ESDU 92003
Forced convection heat transfer in straight tubes. Part 1: turbulent flow.
Abstract:
ESDU 92003 recommends the Petukov equation for the prediction of the heat transfer in singlephase Newtonian flow, following a comparison of it and five other correlations with a database of nearly 800 experimental results extracted from the literature. The quality of the fit of the data with the six correlations is tabulated in various flow regimes defined by specific ranges of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. The correlations are also compared as graphs of Nusselt number against Reynolds number for values of Prandtl number of 0.7, 10 and 100. Two forms of the equation are given, one applying in the higher ranges of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Corrections for variable fluid properties are suggested for liquids as a function of bulktowall dynamic viscosity ratio and for specific gases in terms of bulktowall temperature ratio. Information on regimes for forced, free and mixed convection for both horizontal and vertical flow is included. The Petukov equation may be applied provided the thermal entrance length is exceeded and values for that are given based on local or mean Nusselt number. Worked examples illustrate the use of the correlation.Indexed under:
 Air
 Carbon Dioxide
 Forced Convection Heat Transfer
 Free Convection Heat Transfer
 Heat Transfer
 Helium
 Hydrogen
 Mixed ForcedFree Convection Heat Transfer
 Nitrogen
 Steam
 Thermal Entrance Region
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Data Item ESDU 92003  

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This Data Item contains 20 interactive graph(s) as listed below.
Graph  Title 

Figure 1  Nusselt number for the fullydeveloped turbulent flow of fluids with constant property values. Plot of Equation (4.1) 
Figure 2  Nusselt number for the fullydeveloped turbulent flow of fluids with constant property values. Plot of Equation (B1.1) 
Figure 3  Forced, free and mixed convection regimes for horizontal pipe flow (10^{2} < Pr^{D}/L < 1) 
Figure 4  Forced, free and mixed convection regimes for vertical pipe flow (10^{2} < Pr^{D}/L < 1) 
Figure 5a  Distribution of Nu_{x} in the entrance region for thermally developing turbulent flow. Pr = 0.7 
Figure 5b  Distribution of Nu_{x} in the entrance region for thermally developing turbulent flow. Pr = 3 
Figure 5c  Distribution of Nu_{x} in the entrance region for thermally developing turbulent flow. Pr = 50 
Figure 5d  Distribution of Nu_{x} in the entrance region for thermally developing turbulent flow. Pr = 75 
Figure 6a  Distribution of Nu_{m} in the entrance region for thermally developing turbulent flow. Pr = 0.7 
Figure 6b  Distribution of Nu_{m} in the entrance region for thermally developing turbulent flow. Pr = 3 
Figure 6c  Distribution of Nu_{m} in the entrance region for thermally developing turbulent flow. Pr = 50 
Figure 6d  Distribution of Nu_{m} in the entrance region for thermally developing turbulent flow. Pr = 75 
Figure 7  Effect of entrance configuration on Nu_{x} for simultaneously developing flow for UWT, Pr = 0.7 
Figure 8  Effect of entrance configuration on Nu_{x} for simultaneously developing flow for UHF, Pr = 0.7 
Figure A1  Nusselt number predicted by equation (4.1) and equations in Table A.1.1 for Pr = 0.7(10^{3} < Re ≤ 10^{5}) 
Figure A2  Nusselt number predicted by equation (4.1) and equations in Table A.1. Pr = 0.7(10^{5} < Re ≤ 10^{7}) 
Figure A3  Nusselt number predicted by equation (4.1) and equations in Table A.1. Pr = 10(10^{3} < Re ≤ 10^{5}) 
Figure A4  Nusselt number predicted by equation (4.1) and equations in Table A.1. Pr = 10(10^{5} < Re ≤ 10^{7}) 
Figure A5  Nusselt number predicted by equation (4.1) and equations in Table A.1. Pr = 100(10^{3} < Re ≤ 10^{5}) 
Figure A6  Nusselt number predicted by equation (4.1) and equations in Table A.1. Pr = 100(10^{5} < Re ≤ 10^{7}) 