ESDU AZ Index: LLIF
 see also
 Rotating Machinery
 see
 Rotary Seals
 Design of, 09004
 Performance Assessment of, 09004
 Selection of, 09004, 80012
 Types Available
 advantages and limitations, 09004, 80012
 life, 09004, 80012
 maximum fluid pressure and shaft speed, 09004, 80012
 radial, 09004
 shaft and housing finishes required, 09004, 80012
 special design features that can be used, 09004, 80012
 staggered, 09004
 stepped, 09004
 straightthrough, 09004
 typical applications, 09004, 80012
 Air Temperature Probes
 response to transients, 84007
 Anemometric Data Measuring System in Aircraft
 effect of transition from laminar flow on use of ground calibration, 87038
 experimental determination for installed system, 87038
 incorporation of correction to pitot and static pressures, 83029, 87038, 88025
 pitot and static errors due to, 85011
 theoretical treatment of acoustic and viscous, 87038
 Calibration of Pressure Air Data Systems, 20006
 see also
 Beams of Sandwich Construction
 Corner Section in SpeciallyOrthotropic Plates
 Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
 Curved SpeciallyOrthotropic Rectangular Plates
 Curved Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
 Cylinders of Laminated Construction
 Faceplate Wrinkling
 Failure Modes
 Flat Panels with FibreReinforced Unflanged Integral Stiffeners
 Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
 Flat Sandwich Panels (Corrugated Cores)
 Flat Sandwich Panels (Truss Cores)
 Flat SpeciallyOrthotropic Rectangular Plates
 Flat SpeciallyOrthotropic Square Plates
 Flat Strips of Orthotropic Materials
 Flat Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
 Sandwich Panels and Plates
 Spherical Shells of Laminated Construction
 Struts of Sandwich Construction
 Criterion for Edge Delamination Failure, 95028
 Definition of Balanced and Unbalanced Laminates, 94003
 types of stiffness coupling in unbalanced, 94003
 Dynamic Response to Excitation
 Elastic Constants
 calculation from properties of individual layers, 02009, 83035, 94003
 calculation from properties of matrix and fibres, 02009, 83035
 Fatigue Strength Under Acoustic Loading
 aluminiumglassfibre epoxy (GLARE) laminates including temperature effects, 84027
 design considerations to improve, 86025
 fibrereinforced laminates and skinrib joints, 84027
 Flexural and InPlane Stiffnesses
 calculation from properties of individual layers, 02009, 83035, 94003
 calculation from properties of matrix and fibres, 02009, 83035
 related to any reference plane in terms of those related to central plane, 94003
 Interlaminar Stresses at Free Edges in Composite Plates Under Uniaxial Strain
 program for estimation, 95028
 use to predict delamination, 95028
 Layer Strains and Stresses
 formulae for transforming values between axes systems, 94003
 Layer Stresses in Balanced and Unbalanced Laminates
 due to applied loads and moments and temperature variation, 94004
 due to method of manufacture, 94004
 Layer Stresses in Unbalanced Laminates
 due to restraining flat, 94004
 Plate Curvatures and Strains for Balanced and Unbalanced Laminates
 due to applied loads and moments and temperature variation, 94004
 due to method of manufacture, 94004
 Plates Tapered in Thickness by Ply DropOffs
 program to predict uniaxial load for delamination, 91003
 use of fracture mechanics to predict delamination, 91003
 Plate Strains for Unbalanced Laminates
 due to restraining flat, 94004
 Program to Compute Stress and Strain Distribution Around Circular Hole, 85001
 use to design reinforcement in fibrereinforced composites, 86003
 Program to Design Most Effective Laminate to Support InPlane Loads and Bending Moment
 choice of ply thicknesses and layup using 0?, 90?, ?45? layers only, 96036
 Stacking Sequences for Special Orthotropy, 82013
 selection of stacking sequence to meet stiffness criteria, 82013
 Structural Damping
 discussion of effect of fibre angle, length and volume, and temperature, 91012
 program for calculation of fibrereinforced, 85012
 typical values, 91012
 ThroughThickness Shear Stiffnesses of Plate Materials, 89013
 illustration of trends with material characteristics, 89013
 Autolanding Threshold Dispersion Data Analysis
 as illustration of use of statistical techniques, 91019
 Correlation of Changes in DragMinusThrust and Lift in Airborne Manoeuvre
 deduced from speeds at screen and touchdown, 91032, 92020
 discussion of effect of landing style, 92020
 example plots for wide range of aircraft and power plants, 92020
 Determination of Airborne Distance By Regression Applied to Measurements
 of airborne time, and screen and touchdown speeds and rates of descent, 92022
 Development of Relation Between Approach Speed and Ground Run
 by regression applied to measurements, 92021
 Estimation
 airborne distance, 91032, 92020
 approach speed, PERF EG6/2
 average value of dragminusthrust during airborne phase, 91032
 certification airborne manoeuvre, 91032
 circular arc representation of airborne phase, 91032
