ESDU Aerospace Package

This package provides a collection of methods and data for design use in a wide range of disciplines that comprise the 'ESDU Aerospace' Package.

Endorsed by professional Institutions ESDU data and software form an important part of the design operation of companies large and small throughout the world.

The ESDU Aerospace Package addresses each of the following areas:

Aerodynamics information contains a wide range of data and methods applicable to the project design of aircraft, guided weapons, space rockets, etc. Data are given concerning general aerodynamics, including properties of the atmosphere; aerodynamics of airframe components, including the effect of powerplant/airframe interactions for propeller-powered and jet aircraft; the effect of surface imperfections on drag; aerodynamics of controls, flaps and leading-edge devices; aircraft stability, including derivative estimation; and aerodynamics of internal flow systems, including propulsion systems.

Transonic Aerodynamics data are concerned with the flow around aerofoils, wings, bodies and cowls at high subsonic, transonic and (in a few cases) low supersonic speeds. Methods in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are important in the study of transonic aerodynamics, and information is provided concerning the use of such methods. Example results are given that demonstrate the accuracy that can be achieved for both inviscid and viscous flow. The data provide methods of calculating the pressure distribution and loading on aerofoils and wings, and provide exchange rates between pertinent aerofoil and wing design parameters at the drag-rise condition.

Dynamics data treat the stability, response and controllability of any system that can be mathematically modelled, for some part of its motion, by linear constant coefficient differential equations. Topics include the equations of motion, conversion formulae for rotation and translation of body axes, geometric and kinematic relationships for various axis systems, direction and incidence angles and measures of damping. Lateral aircraft motion covers inertia cross coupling during rapid rolling manoeuvres, including the theoretical background, a discussion of simplified stability boundaries and an estimation of the critical roll rate.

The 'Structures' data give comprehensive, rigorously evaluated information for the strength analysis of lightweight structures such as those used in aerospace. Data are given on elastic or inelastic stresses, strains, displacements or buckling loads under static loading. They range from general data (metallic material properties, principal stresses and strains, and failure criteria), with application regardless of component form, to the analysis of specific components in metallic, compound (sandwich) or composite structures (beams, struts, panels, stress raisers (stress concentrations) and joints).

Methods and data are given for strength calculations primarily on aircraft and aerospace structures. The data are principally for use when the design philosophy is one of 'safe-life design', that is, the structure or component is required to be crack-free for the specified design life. The major part of the data consists of constant amplitude stress-endurance curve (S-N curves) for aircraft materials (aluminium and titanium alloys and steels) and structural joints (riveted, bolted or bonded). Also given are data for damage-tolerant design of aircraft structures and components. Damage-tolerant design is concerned with ensuring that fatigue cracks, which are assumed to be present from the start of a component's life, will be found and appropriate action taken before they cause structural failure. The data consists of curves of crack propagation growth rate versus stress intensity factor range under constant amplitude fatigue loading. These data are grouped according to material, aluminium or titanium alloys or steels, and for each material the curves are grouped according to alloy type and manufacturing process. The influence of the environment is included for many materials. Where possible, mean and upper bound curves are provided.

Composites data provide a collection of data for use in the design of fibre-reinforced laminated composite materials. The data contain the solutions to many strength analysis problems met in the design of fibre-reinforced laminated composite structures, including failure criteria, plate vibration and buckling, analysis of bonded joints, and stress concentrations.

Aircraft Noise is of concern in many environments. The Aircraft Noise data provide validated data on the prediction, propagation and suppression of noise. Aircraft noise sources considered include jet noise, propeller noise, airframe noise and boundary layer noise. Aspects of sound propagation covered include atmospheric attenuation and ground reflection effects.

Methods and data are given for use by the plant engineer, design engineer or consultant in the day-to-day evaluation of fluid flow through various piping systems. Hand calculation methods and computer programs based on empirically derived correlations and numerical methods provide rapid and reliable estimates of fluid flow parameters.

To assess acoustic fatigue life, knowledge of the natural vibration characteristics of the structure is required. Data on the natural frequencies of plate, box and shell structures are included. The plate data cover both conventional metallic construction and laminated composite materials.

Data are presented for use by the design engineer or consultant dealing with the evaluation or prediction of the performance of heat transfer equipment and the costing of heat exchangers. The data give step-by-step calculation methods and indicate the limits of applicability and the limits of accuracy of empirical correlations.

Methodologies both for the estimation of the performance of a proposed aircraft at every stage of its design, from project stage to operation, and for performance measurement are included. The information on performance estimation can be used for design and development, project and research studies, pre-flight specification and, finally, the synthesis of precise operational data based on flight test results.

Stress analysis of components used in general mechanical engineering is covered. All information on stresses, deflections, stiffnesses and buckling loads is applicable to the usual metals used in engineering and to other isotropic materials such as glass, rubber or plastic.