ESDU AZ Index: FORGFZ
 See under material of interest
 see also
 Pressure Drag
 Bodies
 brief discussion, AERO B.S.02.03.01
 Cleaning Methods, 86038
 Discussion of Influence on Heat Exchanger Performance
 effect on flow distribution, 86038
 effect on heat transfer, 86038
 effect on operating costs, 86038
 effect on pressure drop, 86038
 heat flux resistance, 86038
 Effect on Condenser Performance, 85022
 Mechanisms, 00016, 86038, 88024, 92012
 effect of temperature and velocity, 00016, 86038
 Possible Mitigation in ShellandTube Heat Exchangers
 by using tube inserts, 00016, 00041, 97007
 Taking Account of Resistance Due to
 in design and operation of heat exchangers, 86038
 in design of shellandtube heat exchanger networks using process integration, 00043
 Use of Antifoulants, 00016, 86038
 Assessment of Coal Ash Fouling Potential
 ash, chlorine, sodium oxide and total alkali content, 92012
 Assessment of Coal Ash Slagging Potential
 base/acid ratio, silica ratio, slagging index, viscosity indices, 92012
 temperature indicators and comparison of national standards, 92012
 Assessment of Gas and Oil Fouling Potential
 Conradson carbon residue, 92012
 Ramsbottom carbon residue, 92012
 Cleaning OffLine
 dry, 92012
 steam or water, 92012
 Cleaning OnLine
 chemical, shot, sonic techniques, sootblowing, water lancing, 92012
 Definitions of Fouling and Slagging, 92012
 Design Implications
 air preheater and radiant section, 92012
 Emission Limits for Incineration Plants, 92012
 Gas Side Fouling Factors (Resistances), 92012
 Mechanisms of Combustion and Effect on Fouling
 coal, natural gas, oil or waste fuel, 92012
 Mechanisms of Deposition
 adhesion, chemical reaction, corrosion, particulate, vapour diffusion, 92012
 Use of Additives to Reduce Deposition, 92012
 Use of Fuel Blending and Preparation to Reduce Deposition, 92012
 Cleaning Methods, 88024
 Control
 biological treatment methods, 88024
 chemical treatment methods, 88024
 operational techniques, 88024
 Cooling Towers
 effect of drift and windage on makeup water needs and polution, 88024
 Corrosion and Its Control, 88024
 Design Considerations to Minimise and Control, 88024
 Detailed Discussion of Biocides Used, 88024
 Devices for Assessment, 88024
 Effect on Materials, 88024
 Filtration to Control Particulate, 88024
 Scale Control
 chemical treatment methods, 88024
 Sources of, 88024
 Sources of Water and Effect on Fouling, 88024
 Typical Resistance Values
 dependence on material, 88024
 dependence on temperature, 88024
 dependence on velocity and water quality, 88024
 Visual Evidence for Various Types, 88024
 Control
 costs of antifoulant use, 00016
 use of dispersants or antioxidants, 00016
 Description of Mechanisms for Asphaltene Deposition and Coking, 00016
 Discussion of Sources, 00016
 Economic Effects
 additional energy use, plant downtime and mitigation costs, 00016
 Effect in Pressure Drop in Tubes, 00016
 Environmental Effects
 additional carbon dioxide generation, 00016
 disposal of cleaning fluids, 00016
 Equation for Estimating Rate of, 00016
 Estimation
 model for rate of fouling buildup, 00016
 Factors Affecting Rate of
 asphaltene content of crude and formation of iron sulphide, 00016
 desalting, 00016
 impurities (including particulates, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur), 00016
 oil properties and mixing oils from different sources, 00016
 surface material and its condition, 00016
 temperature (and Arrhenius equation to model effects), 00016
 velocity, 00016
 Heat Exchanger Design to Minimise
 increasing surface shear stress by increasing flowrate, 00016
 use of helical flow bafflles, rod baffles or twisted tubes, 00016
 use of inside tube inserts (wire matrix or moving elements), 00016
 use of low fin tubing, 00016
 use of program ENTRANS to assess benefits of tube inserts, 00041, 97007
 use of program EXPRESS for, 00016, 00042
 use of program REVISE for, 00016, 00042
 Mixing Oils from Different Sources
 definition of compatibility, insolubility number, solubility blending number, 00016
 effect in asphaltene solubility, 00016
 TEMA Fouling Factors, 00016
 Threshold Conditions Below Which No Fouling Occurs
 equation for prediction, 00016
 graphical presentation to locate heat exchangers in train liable to fouling, 00016
 use of program EXPRESS to check if heat exchanger operates within, 00042
 use of program REVISE to check if heat exchanger operates within
 Typical Fouling Factors, 00016
 see
 Random Processes
 see
 Slotted Flaps
 see also
 Aluminium Alloy Bars and Plates
 Aluminium Alloy Forgings
 Aluminium Alloy Sheets
 AluminiumLithium Alloy Bars
 AluminiumLithium Alloy Plates and Sheets
 Austenitic Stainless Steels
 Crack Propagation
 Duplex Stainless Steels
 Fracture Toughness
 High Alloy Steels
 High Tensile Low Alloy Steels
 Low Tensile Low Alloy Steels
 Maraging Steels
 Martensitic Stainless Steels
 Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
 Stress Intensity Factors
 Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range
