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Ambient Pressure
see also
Atmosphere
Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
Measurement in Flight
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Variation With Altitude
aircraft performance program
model atmospheres, 68046, 72018, 77021, 77022, 78008
program to calculate in non-Standard conditions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
program to calculate in Standard conditions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Ambient Temperature
see also
Atmosphere
Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
Measurement in Flight
air properties for derivation from measurements in hypersonic flow, 88025
approximate treatment of caloric imperfection, 83029
derivation of true total temperature, 84007
determination from total temperature in hypersonic flow, 88025
flight calibration of temperature probe, 84007
introduction to, 86031
radiation and recovery errors, 83029, 84007
real gas effects (excluding dissociation), 88025
response of probe to changing temperature, 84007
self-heating error, 83029, 84007
use of manufacturer's data in probe calibration, 84007
Variation With Altitude
see also
Atmospheric Effects on Sound
model atmospheres, 68046, 72018, 77021, 77022, 78008
Variation With Latitude and Season, 78008
Amendments To ESDU Data Items
Record of Changes Introduced in Aerodynamics Series, 00001
Record of Changes Introduced in Aircraft Noise Series, 00010
Record of Changes Introduced in Mechanisms Series, 00004
Record of Changes Introduced in Performance Series, 99035
Record of Changes Introduced in Structures Series, 00030
Record of Changes Introduced in Transonic Aerodynamics Series, 99034
Record of Changes Introduced in Tribology Series, 00005
Record of Changes Introduced in Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series, 00011
Ammonia
see also
Heat Pipes
Density
pressure and temperature variation for saturated gas and liquid, 80017
Dynamic Viscosity
pressure and temperature variation for saturated gas and liquid, 80017
Specific Heat Capacity
pressure and temperature variation for saturated liquid, 80017
Specific Latent Heat of Vaporisation
pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
Surface Tension
pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
Thermal Conductivity
pressure and temperature variation for saturated liquid, 80017
Vapour Pressure
pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
Anabatic Winds
Description, 87034
Analogous Body Concept
Analogous Body Concept, 74013
Analogous Wing Concept
Analogous Wing Concept (Section 5.1), 73012
Analog-to-digital Transformation
see
Analogue-to-digital Transformation
Analogue-to-digital Transformation
Cavity Aero-Acoustics, 04023, 09001, 16004
Control System Elements, 92044
Anderson-darling Test
see
Statistics
Anemometers
Characteristics of Types Used to Measure Wind Speeds, 87034
effective averaging time for gusts, 87034
measurement errors, 87034
Anemometric Data Correction
see also
Ambient Temperature
Impact Pressure
Calibration Laws
airspeed indicator, 86031
altimeter, 86031
Machmeter, 86031
Determination of Airspeed and Mach Number in Hypersonic Flow
graphs and tables of air properties for use in, 88025
using in-flight measured static pressure, 88025
using static pressure deduced from ambient temperature and lapse rate, 88025, 93020
Flowcharts to Ensure Correct Order, 83029
Guide to Calculation Procedures, 86031
Introduction to Definitions and Notation, 86031
Introduction to Method, 83029
Pitot and Static Pressures
accurate determination of speeds, Mach number and altitude, 83029, 85036
approximate determination of speeds, Mach number and altitude, 83029, 85036
effect of transition from laminar flow on use of ground lag calibration, 87038
experimental determination of installed system lag, 87038
incorporation of lag effects, 83029, 87038
inertia effects, 83029
Reynolds number effects, 83029
theoretical treatment of acoustic and viscous lag, 87038
use in determining airspeed and Mach number in hypersonic flow, 88025
use in determining ambient and relative temperatures, 83029
use in determining specific excess power, 83029
