ESDU AZ Index: PREPRH
 see also
 Steels
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate

 see also
 Crack Propagation
 characteristic slopes of plots against stress intensity factor, 84003
 effect of alloy composition, 84003
 effect of heat treatment, 84003
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 84003
 Fatigue Strength at High Endurance
 relationship with tensile strength for unnotched specimens, 88008
 Fatigue Strength Under Bending, 71027
 effect of notches, 71027
 relationship with tensile strength, 71027
 Fracture Toughness
 variation with temperature, 83023
 Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range, 84003
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 84003
 Solution of FirstOrder Differential Equations With Initial Conditions
 formulae of various orders, 86011
 see also
 OneDimensional Flow
 Definition, 81004
 Rectangular ExternalCompression Double or SingleRamp Intakes
 critical operation, 75005
 Thrustdrag Accounting From Flight Test Data, 16003
 Use to Define Upper Limit of Spillage Drag, 84004
 Variation With Mach Number and Mass Flow Ratio
 onedimensional flow, 81024
 Variation With Mach Number and Mass Flow Ratio for NACA 1Series and Modified Axisymmetric Cowls
 in inviscid flow at zero incidence, 94014
 see also
 OneDimensional Flow
 see
 Bolted Joints
 see also
 Pressure Distribution
 Absolute Minimum Value (Vacuum Limit), 95025, 96025, 98026, AERO W.S.02.03.02
 Relationship to Local Mach Number and Local Velocity, 74013, 97017
 Similarity Laws at Subsonic or Supersonic Speeds
 in axisymmetric flow, 97025
 Similarity Laws at Subsonic, Supersonic or Transonic Speeds
 in two or threedimensional flow, 97025
 see also
 Anemometric Data Correction
 Acoustic Loading
 definition, 20005
 Aerofoil Design to Provide Specified UpperSurface in Transonic Flow, 99032
 Aerofoils

 see also
 Critical Conditions in Fluid Flow
 bibliography of data at high subsonic speeds (Catalogue 5), TD MEMO 6407
 comparison of experimental with calculated by viscouscoupled method, 92008
 comparison of results from VGK with experimental results, with or without control deflection, 96028
 comparison of results from VGK with results from other theories, 96028
 design to obtain desirable features in transonic flow, 97017
 estimation from shockwave properties, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.05
 estimation in inviscid subsonic flow, 72025, 79009
 estimation in inviscid transonic flow, 79009
 estimation in sonic free stream using graphical input, 69013, TD MEMO 6511
 estimation in viscous subcritical flow by firstorder method, 76002
 estimation in viscous subsonic or transonic flow using VGK, 96028, 96029
 estimation in viscous transonic flow, 81019
 examples to assist in predicting excrescence drag magnification, 87004
 for given dragrise Mach number, 71019, 71020
 inverse design of geometry to match target complete or partial distribution, 01025
 methods of calculation in supersonic flow, AERO W.S.00.03.03
 oscillating, or with an oscillating control, in subsonic flow, 81034
 oscillating, or with an oscillating control, in supersonic flow, 82005
 program to predict for lowdrag GUNACAseries, 99003
 use in prediction of shockinduced separation, 81020, 97030
 use of computed to define separation boundary at transonic speeds, 81020, 92008
 use of rooftop to inhibit transition and give low drag, 99003
 use with boundary layer properties to define flow breakdown boundary at transonic speeds, 91021
 variation with Mach number and angle of attack at transonic speeds, 90008
 Aerofoils With Sealed Leading and/or TrailingEdge Controls or Flaps
 effect of deflection in subsonic or transonic flow, 01033, 96028, 96029
 Afterbody of CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc Shape at Zero Incidence (Long Afterbodies)
 effect of supersonic Mach number and geometry, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 with central jet (base pressure less than that at end of boattail), AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Afterbody of CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc Shape at Zero Incidence (Short Afterbodies)
 effect of supersonic Mach number and geometry, 00028
 with central jet (base pressure less than that at end of boattail), AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Blunt Nose
 flat plates, AERO W.S.05.03.01
 Derivation From Velocity Distribution
 isentropic flow (Section 7.1), 73012, 78037
 Estimation of Temperature Distribution From, 82018
 Finite Length RectangularSection Cylinders Normal to Flow