 discussion of deceleration techniques, 85029
 effect of power cut height on airborne distance, 91032
 effect of runway gradient, 91032
 effect of wind and wind gradient on airborne distance, 91032, 92020
 field length factors defined by airworthiness requirements, 84040
 ground run, PERF EG6/4
 ground run prediction on wet runway from aircraft stopping distance test data, 99015
 ground run prediction on wet runway from friction groundtest machine data, 99015
 introduction to Data Items on, 80026
 limiting speeds defined by airworthiness requirements, 85029
 speed loss in airborne phase to touchdown, 91032
 thrust decay of turbofan and turbojet engines, 85029
 time delays in response of mechanical deceleration devices, 85029
 time from screen to touchdown, 91032
 total distance from 50 ft, 84040
 touchdown speed from airborne time and screen speed, 92020
 typical speed losses before brake application, 85029
 typical touchdown speeds related to screen speeds, 85029
 typical values of deceleration in ground run, 76011
 use of braking parachutes, 85029
 Fatigue Loading in Ground Run

 see
 Fatigue Loading
 Impingement Drag Due to Tyre Sidespray Impacting Airframe

 see
 Impingement Drag
 Prediction of Tyre Sidespray Envelope for Water and Slush, 83042
 Reduction of Measured Data, 80009, PERF RG2/1
 vectoredjetthrust aircraft, 87037
 Turbulence During Approach

 see also
 Turbulence Near Ground
 stalling due to, PERF EG6/2
 Fatigue Strength
 Strength Analysis
 maximum stresses in plates under compression or tension, 67008
 See under compound of interest
 see also
 Atmospheric Effects on Sound
 Estimation for Aircraft With RearFuselage TurboFan or TurboJet Engines
 effect of distance and elevation angle on thirdoctave sound pressures, 82027, 82027 Addendum
 in subjective noise units Addendum, 82027, 82027 Addendum
 program for thirdoctave sound pressures
 Estimation for Aircraft With Underwing TurboFan or TurboJet Engines
 effect of distance and elevation angle on thirdoctave sound pressures, 82027, 82027 Addendum
 in subjective noise units Addendum, 82027, 82027 Addendum
 program for thirdoctave sound pressures
 Explanation of Derivation of Prediction Method for Aircraft
 effect of aircraft flow field, 81035
 effect of jetbyjet shielding, 81035, 88023
 effect of meteorological conditions, 81035
 effect of sampling time, 81035
 elimination of background noise, 81035
 use of ground reflection correction to data, 81035
 use of measured or predicted atmospheric attenuation, 81035
 Approximate Solution to Modes of Motion, 83024
 comparison with full solution for particular aircraft, 83024
 Description of Modes of Lateral Motion and Effect of Aircraft Characteristics on Them
 Dutch roll, 83024, 86021
 rolling subsidence and spiral mode, 86021
 Desirable Characteristics of Lateral Modes for Good Aircraft Handling Qualities, 92006
 Effect of Control Augmentation on Dutch Roll, 83024
 Effect of Idealised Yaw Damper on Dutch Roll, 83024
 Equations of Motion
 rigid aircraft, 67003, 83024, 86021
 separation of lateral/longitudinal sets and appropriate characteristic equations, 67003, 86021
 Estimation of Roll Response to Aileron Input, PERF EG8/2
 Inertia Coupling of Lateral/Longitudinal Equations
 rapid rolling manoeuvre, 67005, 67006, 67007
 Requirements for Minimum Values of Damping and Frequency of Dutch Roll
 for military aircraft handling, according to aircraft class and flight phase, 92006
 Requirements for Roll Performance and Roll Time Constant
 for military aircraft handling, according to aircraft class and flight phase, 92006
 Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
 Mean Forces and Moments Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
 Mechanical Vibration Characteristics

 see
 Buildings
 Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity
 temperature variation in liquid state, 66024
 see also
 LeadingEdge HighLift Devices
 Choice of Optimum Deflection on Aerofoil Using Multivariate Gradient Search and CFD Codes
 example studies for single design point, 00022, 00023, 99020
 example study together with camber line shape for two design points, 99021
 example study together with surface shape for two design points, 01024
 Effect of Deflection on Drag, Lift, Hinge and Pitching Moments and Pressure Distribution
 in subsonic or transonic flow, 01033
 Effect of Deflection on Drag, Lift, Pitching Moment and Pressure Distribution
 in subsonic or transonic flow, 96028, 96029
 Drooped Leading Edge or Plain Flap
 angle of attack for maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
 effect on lift of wings at zero angle of attack, 96032, 97002
 effect on maximum lift of basic aerofoil and its lift at zero angle of attack, 94027
 effect on maximum lift of wings, 92031
 effect on pitching moment of basic aerofoil and wing, 00029, 03017
 lift curve from zero to maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
 program to predict, 99031