Position (Pressure) Error in Static Pressure Sensing, 83029, 85036, 86006
determination of dependence on angle of attack and Mach number, 95024
example of calibration of boom-mounted sensor in subsonic flight, 95024
use of wind-tunnel and flight tests to determine, 95024
Angle of Attack
see also
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Wings
Derivation of angle of attack in flight, 17013, TM 190
Determination of angle of attack
using accelerometer, 17013, TM 190
using Energy Height method, 17013
using INS/GPS method, 17013, TM 185
For Maximum Lift
aerofoils with or without leading- and/or trailing-edge high-lift devices deployed, 96003
program to predict, 99031
wings with or without leading- and/or trailing-edge high-lift devices deployed, 96003
For Zero Lift
aerofoils in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024, 98011
aerofoils in subcritical attached flow, 98011
cambered and twisted wings, 87031
cambered and twisted wings with approximately circular-section fuselage, 89042
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series aerofoils, 99003
Induced Due to Downwash, 73012
In-flight calibration of an angle of attack sensor, 17013, TM 185
Angles
Aircraft Dynamics
see
Attitude Angles
Direction Angles
Incidence Angles
Angle Section Joints
see
Club-foot Fittings
Angle Sections
see also
Angle Sections with Bulbs
Angle Sections with Lips
Beams in General
Beams of Angle Section
Beams of Any Hollow or Solid Polygonal Section
Corner Section in Specially-orthotropic Plates
Struts in General
Flexural Properties, STRUCT 01.00.01
Angle Sections with Bulbs
see also
Beams in General
Beams of Any Hollow or Solid Polygonal Section
Planar Shapes and Sections With/without Holes
Struts in General
Struts of Bulb Angle Section
Secondary Warping and Torsion Constants, STRUCT 00.07.01
Angle Sections with Lips
see also
Beams in General
Beams of Any Hollow or Solid Polygonal Section
Planar Shapes and Sections With/without Holes
Struts in General
Flexural Properties, STRUCT 01.00.01
Angle Valves
Pressure Drop Across, 69022
Angular Contact Ball Bearings
see
Grease in Rolling Bearings
Rolling Bearings
Rolling Bearings for Specialised Applications
Angular Damping Index
Linear Systems
definition, 67038
Annular Diffusers
see also
Diffusers
Geometrical Relationships, 75026
Methods of Improving Performance, 87015
Onset of Significant Separation, 75026
Optimum Geometry for Maximum Pressure Recovery, 75026
Static Pressure Recovery
inlet boundary layer effects, 75026
inlet swirl effects, 76027
radius ratio effects, 75026
tailpipe effects, 75026
turbulence effects, 75026
wall angle combination effects, 75026, 76027
Total Pressure Loss
derivation from static pressure recovery, 75026
Annular Ejectors
see
Ejectors
Annular Flow
see
Condensing Flow in Pipes
Falling Film Evaporation
Two-phase (Gas- or Vapour-liquid) Flow
Annular Plates
Normal to Flow
normal force, 70015
Annular-section Pipes
see also
Double-pipe Heat Exchangers
Effect of Systematic Roughnesses
see
Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
see
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Noise Attenuation of Subsonic Flow by Duct Liners
see
Noise/sound Propagation
Annular Wings
Lift-Curve Slope, 77012
Anodising
see also
Wear Resistant Surface Coatings and Treatments
Bond Strength, Deposition Rate, Porosity, and Treatment Temperature, 86040
Description of Treatments Involved, 87026, 88027
Effect on Fatigue Strength of Notched or Unnotched Aluminium Specimens
data for various alloys with various treatments, 87026
effect of cladding, 87026
effect of loading direction relative to grain structure, 87026
effect of oxide layer thickness, 87026
under constant or variable amplitude axial or bending loading, 87026
use of chromic or sulphuric acid or hard anodising, 87026
Effect on Fretting Fatigue of Titanium Alloys, 88027
Antennas
Guidance on Contribution to Excrescence Drag, 94044
Paraboloidal
mean forces and moments due to wind or other fluid flows, 82031
pressure distribution due to wind or other fluid flows, 83020
Api Gravity -
Approach
Estimation of Speed During, PERF EG6/2
consideration of margin above stall in turbulence, PERF EG6/2
Stability During, PERF EG6/2
