ESDU Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow Series
Methods and data are given for use by the plant engineer, design engineer or consultant in the day to day evaluation of fluid flow through various piping systems. Hand calculation methods and computer programs based on empiricallyderived correlations and numerical methods provide rapid and reliable estimates of fluid flow parameters. The limits of applicability are stated and guidance is given on the maximum tolerance to be allowed on the predictions.

Section 1: Organisational Documents

ESDU 04021
Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow Series: Record of Documents.

ESDU 04021

Section 2: General

ESDU CFA
Conversion factors. 
ESDU FMI1
Introductory memorandum on the pressure losses in internal flow systems. 
ESDU 12003
Pressure and Flow Measurements.

ESDU CFA

Section 3: Compressible Flow Relationships

ESDU 67035
Jet flow parameters 
ESDU 74028
Onedimensional compressible gas flow in ducts. 
ESDU 95011
Onedimensional representation of steady, spatially nonuniform flow. An equivalent meanvalue set for compressible flow. Part 1. Implementation for an ideal, caloricallyperfect gas. 
ESDU 97029
Onedimensional representation of steady, spatially nonuniform flow. An equivalent meanvalue set for compressible flow. Part 2. Implementation for an ideal, thermallyperfect gas. 
ESDU 03012
Computer program for calculation of mean value properties for nonuniform compressible flows. 
ESDU TM 148
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM The implications of flow property profiles on determination and application of nondimensional pressure loss coefficients for flow of incompressible fluids

ESDU 67035

Section 4: Straight Pipes

ESDU 66027
Friction losses for fullydeveloped flow in straight pipes. 
ESDU 74029
Friction losses for fullydeveloped flow in straight pipes of constant cross section  subsonic compressible flow of gases. 
ESDU 79014
Losses caused by friction in straight pipes with systematic roughness elements. 
ESDU TN 08008
CFD studies for the validation of friction losses and flow characteristics in circular straight pipes with smooth walls 
ESDU TN 08009
CFD validation studies for transitional flow in circular straight pipes with smooth walls

ESDU 66027

Section 5: Bends, Branches and Junctions

ESDU 73022
Pressure losses in threeleg pipe junctions: dividing flows. 
ESDU 73023
Pressure losses in threeleg pipe junctions: combining flows. 
ESDU 83037
Pressure losses in curved ducts: single bends. 
ESDU 77009
Pressure losses in curved ducts: interaction factors for two bends in series. 
ESDU 77029
Pressure losses in curved ducts: coils.

ESDU 73022

Section 6: Duct Fittings and Equipment

ESDU 66030
Pressure losses in flowmetering devices. 
ESDU 69022
Pressure losses in valves. 
ESDU 72009
Pressure drop in ducts across roundwire gauzes normal to the flow. 
ESDU 74040
Pressure loss during crossflow of fluids with heat transfer over plain tube banks without baffles. 
ESDU 79034
Crossflow pressure loss over banks of plain tubes in square and triangular arrays including effects of flow direction. 
ESDU 81021
Pressure losses caused by obstructions in ducts or pipes. 
ESDU 81039
Flow of liquids. Pressure losses across orifice plates, perforated plates and thick orifice plates in ducts. 
ESDU 82009
Compressible flow of gases. Pressure losses and discharge coefficients of orifice plates, perforated plates and thick orifice plates in ducts. 
ESDU TN 07007
Incompressible flow through orifice plates  a review of the data in the literature. 
ESDU TN 10013
CFD validation studies for incompressible flow through squareedged orifice plates.

ESDU 66030

Section 7: Ejectors and Jet Pumps

ESDU 92042
Ejectors and jet pumps: computer program for design and performance for compressible gas flow. 
ESDU 93022
Ejectors and jet pumps: computer program for design and performance for liquid flow. 
ESDU 85032
Ejectors and jet pumps. Design and performance for incompressible liquid flow. 
ESDU 86030
Ejectors and jet pumps. Design for steam driven flow. 
ESDU 94046
Ejectors and jet pumps: computer program for design and performance for steam/gas flow.

ESDU 92042

Section 8: Duct Expansions

ESDU 72011
Flow through a sudden enlargement of area in a duct. 
ESDU 76027
Introduction to design and performance data for diffusers. 
ESDU 73024
Performance of conical diffusers in incompressible flow. 
ESDU 74015
Performance in incompressible flow of planewalled diffusers with singleplane expansion. 
ESDU 75026
Performance of circular annular diffusers in incompressible flow. 
ESDU 87015
Performance improvement of axial diffusers for incompressible flow. 
ESDU 90025
Performance of conical diffusers in subsonic compressible flow. 
ESDU TM 19
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Effects of truncation on diffuser performance.

ESDU 72011

Section 9: Duct Contractions

ESDU 05024
Flow through sudden contractions of duct area: pressure losses and flow characteristics. 
ESDU TN 06023
CFD validation studies for pressure loss and flow characteristics in sudden contractions.