 average and variation over each face, 71016
 surfacemounting effects, 71016
 Finite Length SquareSection Cylinders Normal to Flow
 average and variation over each face, 71016
 effect of incidence in uniform approach flow, 71016
 surfacemounting effects, 71016
 Flat Circular Plate Normal to Flow
 variation over both faces, 83020
 Forebody
 blunted conical at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 blunted conical at zero incidence in subsonic or transonic flow, 83018
 blunted ogival at zero incidence in subsonic flow, 82018, 83018
 blunted ogival at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008, 83018
 blunted parabolic at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008
 conical at zero incidence in subsonic or transonic flow, 83018
 ellipsoidal at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 ellipsoidal at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008, 82018
 flatfaced at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 hemispherical at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
 hemispherical at zero incidence in subsonic flow, 82018, 83018
 hemispherical at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008, 82018, 83018
 ogival at zero incidence in subsonic flow, 82018, 83018
 ogival at zero incidence in supersonic flow, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 ogival at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008, 83018
 sphericallycurved at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 82018
 NACA 1Series and Modified Axisymmetric Cowls at Zero Incidence
 variation with Mach number and mass flow ratio over forecowl in inviscid flow, 94015
 Paraboloidal Antennas
 effect of flow incidence, 83020
 effect of focal length, 83020
 variation over both faces, 83020
 SurfaceMounted CircularSection Cylinders
 around sides, 81017
 over top, 81017
 TwoDimensional CircularSection Cylinders Normal to Flow
 mean and fluctuating values at surface, 80025
 TwoDimensional RectangularSection Cylinders Normal to Flow
 average and variation over each face, 71016
 TwoDimensional SquareSection Cylinders Normal to Flow
 average and variation over each face, 71016
 effect of incidence in uniform approach flow, 71016
 Wings
 conversion to local Mach number distribution normal to isobars, 75027
 effects of cranks or notches (Section 8.3), 73012
 interference effect of fuselage or other bodies (Section 8.4), 73012
 subsonic flow, 73012
 use with boundary layer properties to define flow breakdown boundary at transonic speeds, 91021
 Aerofoils
 estimation in sonic free stream using graphical input, 69013
 estimation using VGK in subsonic or transonic flow, 96028, 96029
 CircularArc or ParabolicArc Pointed Afterbody in Subsonic or Transonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 96012
 Conical orTruncated Conical Afterbody in Subsonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 77020
 effect of rounding after to midbody junction, 77020
 Conical orTruncated Conical Afterbody in Transonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 78041
 Contributions to and Methods of Estimation, 97016
 Flat Plates Inclined or Normal to Flow

 see
 Normal Force
 Flat Plates Parallel to Flow With Turbulent Boundary Layer
 guide to alleviation of base drag, 10017
 means of prediction, 10016
 Forebodies in Hypersonic or Supersonic Flow at Zero Incidence
 conical or blunted conical, 82028
 flatfaced, hemispherical or sphericallycurved with sharp shoulder, 82028
 Forebodies in Hypersonic, Subsonic or Supersonic Flow at Zero Incidence
 ellipsoidal or hemispherical, 80021
 flatfaced with or without shoulder radius, 80021
 Forebodies in Subsonic or Supersonic Flow at Zero Incidence
 ogival or blunted ogival, 80021
 Forebodies in Transonic Flow at Zero Incidence
 conical, blunted conical or blunted ogival, 83017, 89033
 NACA 1Series and Modified Axisymmetric Cowls at Zero Incidence
 variation with Mach number and mass flow ratio over forecowl in inviscid flow, 94014
 Truncated CircularArc or ParabolicArc Afterbody in Subsonic Flow With Central Jet
 annular base width greater than 0.05 base diameter, 02012
 negligible annular base area, 01012
 Truncated CircularArc or ParabolicArc Afterbody in Subsonic or Transonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 96012
 Truncated CircularArc or ParabolicArc Afterbody in Supersonic Flow With Central Jet
 base pressure less than pressure at end of boattail, 00026
 Truncated (CircularArc Running into Conical) Afterbody in Subsonic Flow With Central Jet