Techniques for Dealing With Crosswind, 01010
Apu
see
Auxiliary Power Unit
Aquaplaning
see
Planing of Aircraft Tyres
Aqueous Solutions
see also
Salt Water
Sea Water
Hydrochloric Acid/Methanol
effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in titanium alloy sheet, 90028
Sodium Bromide
effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in titanium alloy sheet, 90028
Sodium Chloride
effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in aluminium-lithium plate, 91015
effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in aluminium plate and sheet, 88007
effect on fatigue crack propagation rate in titanium and titanium alloy plate and sheet, 90028
effect on fretting fatigue of titanium and titanium alloy, 88027
Archimedian Coils
see
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
Area Distribution
Minimum Transonic Drag Rise
zero lift, AERO A.02.03.02
Area of Planar Shapes With/without Holes
see also
Centre of Area of Planar Shapes and Sections With/without Holes
Moments of Area of Planar Shapes and Sections With/without Holes
Principal Axes
Program for Calculation, 02007, TM 119
Area Rule
see also
Moment of Area Rule
Transonic and Supersonic, AERO A.S.02.03.01
Arochlor 1248
see
Chlorinated Biphenyl
Arrester Gear
Discussion of Application for Abandoned Take-Off and Landing, 85029
Asphalt
Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
Dynamic Viscosity
typical values in liquid state, 66024
Asphaltene
Effect on Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
see
Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
Astm Charts
Viscosity of Oils, 68036, 71003
Astm Classification
Viscosity of Oils, 68036
Asymmetric Flight
Estimation of Trim Drag Due to Inoperative Engine or Other Source
approximate method for fan-, jet- or propeller-powered aircraft, 88006
equations of motion for equilibrium flight, 88006
estimation of component contributions to, 88006
techniques for flight (wings level or banked), 88006
Steady Level Sideslipping, Turning or With Failed Engine
calculation of aileron and rudder deflections and their order of magnitude, 01010
calculation of loading on fin, fuselage, tailplane and wing, 01010
ATG
Kinematic Viscosity
typical values in liquid state, 71003
ATK
Kinematic Viscosity
typical values in liquid state, 71003
Atmosphere
see also
Air
Atmospheric Effects on Sound
Extreme Wind Speeds
Neutral Atmosphere
Turbulence Near Ground
Wind Gradient
Wind Speed
Absorption and Scattering of Solar Irradiance, 69015
Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
Description and Explanation of Global Wind Circulation, 87034
Effect of Dust, Ozone and Water Vapour on Solar Irradiance, 69015
Effect of Various on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate
aluminium alloy forgings, plate and sheet, 88007
aluminium-lithium alloy plate and sheet, 91015
titanium and titanium alloy plate and sheet, 90028
Height Relationships in Any, 78012
Height Relationships in Off-Standard and Standard, 77022
Probabilistic
explanation of definition, 68046
Program to Estimate Variation of Properties With Altitude
aircraft performance program, ESDUperf
in Standard conditions or non-Standard conditions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Properties for Specific Design Conditions (0 to 20 km, 0 to 65 000 ft)
Arctic, temperate and tropical extremes, 78008
Properties of International Interim Standard 50 km to 80 km
equations for computation and tables of relative values, 77021
Properties of International Standard - 0.5 km to 32 km
absolute (and relative values) in SI units, heights in feet, 72018
Properties of International Standard - 0.5 km to 50 km
absolute (and relative values) in British and SI units, 68046
equations for computation, 77021, 77022
tables of relative values, 77021
Properties of Off-Standard
absolute (and relative values) in British units, 68046
defining equations, 77022
equations for computation, 77022
Properties of Standard 80 km to 1 000 km
tables of relative values, 77021
Standard or Off-Standard
variation of ratio of static to total pressure behind normal shock in hypersonic flow, 93020
Standard Sea-Level Properties, 68046, 72018, 77021, 77022
Atmospheric Effects on Sound
see also
Noise
