and sliding, 94034
failure prediction in brittle or ductile materials, 84017, 85007, 94034
graphs of maximum cyclic stress for fatigue failure prediction, 84017
graphs of maximum tensile and equivalent shear stresses, 84017
location of maximum range of orthogonal shear and its value, 94034
location of maximum tensile and equivalent shear stresses and their values, 94034
program for stresses anywhere on or within components, 94034
stress distribution around contact area perimeter, 94034
stress distribution over cross section or along line through contact volume, 94034
Contaminated Runways
see
Aircraft Tyres
Friction Coefficient
Impingement Drag
Planing of Aircraft Tyres
Runways
Contaminated Water
see
Water Conservation in Process Plants
Contraction of Ducts
see
Sudden Contractions in Ducts
Controls (Aerodynamic)
see also
Ailerons
Controls (Gap Sealed)
Controls (with Gap)
Flaps
Hinge Moment
Indicial Aerodynamics
Rudder
Spoilers
Tab
Trim
Discussion of Effect on Drag of Mismatch of Control and Wing Profiles, 92039
Effect of Deflection of Plain Trailing Edge
on wing spanwise loading distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
Guidance on Contribution to Excrescence Drag, 93032, 94044
Lift-Curve Slope in Supersonic Flow, AERO A.S.01.03.02
Lift Variation With Control Deflection
three-dimensional flow, 74011, 74012
Normal Force, AERO F.05.01.01
Oscillating on an Aerofoil in Subsonic Flow
effect on lift, pitching and hinge moments, and pressure distribution, 81034
introduction to calculation of forces, moments and pressure, 82020
Oscillating on an Aerofoil in Supersonic Flow
effect on lift, pitching and hinge moments, and pressure distribution, 82005
introduction to calculation of forces, moments and pressure, 82020
Pitching Moment Variation With Control Deflection
two-dimensional flow, AERO C.08.01.01
Spanwise Centre of Pressure in Supersonic Flow, AERO A.S.06.03.04
Controls (Gap Sealed)
see also
Controls (Aerodynamic)
Drag Increment Due to Chordwise and Spanwise Sealed Gaps
example of calculation for leading-edge slat and spoiler, 93032
undeflected at low speeds, 92039
Effect of Deflection in Subsonic or Transonic Two-Dimensional Flow
on drag, hinge and pitching moments, lift and pressure distribution, 01033
on drag, lift, pitching moment and pressure distribution, 96028, 96029
on shock-induced separation, 97030
Lift Variation With Control Deflection
two-dimensional flow, AERO C.01.01.03
Controls (with Gap)
see also
Controls (Aerodynamic)
Discussion of Effect of Gaps on Wing Aerodynamic Characteristics, 92039
Drag Increment Due to Chordwise and Spanwise Gaps
example of calculation for aileron, 93032
undeflected at low speeds, 92039
Lift Variation With Control Deflection
two-dimensional flow, AERO C.01.01.04
Control Systems
Analysis
see
Dynamic Stability
Linear Systems
Non-linear Systems
Sampled-data Systems
Assessment
advantages and disadvantages of various methods, 81008
selection of method, 81008
Block Diagram Reduction and Equivalent Structures, 80018
Controllers and Filters, 80018
electrical and mechanical realisations, 80018
Design Considerations, 80018, 81008
Design of Digital Elements to Replace Analogue Elements
aliasing and folding frequency, 92044
Bode diagrams of gain and phase for various filters, 92044
frequency response characteristics, 92044
use of bilinear or impulse invariance transformation, 92044
Design Using Various Assessment Methods
Bode and root diagrams, 80018, 81008
examples, 81040
flowcharts, 81008
Nyquist and inverse Nyquist, 81008
Electrical Networks
transfer functions for active or passive circuits, 85026
Examples of Design in Practice
aircraft autopilot height controller, 81040
electromechanical instrument servo, 81040, 92044
rotating apparatus, such as TV camera, position controller, 81040
Feedback Shaping, 80018
Function of Elements, 80018
Mathematical Modelling of System to be Controlled, 80018
example of position controller for rotating apparatus such as TV camera, 81040
use of state equations, 80018
Need to Model Sensor Behaviour, 80018
Noise, 80018
use of filters to minimise, 80018
Pilot Interaction
acceptable stick force and stick force gradient, 92006
Resonance and Its Control, 80018
Sensitivity of Modes to Change in System Parameters, 80018
Servomechanisms of Various Types
basic mathematical representation and transfer functions, 85026
Synthesis
using modal control or performance index, 80018
Use of Z-Transform to Analyse Sampled-Data System
see
Z-transform
Convection Heat Transfer
see
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Free Convection Heat Transfer
Mixed Forced-free Convection Heat Transfer
Conversion Factors
Acceleration and Velocity, 81002
Density, 81002, CF2, FMI1
Dynamic Viscosity, 68036, 81002, CF2, FMI1
Enthalpy, CF2
Flow Rate, 81002, CF2, FMI1
Force and Torque, 81002
General, CFA, CFS
Heat Flux, CF2
Kinematic Viscosity, 68036, 81002
Length and Volume, 81002
Mass, 81002
Polar Moment of Inertia, 81002
Power, 81002
Pressure and Stress, 80016, 81002, CF2, FMI1, PD1
Specific Heat Capacity, FMI1
Work, 81002
Cooling and Ventilation Systems
Guidance on Contribution to Aircraft Drag, 94044
Cooling Water
Conservation and Re-Use
see
Water Conservation in Process Plants
Fouling and Its Control
see
Fouling in Cooling Water Systems
Cooper-harper Rating
Aircraft Handling Qualities, 92006
Copper Alloys
Bearing, Torsion and Shear Strengths 00932 (MMDH)
Composition of Specific Specifications 00932 (MMDH)
Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