 negligible annular base area, 01012
 Truncated Conical Afterbody in Supersonic Flow With Central Jet
 base pressure less or greater than pressure at end of boattail, 00017
 base pressure less than pressure at end of boattail, 00026
 Truncated (ParabolicArc Running into Conical) Afterbody in Subsonic Flow With Central Jet
 negligible annular base area, 01012
 HighFinned Tubes
 comparison of predictions with experimental results, 86022
 effect of geometry, 86022
 effect of number of rows and tube arrangement, 86022
 effect of variable fluid properties, 86022
 singlephase gas or liquid flow through, 86022
 LowFinned Tubes
 comparison of predictions with experimental results, 84016
 effect of geometry, 84016
 effect of number of rows and tube arrangement, 84016
 effect of variable fluid properties, 84016
 singlephase gas or liquid flow through, 84016
 Plain Tube Banks in Axisymmetric Regular Configurations for General Use
 bypass effects, 74040
 effect of number of tube rows, 74040
 effect of tube pitch (transverse and longitudinal), 74040
 inclination effects, 74040
 inlet turbulence effects, 74040
 Reynolds number effects, 74040
 tube surface roughness effects, 74040
 variable fluid property effects, 74040
 Plain Tube Banks in Typical ShellandTube Exchanger LayOuts
 effects of tube pitch with equations, 79034
 orientation effects with equations, 79034
 Reynolds number effects with equations, 79034
 square and triangular configurations (both normal and rotated), 79034
 surface roughness effects with equations, 79034
 variable fluid property effects with equations, 79034
 Bends, 89012
 accuracy, 89012
 effect of orientation, 89012
 Discussion of Three Components, FMI2
 Discussion of Variables Affecting Pressure Drop, FMI2
 Friction Component in CircularSection Straight Pipes (Horizontal Only)
 Beggs and Brill Correlation Accuracy, 01014
 Chenoweth and Martin Correlation Accuracy, 01014
 Chisholm Correlation Accuracy, 01014
 database used to establish accuracy of correlations, 01014
 effect of fluid properties, mass velocity and quality, 01014
 effect of roughness, 01014
 estimation with chosen probability and confidence, 01014
 Freidel Correlation Accuracy, 01014
 homogeneous theory accuracy (four different methods of modelling viscosity), 01014
 Lockhart and Martinelli Correlation Accuracy, 01014
 Martinelli and Nelson Correlation Accuracy, 01014
 Olujic Correlation Accuracy, 01014
 selection of best correlation method according to flow pattern and quality, 01014
 selection of best correlation method according to mass velocity and quality, 01014
 Friction Component in CircularSection Straight Pipes (Horizontal or Vertical)
 Baroczy Correlation accuracy, 76018
 Chenoweth and Martin Correlation accuracy, 76018
 Chisholm Correlation accuracy, 76018
 choking mass velocity for steamwater mixture, 76018
 effect of condensation and evaporation, 76018
 effect of fluid properties, mass velocity and quality, 76018
 estimation with chosen probability and confidence, 76018
 Friedel Correlation, 88014, 89039, 90024, 91023
 homogeneous theory accuracy, 76018
 Lockhart and Martinelli Correlation accuracy, 76018
 Martinelli and Nelson Correlation accuracy, 76018
 selection of best correlation method according to mass velocity and quality, 76018
 Thom Correlation accuracy, 76018
 Gravity Component in CircularSection Straight Pipes
 Armand Correlation accuracy, 77016
 Beggs Equations accuracy, 77016
 Chisholm Equation accuracy, 77016
 driftflux model with empirical correction, 88014
 effect of evaporation, 77016
 effect of fluid properties, mass velocity and quality, 77016
 estimation with chosen probability and confidence, 77016
 homogeneous theory accuracy, 77016
 Hughmark Correlation accuracy, 77016
 Lockhart and Martinelli Correlation accuracy, 77016
 Premoli et al Correlation accuracy, 77016, 89039, 90024, 91023
 selection of best correlation method for various conditions, 77016
 Guide to Calculation Procedures, 78018
 Guide to Use of Statistical Methods Prediction of Components, 01014, FMI2
 Momentum Change Component
 estimation using homogeneous theory, 78001, 88014, 89039, 90024, 91023
 estimation using separated flow theory, 78001
 guide to choice of appropriate estimation method, 78001
 Orifice Plates, 89012
 accuracy, and effect of flow orientation and regime, 89012
 Reflux Condensers
 discussion of available data, 89038
 prediction methods, 89038
 Sudden Contractions, 89012
 accuracy, 89012
 effect of flow regime, 89012
 Sudden Expansions, 89012
 accuracy, 89012