Discussion of Absorption, Attenuation and Refraction, 02020
Effect of Turbulence on Ground Reflection Behaviour, 94035, 94036
Estimation of Attenuation in Propagation Close to Ground, 94036
Estimation of Attenuation of Broad-Band Sound Using Discrete Frequency Data, 78003
effect of non-uniform still atmosphere, 78003
effect of real filter characteristics, 78003
effect of spectrum smoothing, 78003
graphical method, 78003
inclusion of discrete tones, 78003
Estimation of Attenuation of Discrete Frequency Sound
effects of humidity, pressure and temperature, 78002
Temperature and/or Wind Gradients Near Ground
calculation of third-octave pressure levels due to, 89036
Attitude Angles
Aircraft Dynamics
definition, 67003, 86021
relationship to incidence angles, 67037
use in conversion of accelerations and velocities between axes systems, 98024
Determination of pitch angle using a longitudinal accelerometer, 17013
Pitch During Ground Run or Taxiing
assumption for or calculation of, 87018
Austenitic Stainless Steels
see also
Steels
Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate, 84003, 93033
see also
Crack Propagation
characteristic slopes of plots against stress intensity factor, 84003
effect of alloy composition and heat treatment, 84003
effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 84003
Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate (Short Cracks), 93033
effect of alloy composition, 93033
effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 93033
Fatigue Strength at High Endurance, 88008
relationship with tensile strength for unnotched specimens, 88008
Fatigue Strength Under Bending, 71027
effect of notches, 71027
relationship with tensile strength, 71027
Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range, 84003
Automatic Brakes
see
Brakes
Auxiliary Power Unit
Guidance on Contribution to Aircraft Drag, 94044
Guidance on Maximum Airflow Required for Cabin Conditioning, 94044
Average Flow Properties
Steady, Spatially Non-Uniform Axial Compressible Flow Using Thermodynamically Rigorous Approach
definition of reference set for calorically-perfect gas, 95011
definition of reference set for thermally-perfect gas, 97029
Axes
see
Axes System Transformations
Axes Systems in Aircraft Dynamics and Performance
Principal Axes
Axes System Transformations
see also
Axes Systems in Aircraft Dynamics and Performance
Conversion Formulae for a General Rotation Defined by Attitude Angles
any vector, 67036, 78038, 85030
Conversion Formulae for a General Rotation Defined by Attitude Angles and Translation
force and moment vectors, 82031
Conversion Formulae for Rotation and Translation in a Plane
aerodynamic derivatives and constants of inertia, 67004, 86041
angular and linear velocity vectors, 67004, 86041
force and moment vectors, 67004, 86041
Axes Systems in Aircraft Dynamics and Performance
see also
Axes System Transformations
Choice of, 67003
Definitions, 67036, 78038, 85030, 86021
Geometric and Kinematic Relationships, 67036, 78038, 79018, 86021
Transformation Between Earth, Body, Air-Path, Flight-Path and Other Axes Systems
any vector, 85030
Transformation Between Earth, Body and Air-Path Axes Systems
any vector, 67036, 78038
Use of Euler Attitude Angles or Quaternion Representation of Aircraft Attitude
in conversion of accelerations and velocities between axes systems, 98024
Axial Force
Slender Wings, 71006
Spherically-Blunted Tangent Ogive and Cone Forebodies Due to Pressure Alone
at low angles of attack and transonic speeds, 89033
optimum blunting for minimum, 89033
Surface-Mounted Rectangular-Section Cylinders
effect of incidence and section aspect ratio in turbulent shear flow, 80003
Surface-Mounted Square-Section Cylinders
effect of incidence in turbulent shear flow, 80003
effect of incidence in uniform approach flow, 71016
Swept Straight-Tapered Plane Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
viscous contribution to lift dependent drag, 95025
Two-Dimensional Circular-Section Cylinders Inclined to Subcritical Flow, 80025
distributed roughness effects, 80025
turbulence effects, 80025
Two-Dimensional Stranded Cables Inclined to Subcritical Flow, 80025

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