Density 00932 (MMDH)
Elastic Modulus in Tension 00932 (MMDH), 94017
Elastic Modulus of Rigidity 00932 (MMDH)
Electrical Conductivity 00932 (MMDH)
Elongation 00932 (MMDH)
Exfoliation Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
Fracture Toughness 00932 (MMDH)
Poisson's Ratio 00932 (MMDH), 94017
Proof Stresses in Tension 00932 (MMDH)
Specific Heat Capacity 00932 (MMDH)
Stress Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
Tensile Strength 00932 (MMDH)
Thermal Conductivity 00932 (MMDH)
Thermal Expansion Coefficient 00932 (MMDH)
Use as Hydrodynamic Bearing Materials
guide to selection, 88018
Weldability 00932 (MMDH)
Cornering Force
Yawed Rolling Unbraked Aircraft Tyre, 13007
Corner Section in Specially-orthotropic Plates
Under Bending Moment, Radial Shear and Tangential Direct Load
loading to cause failure, 94019
prediction of failure in ply material or at ply interfaces, 94019
through-thickness radial and shear stresses, 94019
Correlation Coefficient
see
Regression
Correlation Functions
see
Random Processes
Turbulence Near Ground
Corrosion
see also
Corrosion Resistance
Environment
Effect of Dry-Out on, 85041
Effect on Condenser Performance, 85022
In Combustion Plant
mechanisms involved in coal- or oil-fired, 92012
In Cooling Water Systems
chemical inhibiters, 88024
factors affecting, 88024
methods of control, 88024
Of Hydrodynamic Bearing Materials
conditions conducive to, 88018
Relative Effect of Various Synthetic Lubricants, 94020
Corrosion Resistance
see also
Anodising
Of Various Metallic Materials
aluminium, copper, magnesium and titanium alloys 00932 (MMDH)
nickel steels and steels 00932 (MMDH)
Selection of Coatings for
see
Wear Resistant Surface Coatings and Treatments
Corrosion Resistant Steels
see
Austenitic Stainless Steels
Duplex Stainless Steels
High Alloy Steels
Maraging Steels
Martensitic Stainless Steels
Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
Steels
Corrugated Core Sandwich
see
Flat Sandwich Panels (Corrugated Cores)
Corrugated Plates
Flexural Rigidities, 74022
Formulae for Equivalent Flexural Stiffnesses, 02009
Response to Dynamic Excitation by Treating as Equivalent Orthotropic Plate
design curves for radiation efficiency averaged in one-third octanve bands, 02009
program for averaged radiation efficiency, 02009
use of averaged radiation efficiency to calculate sound radiation, 02009
Under Shear
effect on buckling of method of attaching corrugations, 74022
local buckling stress for double- and single-sided attachment, 74022
overall buckling load and wave length, 74022
plasticity effects on local buckling, 74022
summary of experimental data, 74022
Costs
see
Dry Rubbing Bearings
Heat Exchangers
Lubricants
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Temperature Measurement
Countersunk Holes
Distribution of Stress Concentration Factor Along Bore in Plate
loaded in tension or by out-of-plane bending, 93030
Counterweights
Comparison of Use With Other Methods of Balancing Planar Linkages, 89043
multiple weights to improve performance, 89043
single weight on constant velocity crank, 89043
Design Procedure for Complete Force Balancing Multi-Bar Linkages
determination of masses and their locations, 89028
Determination of Alignment and Mass of Rotating for Partial Balancing of Planar Linkages
Lanchester Balancer and generalised Lanchester Balancer, 90007
moment balancer, 90007
single weight, 90007
Coupling Loss Factor
see also
Statistical Energy Analysis
At Oblique Angles of Incidence, 15010
Averaged Coupling Loss Factors, 15010
Beam to Plate, 15010
Between a Plate and Cavity or Large Room, 15010
equation for calculation from known plate radiation efficiency, 00002
Equation for Connected Plates, 98020, 99009
Experimental for Cylinder to Honeycomb Plate Junction, 15010
Experimental for Plates at Right Angles, 15010
For Beams and Plates in Terms of Transmission Efficiency, 15010
For Plates at Right Angles, Intersecting Plates, Plates With Branch, 15010
Cover Plate Joints
see
Bolted Butt Joints with Cover Plates in Steels
Welded Joints in Steels
Welded Longitudinal Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Welded Transverse Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Welded Transverse Joints in Steels Under Axial Loading
Cowls
see also
Nacelle
Cowl Forebody and Afterbody Force Component, 16003
Drag Estimation at Subsonic Speeds
see also
Spillage Drag
drag rise Mach number, 81024
profile drag component (contributions from forebody, cylindrical midbody, afterbody), 81024
wave drag component, 81024
Drag Force, 16003
Estimation of Upwash, 90020
Forecowl Pressure Force in Inviscid Flow at Zero Incidence
variation with Mach number and mass flow ratio for NACA 1-Series and modified profiles, 94014
Forecowl Surface Pressure Distribution in Inviscid Flow at Zero Incidence
variation with Mach number and mass flow ratio for NACA 1-Series and modified profiles, 94015
Forecowl Wave Drag in Inviscid Flow at Zero Incidence
variation with Mach number and mass flow ratio for NACA 1-Series and modified profiles, 94014
NACA 1-Series External Profile Coordinates and Internal Lip Geometry, 84004, 94013
selection of realistic internal profile, 94013
simple curve fit, 94013
smoothed profile for computational fluid dynamics, 94013
Pre-Entry Force in Inviscid Flow at Zero Incidence
variation with Mach number and mass flow ratio for NACA 1-Series and modified profiles, 94014
Cow's Milk
Dynamic Viscosity
typical values, 66024

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