 Effect of Deflection on Drag, Hinge and Pitching Moments, Lift and Pressure Distribution
 in subsonic or transonic flow, 01033
 Example of Calculation of Local Excrescence Contribution to Drag, 93032
 Slats or Sealed Slats
 angle of attack for maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
 effect on lift of wings at zero angle of attack, 96032, 97002
 effect on maximum lift of basic aerofoil and its lift at zero angle of attack, 94027
 effect on maximum lift of wings, 92031
 effect on pitching moment of basic aerofoil and wing, 00029, 03017
 lift curve from zero to maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
 program to predict, 99031
 Slats or Sealed Slats in Combination With TrailingEdge HighLift Devices
 angle of attack for maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
 effect on lift of wings at zero angle of attack, 93019, 95021, 96032, 97002, 97009, 97011
 effect on maximum lift of basic aerofoil and its lift at zero angle of attack, 94027, 94028, 94029, 94030, 94031
 effect on maximum lift of wings, 91014, 92031
 effect on pitching moment of basic aerofoil and wing, 00029, 03017
 lift curve from zero to maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
 program to predict, 99031
 Unvented and Vented Krugers
 angle of attack for maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
 effect on lift of wings at zero angle of attack, 96032, 97002
 effect on maximum lift of basic aerofoil and its lift at zero angle of attack, 94027
 effect on maximum lift of wings, 92031
 effect on pitching moment of basic aerofoil and wing, 00029, 03017
 lift curve from zero to maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
 program to predict, 99031
 With Slot
 contribution to airframe noise, 90023
 Aerofoils
 attainable value from theoretical value for thin aerofoil, 95025, 96025
 Swept NonPlanar and Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 spanwise distribution of attainable values, 96025
 Swept StraightTapered Plane Wings at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.02.03.02
 Swept StraightTapered Plane Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 spanwise distribution of attainable values, 95025
 Theoretical Values for Thin StraightTapered Plane Wings at Subsonic Speeds
 spanwise distribution and total, 94037, 94038
 Use of Analogy for Lift Estimation at Subsonic Speeds
 swept nonplanar and planar wings to high angle of attack, 96025
 swept straighttapered plane wings to high angle of attack, 95025
 see also
 Quadrature
 see also
 Pressure Spectrum Level
 see
 Speed
 ExtremeValue Analysis

 see
 Gumbel
 see also
 Aerodynamic Loading
 Airforce Coefficients
 Flutter Derivatives
 Interference
 Lift Force Due To Pitching (Z_{Q} or C_{zq})
 Lift Limit
 Lift Variation with Control Deflection
 LiftCurve Slope
 Maximum Lift
 Normal Force
 Pressure Distribution
 Sideforce
 Unsteady Aerodynamics
 WindTunnel Corrections for Wings
 Aerofoil Design to Optimise Using Multivariate Gradient Search and CFD Codes
 introduction to method, 99019
 Aerofoils
 comparison of results from VGK with experimental results, with/without control deflection, 96028
 comparison of results from VGK with results from other theories, 96028
 design for low drag over a range of lift coefficient, 99003
 discussion of behaviour with fixed transition position of liftdrag polar at subsonic speeds, 00027
 estimation at supersonic speeds, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.05
 estimation in viscous subsonic or transonic flow using VGK, 96028, 96029
 Aerofoils at High Subsonic Freestream Mach Numbers
 discussion of variation in relation to flow features, 90008
 Aerofoils at Zero Angle of Attack, 72024, 97020, 98011
 effect of doubleslotted flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 94027, 94031
 effect of leadingedge highlift devices alone, 94027
 effect of plain flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 94027, 94028
 effect of singleslotted flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 94027, 94030
 effect of split flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 94027, 94029
 effect of tripleslotted flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 94027, 94031
 introduction to Data Items on effect of highlift devices on, 94026
 Aerofoils With Sealed Leading and/or TrailingEdge Controls or Flaps
 effect of deflection in subsonic or transonic flow, 01033, 96028, 96029
 Aircraft
 increment due to ground effect, 72023
 Angle of Attack for Maximum Lift
 aerofoils or wings with or without leading or trailingedge highlift devices, 96003
 program to predict, 99031
 Angle of Attack for Zero Lift
 aerofoils in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024, 98011
 aerofoils in subcritical attached flow, 98011
 cambered and twisted wings, 87031
 cambered and twisted wings with approximately circularsection fuselage, 89042
 program to predict for lowdrag GUNACAseries aerofoils, 99003