ESDU 05024

Section 10: Rotating Machinery

ESDU 07004
Flow in rotating components  discs, cylinders and cavities. 
ESDU 15012
Flow in Rotating Cavities 
ESDU 09004
Labyrinth seal flow.

ESDU 07004

Section 11: TwoPhase Flow  Guides to Pressure Drop Related Problems

ESDU CF2
Conversion factors for fluid flows. 
ESDU FMI2
Guide to the flow relationships and statistical methods used in the Data Items on twophase flow pressure gradients in straight pipes. 
ESDU 78018
Guide to calculation procedures for solving typical problems related to pressure drop in twophase flow. 
ESDU 88014
Computer program for the prediction of airlift pump performance.

ESDU CF2

Section 12: TwoPhase Flow  Pressure Losses in Pipes

ESDU 76018
The frictional component of pressure gradient for twophase gas or vapour/liquid flow through straight pipes. 
ESDU 01014
Frictional pressure gradient in adiabatic flows of gasliquid mixtures in horizontal pipes: prediction using empirical correlations and database. 
ESDU 04006
Pressure gradient in upward adiabatic flows of gas liquid mixtures in vertical pipes. 
ESDU 77016
The gravitational component of pressure gradient for twophase gas or vapour/liquid flow through straight pipes. 
ESDU 78001
The momentumchange component of pressure change in twophase flow and other nonequilibrium effects. 
ESDU 89012
Twophase flow pressure losses in pipeline fittings.

ESDU 76018

Section 13: NonNewtonian Flow

ESDU 97034
NonNewtonian fluids: Guide to classification and characteristics. 
ESDU 95012
NonNewtonian fluids: obtaining viscometric data for frictional pressure loss estimation for pipeflow. 
ESDU 04005
NonNewtonian fluids: tube viscometry worked example 
ESDU 91025
NonNewtonian fluids: frictional pressure loss prediction for fullydeveloped flow in straight pipes.

ESDU 97034

Section 14: Fans

ESDU 79037
A guide to fan selection and performance.

ESDU 79037

Section 15: Pumps

ESDU 80030
Radial, mixed and axial flow pumps. Introduction. 
ESDU 80031
Radial, mixed and axialflow pumps. Size estimation, and specification. 
ESDU 81001
Radial, mixed and axialflow pumps. Glossary of terms. 
ESDU 81002
Radial, mixed and axialflow pumps. Conversion factors.

ESDU 80030

Section 16: AirConditioning Systems

ESDU TM 180
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Modelling of ventilation for thermal comfort and indoor air quality 
ESDU 82001
An introduction and guide to noise in ventilation, airconditioning and other ducting systems. 
ESDU 82002
Reduction of sound in ventilation and similar air distribution systems. 
ESDU 82003
Example to illustrate the use of Data Items on noise from ducted ventilation and airconditioning systems. 
ESDU 81043
Sound in low velocity ventilation ducts.

ESDU TM 180

Section 17: Fluid Transients in Pipes and Tunnels

ESDU 83046
Fluid transients in pipes and tunnels. Speed of propagation of pressure waves. 
ESDU 84013
Fluid transients in pipes. Reduction and control of pressure surges in liquids. 
ESDU 84038
Fluid transients in pipes. Pressure surge following pump trip in rising mains and other similar discharge lines. Suppression using air vessels. 
ESDU 85009
Fluid transients in pipes. Use of air inlet/outlet valves as surge suppression devices. 
ESDU 85044
Fluid transients in pipes. Pressure surge following booster pump trip. Suppression using pump bypass.

ESDU 83046

Section 18: Fluid Transients

ESDU 86015
Fluid transients in pipes. Estimation of maximum pressures and forces in steam lines. 
ESDU 87027
Computer program for the prediction of fluid transients in liquidfilled systems.

ESDU 86015

Section 19: Pipeline Vibrations

ESDU 88022
Pipeline vibrations. Undamped natural vibration of pipelines. 
ESDU 89030
Pipeline vibrations. Fluid transients in nonrigid, unbranched planar piping systems. 
ESDU 93031
Pipeline vibrations. Computer program for the prediction of fluid transients in flexible, unbranched threedimensional piping systems.

ESDU 88022

Section 20: CFD Guides

ESDU CFDBPG 09010
CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling friction losses and flow characteristics in straight pipes. 
ESDU CFDBMK 09011
CFD Benchmarks for predicting friction losses and flow characteristics in straight pipes. 
ESDU CFDBPG 07008
CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling pressure loss and flow characteristics. Incompressible flow in sudden contractions. 
ESDU CFDBMK 07009
CFD Benchmarks for predicting pressure loss and flow characteristics. Incompressible flow in sudden contractions. 
ESDU CFDBPG 11010
CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling pressure losses and flow characteristics in square and knifeedged orifice plates

ESDU CFDBPG 09010
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