 effect of flow regime, 89012
 Valves (Diaphragm, Gate, Globe and Plug), 89012
 accuracy, 89012
 effect of flow orientation and regime, 89012
 effect of part closure, 89012
 Worked Examples, 78018
 see also
 Annular Diffusers
 Boiling Flow in Pipes
 Condensing Flow in Pipes
 Conical Diffusers
 Diffusers
 Ejectors
 Fouling
 Fouling in Combustion Plant
 Fouling in Cooling Water Systems
 Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
 Heat Transfer
 PlaneWalled Diffusers with SinglePlane Expansion
 Pressure Drop Across Obstructions in Ducts
 Pressure Drop in Gas or VapourLiquid Internal Flow
 Pressure Drop in NonNewtonian Flow
 Pressure Drop in ShellAndTube Heat Exchangers
 Roughness
 TwoPhase (Gas or VapourLiquid) Flow
 Bends of Circular or Rectangular Section
 circulararc, 83037, 89012
 composite and singlemitre, 83037
 effect of guide vanes, 83037
 standard pipe fittings, 83037
 Cocks, 69022
 Coils
 Archimedian, helical, helical Archimedian or spiral, 77029
 Contraction of Section
 Dampers for Flow Control, 81043
 Definitions of Pressure Drop Coefficients, FMI1
 Discussion of Calculation Procedure, 77009, FMI1
 Effect of flow property profiles on pressure loss coefficients for incompressible fluids, TM 148
 Effect of RandomlyDistributed Roughnesses
 circulararc bends, 83037
 composite and singlemitre bends, 83037
 diffusers, 87015
 estimation of heat transfer from friction factor for, 82021
 straight ducts, 66027, 82021
 Effect of Systematic Roughnesses in Straight Ducts
 approximate expressions for friction factor with various tube inserts, 97007
 calculation for various roughness types in various crosssection shapes, 82021
 estimation of heat transfer from friction factor for, 82021
 fins of trapezoidal or triangularsection in turbulent flow, 79014
 flow regimes, 79014
 helical grooves or threads of various sections in laminar/turbulent flow, 79014
 ribs of rectangular or roundedsection in laminar/turbulent flow, 79014
 ribs of rectangular or roundedsection in turbulent flow, 82021
 rounded or truncatedpyramidal projections in turbulent flow, 79014
 twisted tape inserts in laminar, transition or turbulent flow, 95027, 97007
 use of data for annular or rectangularsection in turbulent flow, 79014
 Enlargement of Section
 Flowmetering Devices, 66030
 cylindrical tube orifices, 81039, 82009
 orifice plates, 66030, 81039, 82009, 89012
 Gauzes of Round Wire
 rectangular mesh, 72009
 square mesh, 72009
 Intake Losses

 see
 Intakes
 Interference Between Components

 see also
 Diffusers
 effect of down and upstream conditions for annular diffusers, 75026, 76027
 effect of down and upstream conditions for composite or singlemitre bends, 83037
 effect of down and upstream conditions for conical diffusers, 73024, 76027
 effect of down and upstream conditions for planewalled diffusers, 74015, 76027
 effect of down and upstream conditions for single circulararc bends, 83037
 effect of downstream conditions for two bends in series, 77009
 effect of upstream conditions for sudden enlargement of section, 72011
 general discussion, FMI1
 two bends in series, 77009
 Introduction to Data Items on, FMI1
 Junctions With Three Straight Legs of Circular or RectangularSection
 combining flows, 73023
 dividing flows, 73022
 Orifices (Cylindrical Tube)
 in compressible flow, 82009
 in incompressible flow, 81039, 82009
 Orifices in Plates
 in compressible flow, 82009
 in incompressible flow, 66030, 81039, 82009, 89012
 Perforated Plates
 in compressible flow, 82009
 in incompressible flow, 81039, 82009
 Silencers
 cylindrical with or without pod or rectangular splitter, 82002
 Straight CircularSection Pipes, 66027, 74029, 82021, FMI1
 compressible adiabatic or isothermal flow, 74029
 Straight NonCircular Section Ducts, 66027, 82021
 compressible adiabatic or isothermal flow, 74029
 lowspeed compressible flow equation, 74029, FMI1
 Valves (FullyOpen)
 diaphragm, gate, globe, or plug, 69022, 89012
 Valves (Fully or PartlyOpen)
 angle, 69022
 butterfly, 69022
 diaphragm, gate or globe, 69022
 needle, 69022
 poppettype, 69022
 stop or throttle, 69022
 Ytype, 69022
 see also
 Transition
 Calculation in Laminar Flow, 91025, 95012
 Bingham model, 91025
 generalised MetznerReed model, 91025
 HerschelBulkley model, 91025
 power law model, 91025
 program for calculation using HerschelBulkley or power law models
 Calculation in Turbulent Flow, 91025, 95012
 comparison of predictions with test results using various methods, 91025
 effect of tube roughness, 91025
 using Bowen model, 91025
 using DodgeMetzner model, 91025