 Biconvex Aerofoils, AERO W.S.00.03.04
 Curve Against Angle of Attack From Zero to Maximum
 aerofoils or wings with or without leading or trailingedge highlift devices, 96003
 program to predict, 99031
 DoubleWedge Aerofoils, AERO W.S.00.03.04, AERO W.S.00.03.05
 EllipticalSection Aerofoils, 79026
 Example of Procedure in Calculation of Effects of Propeller Slipstream on Horizontal Tailplane Flowfield, TM 193
 Flaps
 MissileType WingBody Combinations
 effect of wing height at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 95009
 Similarity Laws at Subsonic or Supersonic Speeds
 applied to coefficient in axisymmetric flow, 97025
 Similarity Laws at Subsonic, Supersonic or Transonic Speeds
 applied to coefficient in two or threedimensional flow, 97025
 Spoiler (Perforated or Solid) Deflected at Low Speed in Free Air
 estimation of decrement with trailingedge flaps deployed, 14005
 estimation of decrement with trailingedge flaps undeployed, 14004
 Spoiler (Solid) Deflected at Low Speed in Ground Effect
 estimation of decrement due to, 76026
 Swept NonPlanar and Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 prediction from leadingedge suction analogy, 96025
 Swept StraightTapered Plane Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 prediction from leadingedge suction analogy, 95025
 Two Staggered Lifting Surfaces Trimmed With Given Static Margin
 program for calculation, 81023
 VectoredJetThrust Aircraft
 example of jetinduced loss in free air, 87037
 example of variation of lift in ground effect, 87037
 Wing/Flap/Nacelle Combination Submerged in Propeller Slipstream
 for multipropellers on straight wing, 88031
 Wings at Zero Angle of Attack With Full or PartSpan Flaps, 93019, 95021, 96032, 97002, 97009, 97011
 effect of drooped leading edge, slats or sealed slats, 96032
 effect of Kruger, vented or unvented, 96032
 introduction to Data Items on, 97002
 Wings at Zero Angle of Attack With LeadingEdge Full or PartSpan HighLift Devices, 96032
 effect of doubleslotted flaps, 95021, 96032, 97002
 effect of plain flaps, 96032, 97002, 97011
 effect of singleslotted flaps, 93019, 96032, 97002
 effect of split flaps, 96032, 97002, 97009
 effect of tripleslotted flaps, 95021, 96032, 97002
 introduction to Data Items on, 97002
 Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 program for nonplanar and planar, 96025
 straighttapered planar, 95025
 see also
 NormalForceCurve Slope
 Aerofoils
 approximate theoretical expressions for, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.04
 effect of separation characteristics at low speed on, 66034
 in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024
 in subcritical compressible flow, 97020
 prediction of initial nonlinearity without highlift devices, 88030
 prediction of nonlinear with highlift devices deployed, 96003
 program to predict minimum for subcritical speeds, 06020
 Annular Wings, 77012
 Effect of CutOut, AERO W.01.01.04
 Fins
 Isolated Lifting Surfaces
 supersonic, AERO A.S.01.03.02
 MissileType WingBody Combinations
 midwing configuration at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 91007
 Tailplane
 estimation for fin or bodymounted in subcritical flow, 89029
 Wings
 prediction of initial nonlinearity for plane or nonplanar without highlift devices, 88030
 prediction of nonlinear with highlift devices deployed, 96003
 subsonic flow, 70011, 95010, TM 169
 supersonic flow, 70012
 Estimation of Increment Due to Deployment of Perforated or Solid Spoiler, 96026
 including effect of downwash at spoiler due to flap deployment, 96026
 Introduction, 66031
 Program for Swept NonPlanar and Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 prediction from leadingedge suction and viscous axial force, 96025
 Swept StraightTapered Plane Wings at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.02.03.02
 Swept StraightTapered Plane Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 prediction from leadingedge suction and viscous axial force, 95025
 see
 Spoilers
 Contribution Due to Tailplane at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
 Contribution Due to Wing at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
 Contribution Due to Wing at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.08.03.02
 Effect of Wing/Body Interference at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
 Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
 Mean Forces and Moments Due to Wind
 Mechanical Vibration Characteristics

 see
 Buildings
 see also
 Indicial Aerodynamics
 Tails
 Winglets
 Wings
 Isolated
 liftcurve slope, AERO A.S.01.03.02
 spanwise position of centre of pressure, AERO A.S.06.03.04
 General Discussion Relating to Use in Unsteady Aerodynamics, 82020
 Multhopp's, 82020, 95010, TD MEMO 6309, TD MEMO 6403
 see also
 Aerodynamic Loading
 Controls
 threedimensional flow, 74011, 74012
 Controls (Gap Sealed)
 twodimensional flow, AERO C.01.01.03
 Controls (With Gap)
 twodimensional flow, AERO C.01.01.04