ESDU Mechanisms Series
This Series covers methods and data for the design and analysis of cams, gears, linkages and Geneva mechanisms, and also includes contact stress estimation.
A comprehensive set of inter-related Items in the cams area covers selection of cam and follower type, selection of cam laws, both trigonometrical and polynomial, kinematic analysis, estimation of basic dimensions and the blending of cam profiles. Blending is used to accommodate an intermediate cam displacement precision point or a constant velocity component of motion, or to achieve a cam design optimum such as a reduced segment angle, a reduced reference circle radius or an increase in follower lift. The cam methods also include selection of materials, manufacturing methods and lubricants and further provide an estimation of contact stress and lubricant film thickness.
Methods for the design of parallel axis straight spur and helical gears include the choice of materials, a preliminary estimate of major dimensions and geometric design. A method for the calculation of contact and root bending stress limitations, compatible with BS 436: Part 3 is also provided. The kinematic design of epicyclic gear trains, limited to a consideration of the kinematics and the efficiencies of the gear trains, is also included.
Linkage data includes the analysis and synthesis of the complete range of four-bar linkages, including crank-rocker, slider-crank, parallel-coupler and swinging-block. The force analysis of linkages presents analytical methods used to estimate numerical values of reaction forces at joints that connect links of single degree-of-freedom, planar, multibar linkage mechanisms. Other Items provide balancing procedures for planar linkages including comparison of the various techniques for force balancing, procedures for force-balancing using counterweights and rotating counterweights and methods for the reduction of torque fluctuation in drive shafts.
A complete analysis procedure for the design of internal and external Geneva mechanisms is provided, including a derivation of the basic relationships for kinematic and kinetostatic design, estimation of the forces and torques, evaluation of contact stress and calculation of the lubricant film thickness including identification of the lubrication regime.
Further Items provide estimation methods for the evaluation of contact stress for a general contact with purely normal loading or with combined normal and tangential loading for gross sliding conditions. The methods allow a complete map of the contours of contact stress within the contacting bodies to be constructed and apply strictly only to dry contacts but are valid for boundary lubrication and for the limiting case of very thin films in elastohydrodynamic lubrication.
Section 1: Organisational Documents
Mechanisms Series record of documents.
- ESDU 00004
Section 2: General
Section 3: Gears
Design of parallel axis straight spur and helical gears - choice of materials and preliminary estimate of major dimensions.
Design of parallel axis straight spur and helical gears: geometric design.
The kinematic design of epicyclic gear trains.
The design of spur and helical involute gears. A procedure compatible with BS 436: Part3: 1986 - method for calculation of contact and root bending stress limitations for metallic involute gears.
- ESDU 68040
Section 4: Contact Stresses
Contact phenomena. I: stresses, deflections and contact dimensions for normally-loaded unlubricated elastic components.
Contact phenomena. II: stress fields and failure criteria in concentrated elastic contacts under combined normal and tangential loading.
Contact phenomena. III: calculation of individual stress components in concentrated elastic contacts under combined normal and tangential loading.
Dimensions, deflections and stresses for Hertzian contacts under combined normal and tangential loading. (Guide to use of computer program A9434.)
- ESDU 78035
Section 5: Cams - Guide to Data Items
Guide to the use of ESDU Data Items on cam design.
- ESDU 01002
Section 6: Cams - Calculation Methods
Section 7: Cams - Derivation of Equations
Design of disc cams with various followers: derivation of kinematic equations.
- ESDU ME2
Section 8: Cams - Estimation of Basic Dimensions
Section 9: Cams - Examples
Design of disc cams and their followers: examples.
- ESDU 85013
Section 10: Cams - Cam Law Blending
The synthesis of cam motion by blending segments.
Introduction to polynomial cam laws.
Blending profiles of disc cams with radial translating roller followers. Part 1: to reduce segment angle, reduce reference circle radius or increase follower lift.
Blending profiles of disc cams with radial translating roller followers. Part 2: to incorporate an intermediate precision point or a constant velocity component.
- ESDU 83027
Section 11: Cams - Material Selection
Selection of materials, manufacturing methods and lubricants for cam mechanisms.
- ESDU 94017
Section 12: Cams - Stress and Lubrication Analysis
Analysis of cam roller followers
Contact stress in disc cams with roller followers.
Lubricant film thickness between disc cams and followers.
Contact stress in disc cams with domed or flat faced followers.
ESDU TM 101
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Derivation of lubricant entrainment velocity for disc cams with six different types of follower.
ESDU TM 102
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Derivation of contact force and radius of curvature of cam profile for disc cams with six different types of follower.
- ESDU 91026
Section 13: Cams - Selection
Selection of DRD cam laws.
A guide to the selection of cam and follower type.
Dwell-Rise-Fall-Dwell and Dwell-Fall-Rise-Dwell cam laws. Sections 1 to 8: segments having equal rise and fall periods.
Dwell-Rise-Fall-Dwell and Dwell-Fall-Rise-Dwell cam laws. Sections 9 to 13: segments having asymmetric rise and fall periods.
Dwell-Rise-Fall-Dwell and Dwell-Fall-Rise-Dwell cam laws. Sections 14 to 23: examples.
Dwell-rise-fall-dwell cam laws. Computer program.
- ESDU 82006
Section 14: Linkages - Atlas of Performance Curves
Atlas of performance curves for crank-rocker and slider-crank linkages.
- ESDU 81033
Section 15: Linkages - Synthesis and Analysis
Section 16: Workbench
Section 17: Linkages - Balancing
Section 18: Geneva Mechanisms
Section 19: OSMEC - Linkage Analysis Software
Section 20: Springs
Dynamic characteristics of cylindrical helical springs. Part 1: deformation, stresses and stability.
Dynamic characteristics of cylindrical helical springs. Part 2: vibration
Dynamic characteristics of cylindrical helical springs. Part 3: impact loading on compression springs.
- ESDU 06024
- Aircraft Noise
- Fatigue - Endurance Data
- Fatigue - Fracture Mechanics
- Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow
- Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow (Aerospace)
- Heat Transfer
- Physical Data, Chemical Engineering
- Stress and Strength
- Transonic Aerodynamics
- Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue
- Wind Engineering