 Suggested Approach to Calculation in Transitional Flow Regime, 91025
 see also
 ShellAndTube Heat Exchangers
 see also
 Anemometric Data Correction
 Calculation of Static Pressure Correction Coefficient from Flight Test Data, 20007
 Magnification of Drag Due to Isolated Excrescence on Aerofoil

 see
 Excrescences
 see
 Annular Diffusers
 Boiling Flow in Pipes
 Condensing Flow in Pipes
 Conical Diffusers
 Diffusers
 Ejectors
 Fouling
 Fouling in Combustion Plant
 Fouling in Cooling Water Systems
 Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
 Heat Transfer
 PlaneWalled Diffusers with SinglePlane Expansion
 Pressure Drop Across Obstructions in Ducts
 Pressure Drop Across Tube Banks
 Pressure Drop in Gas or VapourLiquid Internal Flow
 Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
 Pressure Drop in NonNewtonian Flow
 Pressure Drop in ShellAndTube Heat Exchangers
 Roughness
 Sudden Contractions in Ducts
 Sudden Expansions in Ducts
 TwoPhase (Gas or VapourLiquid) Flow
 In Flight for Altitude and Airspeed Determination
 Use in Gas Thermometry
 Annular Diffusers, 75026
 Axisymmetric Intakes in Subsonic Flow, 80037
 Conical Diffusers in Compressible Flow, 90025
 Conical Diffusers in Incompressible Flow, 73024
 Flush Intakes with NACA ConvergentDivergent Planform, 86002
 Flush Intakes with Rectangular Planform, 03006, 86002
 PlaneWalled Diffusers With SinglePlane Expansion, 74015
 Rectangular ExternalCompression Double or SingleRamp Intakes
 critical operation, 75005
 Scoop Intakes Immersed in Boundary Layer
 with or without boundary layer diverters, 86002
 Sudden Expansions of Ducts
 singlephase flow, 72011
 twophase gas or vapourliquid flow, 89012
 Definition, 66013
 Estimation of Wave Speeds
 circular pipes with various restraints or noncircular pipes, 83046
 fluid and piping material properties for use in, 83046
 Pipe Response to
 Prediction of Maximum After Valve Closure
 graphical method for constant cross section pipe with no friction, 86015
 program including friction effects for any gas, 86015
 wavesteepening effects, 86015
 Estimation of Wave Speed in SinglePhase Flow
 circular pipes with various restraints or noncircular pipes, 83046
 fluid and piping material properties for use in, 83046
 graphs for water in various types and sizes of duct, 83046
 rock tunnels lined and unlined, 83046
 Estimation of Wave Speed in TwoPhase Flow
 bubbly liquid/gas or liquid/solid flows, 83046
 General Introduction to Prediction and Suppression, 84013
 Pipe Response to
 Prediction in Network With or Without Suppression After Pump Trip or Valve Closure
 computer program, 87027
 Prediction of Maximum After Pump Trip for Pump Anywhere in Pipeline
 flow reversal time, 85044
 graphical method for determination of pump inertia, 85044
 graphical method for values at pump inlet and outlet, 85044
 illustration of time dependency in pipeline, 85044
 program for values along pipeline, 85044, 87027
 pump rundown characteristics, 85044
 Prediction of Maximum After Pump Trip for Pump at Upstream End
 flow reversal time, 84013, 84038
 graphical method for determination of pump inertia, 85044
 graphical method for value at pump outlet, 84013, 84038, 85044
 graphical method for values at all points along pipeline, 84038
 illustration of time dependency in pipeline, 84038, 85009
 program for values along pipeline, 84013
 pump rundown characteristics, 84013, 84038, 85044
 Prediction of Maximum After Valve Closure
 graphical method for linear closure rate, 84013
 program for any closure rate, 84013, 87027
 Suppression
 discussion of various methods, 84013
 Suppression by Air Inlet/Outlet Valves
 graphical method for air maximum inflow rate and cavity volume, 85009
 guidance on use, 85009
 illustration of time dependency in pipeline, 85009
 minimum line pressure and air release time, 85009
 program to investigate behaviour after pump trip, 85009, 87027
 Suppression by Air Vessels
 graphical method for estimating air vessel volume, 85009
 program to investigate behaviour after pump trip or valve closure, 84013, 87027
 Suppression by Pump ByPass
 graphical method for lapsed time between trip and bypass opening or valve closure, 85044
 graphical method for maximum and minimum pressure, 85044
 graphical method for maximum bypass flow rate, 85044
 illustration of time dependency in pipeline, 85044
 program to investigate behaviour after pump trip, 85044
 Profile Drag at the Dragrise Condition of Aerofoils having a Specified Form of Uppersurface Pressure Distribution at this Condition, 67011
 see
 Bolted Joints