 Titanium Alloy (Ti10V2Fe3Al)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti11Sn5Zr2Al1Mo)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti2.5Cu)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti4Al3Mo1v)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti4Al4Mo2Sn0.5Si)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti4Al4Mo4Sn0.5Si)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti5Al2.5Sn)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al2Sn2Zr2Mo)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al2Sn4Zr2Mo)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al2Sn4Zr6Mo)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al5Zr0.5Mo0.25Si)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al6V2Sn)
 Titanium Alloy (Ti8Al1Mo1V)
 Titanium Alloys
 Titanium Sheets
 Fatigue of Welded Joints
 comparison of calculated strength with experimental data, 87016
 use to show independence of parent material properties, 86013
 Introduction to Principles
 use in analysis of cracked components under fatigue or static loading, 80036
 Use in Analysis of Behaviour of Short Cracks, 92023, 92030
 Use in Design for Infinite Life
 circlip grooves, 79032
 Use to Estimate Effect of Fretting on Fatigue Strength, 90031
 Use to Predict Delamination at Ply DropOff
 tapered laminated plate, 91003
 Aluminium Alloys
 consideration of effect of rate of loading, 96013
 effect of grain orientation, 96013
 effect of material specification and heat treatment, 96013
 statistical analysis for design values with chosen confidence and probability levels, 96013
 values at room temperature 00932 (MMDH)
 variation with temperature, 96013
 Copper, Magnesium and Titanium Alloys
 values at room temperature 00932 (MMDH)
 Definition, 80036, 83023
 Steels
 consideration of effect of rate of loading, 83023
 effect of grain orientation, 83023
 effect of material specification and heat treatment, 83023
 statistical analysis for design values with chosen confidence and probability levels, 83023
 values at room temperature 00932 (MMDH), 17003
 variation with temperature, 83023
 Variation With Stress Conditions and Crack Growth Rate, 80036
 Various Sheet Materials
 crack growth resistance curves (Rcurves), 20003, 80036
 critical crack length, 20003, 80036
 residual strength, 20003, 80036
 Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
 Mean Forces and Moments Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
 Mechanical Vibration Characteristics

 see
 Buildings
 ReynoldsPrandtl Number Regimes for Existence
 in horizontal or vertical flow in circularsection ducts, 92003
 To or From Horizontal CircularSection Cylinder or Outside Tube
 correlation equation for gases and liquids, 69004, 77031
 effect of nonuniform surface temperature distribution, 77031
 effect of variable fluid properties, 69004
 effect of vibrations, 77031
 simplified correlation equation for atmospheric air, 77031
 To or From Horizontal, Inclined or Vertical Flat Plates
 correlation equation for gases and liquids, 77031
 effect of laminar or turbulent flow, 77031
 effect of nonuniform surface temperature distribution, 77031
 effect of stratification of surroundings, 77031
 effect of vibrations, 77031
 simplified correlation equation for atmospheric air, 77031
 To or From Spheres
 correlation equation for gases and liquids, 77031
 effect of nonuniform surface temperature distribution, 77031
 effect of stratification of surroundings, 77031
 effect of vibrations, 77031
 simplified correlation equation for atmospheric air, 77031
 To or From Various Elementary Components for Use in Calculation of Bearing Temperature
 horizontal or vertical cylinder or plate, plummer block, shaft, 78029, 97019
 To or From Vertical CircularSection Cylinder or Outside Tube
 correlation equation for air, 69004
 correlation equation for gases and liquids, 77031
 effect of laminar or turbulent flow, 77031
 effect of nonuniform surface temperature distribution, 77031
 effect of stratification of surroundings, 77031
 effect of variable fluid properties, 69004
 effect of vibrations, 77031
 simplified correlation equation for atmospheric air, 77031
 see
 Double Lock Nuts
 see also
 Airforce Coefficients
 Flutter Derivatives
 Coincidence
 effect on averaged radiation efficiency of isotropic rectangular plates, 02009
 effect on radiation efficiency of isotropic rectangular plates in various modes, 02009
 formulae for two values for orthotropic rectangular plates, 02009
 for plate when phase velocity of fluid around it equals that of bending waves, 00002
 Damped Natural
 definition and formula, 66013, 77032
 effect of fluid flow, 77032, 79025
 Fundamental Natural
 definition, 66013, 77032
 Resonant
 definition and formula, 66013, 77032
 use to determine edge restraint for dynamically excited flat plates, 00002
 Undamped Natural

 see also
 Box Structures
 Buildings
 Crossflow Heat Exchangers
 Curved Rectangular Plates
 Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
 Curved SpeciallyOrthotropic Rectangular Plates
 Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
 Flat Panels in General
 Flat Rectangular Plates
 Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
 Flat SpeciallyOrthotropic Rectangular Plates
 Flat SpeciallyOrthotropic Square Plates
 Flat Square Plates
 Modal Density
 Pipes with Internal Flow
 Response of Buildings and Structures
 ShellAndTube Heat Exchangers
 definition and formula, 66013
 Aliasing and Folding Frequency
 digitaltoanalogue transformation, 04023, 92044
 Cavity AeroAcoustics
 rectangular planform cavity in flat plate, 04023, 09001, 09002, 16004
 Characteristics of Digital Equivalents of Analogue Filters
 Bode diagrams of gain and phase for various, 92044
 Definition, 74021
 Measurements
 use in parameter identification of linear systems, 90006, 93016
 NonLinear Systems, 84032
 Use in Linear System Analysis and Design
 Aluminium Alloys
 effect of alloy composition, 89004
 effect of clamping pressure, 89004
 effect of salt water environment, 89004
 effect of shot peening, 19004
 effect of surface coatings and treatments, 89004
 Description of Process, 90031
 crack position and direction of growth, 90031
 effects of principal variables, 90031
 in bolted joints, 96014
 Effect on Cumulative Fatigue Damage
 need to use appropriate constant amplitude data, 95006
 using simple PalmgrenMiner rule for aluminium alloys, 69024
 Effect on Endurance of Pin Joints, FAT A.05.02
 Effect on Endurance of Steel Lugs With ClearanceFit Pins, 82022
 Failure Diagnosis, 90031
 Methods of Alleviating or Avoiding Effects, 90031
 Physical Nature, 86040, 90031
 Selection of Coatings to Resist
 Titanium Alloys
 effect of shot peening, 19004
 Titanium and Titanium Alloys
 effect of alloy composition, 88027
 effect of anodising, 88027
 effect of clamping pressure, 88027
 effect of salt water environment, 88027
 effect of surface coatings and treatments, 88027
 effect of temperature, 88027
 Accumulation of rainfall on runway surfaces, 19005
 Aircraft Tyre on Wet/Dry or Contaminated Runway

 see also
 Rolling Friction Coefficient
 Runways
 consideration of tread material, 16008
 definition, 16008
 multiplewheel undercarriages rolling or braking, 11004
 Mumeter Mk 6: a continuous friction measuring device, TM 167
 single tyre, 05011, 10015
 snowcovered runway, 15008
 surface deposit effects, 16008
 tread pattern effects, 16008
 yawed braked or unbraked rolling, 10002, 13007, 15007
 Bearings of Various Types
 typical behaviour with load and speed, 89044
 typical values in rolling and rubbing bearings, 97019
 Dry or Contaminated Runway Surface, 10002, 10003, 10004
 Estimation for Aircraft Tyre on Wet/Dry or Contaminated Runway
 effects of aircraft velocity, 16008
 effects of runway surface texture grooving and wetness, 16008
 effects of tyre inflation pressure and wear, 16008
 multiplewheel undercarriages rolling or braking, 11004, 13002
 single tyre, 05011, 10015
 Groundtest Machine, 10004
 InterferenceFit Collars, 68002
 Rubber

 see also
 Reciprocating Seals
 data for various surfaces, 16008
 surface deposit effects, 16008
 surface texture effects, 16008
 temperature effects, 16008
 Statistical Analysis of Aircraft/GroundTest Machine Braked Experimental Data to Obtain
 decelerating forces on multiplewheel undercarriages, 11004
 derivation of Friction Data Base for aircraft for which no data are available, 99015
 derivation of Friction Data Base from existing data, 99015
 derivation of method of analysing test results to create Friction Data Base, 99015
 effect of limited wetness data on values from resulting Friction Data Base, 99015
 example for aircraft with extensive data set available, 99015, 99016
 example for aircraft with limited data set available, 99015, 99017
 example for groundtest machine, 00018
 examples for various aircraft types, 99015
 examples for various ground test machines, 99015
 explanation of Friction Data Base created from test data, 99015
 including effects of aircraft velocity, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017
 including effects of runway surface texture and wetness, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017
 including effects of tyre inflation pressure, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017
 possibility of relationship between water depth and tyre/wet runway friction, 99015
 prediction of value from analysis with chosen probability, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017
 use of Friction Data Base to predict stopping distance, 99015
 Various Dry Rubbing Bearing Materials
 carbon, polymer, thermoset, solid lubricant impregnated metal, 87007
 sketches of typical behaviour with load and speed, 89044
 Wheels and Tyres
 sketch of typical behaviour with speed, 89044
 Coils of Various Geometries, 77029
 Compressible Flow in Straight Ducts, 66027, 74029
 Effect of Various Systematic Roughnesses in Straight Ducts, 79014, 82021
 Incompressible Flow in Straight Ducts, 66027, 97007
 approximate expressions for various tube inserts, 97007
 calculation for twisted tape inserts, 95027
 calculation for various systematic and random roughnesses, 82021
 effect of duct crosssectional shape, 82021
 estimation of heat transfer from, 82021
 Control Hinge Moments, AERO C.04.01.00
 Cold, Occluded or Warm
 description of characteristics, 87034
 Guidance on Contribution to Excrescence Drag, 94044
 Algebraic Expressions for Various for Use in Curve Fitting or Data Analysis, 01011
 Flexibility
 Typical Noise Transmission Loss Characteristics, 02020
 see
 Profile Drag