ESDU Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series
To design reliable structures for use in areas of intense sound, engineers need to investigate the possibility of acoustic fatigue failures. Failures during the service life of a structural component may lead to costly design modifications and the introduction of time-consuming inspection procedures. The ESDU Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series provides simple and efficient methods for estimating the response and fatigue life of structures typical of those used in the aerospace industry, including fibre-reinforced composites, when subjected to acoustic loading. Although it is not possible to predict precisely the response of a structure under acoustic loading, the structural parameters of various designs can be compared and the design selected to give the best relative performance for a noisy environment. Information is provided on noise from the near-field of turbo-jet engines and from propeller-driven aircraft.
To assess acoustic fatigue life, knowledge of the natural vibration characteristics of the structure is required. The ESDU Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series contains data on the natural frequencies of plate, box and shell structures. The plate data cover both conventional metallic construction and laminated composite materials. Damping of the structure is also a factor in the prediction of the fatigue life. Methods are provided for the estimation of damping, including radiation damping.
These vibration data have a wide application in dynamic design calculations where it is necessary to ensure that the natural frequencies of structural components do not coincide with a high-energy region of dynamic excitation.
Normally, acoustic fatigue life estimations are carried out at the lowest natural frequency of the structure under investigation. In cases where the input excitation has a wider frequency range, rainflow and spectral methods are available.
Section 1: Organizational Documents
Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series: record of documents.
- ESDU 00011
Section 2: General
Definitions of terms for acoustic fatigue analysis.
Power spectral density and bandwidth correction of spectrum level
Combination of levels in dB
Octave and fractional-octave band filters
The relation between sound pressure level and r.m.s. fluctuating pressure.
Introduction and guide to ESDU data on acoustic fatigue.
Estimation of the stiffnesses and apparent elastic properties of laminated flat plates.
Design against fatigue: vibration of structures under acoustic or aerodynamic excitation.
Acoustics of reverberation chambers.
- ESDU 66013
Section 3: Endurance under Acoustic Loading
Endurance of aluminium alloy structural elements subjected to simulated acoustic loading.
Endurance of titanium and titanium alloy structural elements subjected to simulated acoustic loading.
Endurance of fibre-reinforced composite, laminated structural elements subjected to simulated random acoustic loading.
Methods of testing for endurance of structural elements using simulated acoustic loading.
Application of linear regression analysis to acoustic fatigue data.
- ESDU 72015
Section 4: Loading Actions
The estimation of near-field sound pressure levels due to jet noise.
Estimation of far-field sound pressure levels due to buzz-saw noise of a supersonic fan or compressor.
Estimation of the surface pressure fluctuations in the turbulent boundary layer of a flight vehicle.
ESDU TM 58
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Comparison of surface pressure fluctuations in a turbulent boundary layer as measured on various flight vehicles
Computer-based estimation procedure for near-field single-stream jet noise.
Prediction of near-field and far-field harmonic noise from subsonic propellers with non-axial inflow
Prediction of the Pressure Oscillations in Cavities Exposed to Aerodynamic Flow
- ESDU 72002
Section 5: Stress-Strain Response to Acoustic Loading
Estimation of the r.m.s. stress in skin panels subjected to random acoustic loading.
The effect of edge reinforcement on the stresses in skin panels under uniform pressure.
The estimation of r.m.s. stress in stiffened skin panels subjected to random acoustic loading.
Stress response of flat or singly-curved sandwich panels with cores of zero flexural stiffness subjected to random acoustic loading.
The estimation of r.m.s. stress in skin panels with flexible stiffeners subjected to random acoustic loading.
Estimation of r.m.s. stress in internal plates of a box structure subjected to random acoustic loading.
Estimation of r.m.s. strain in laminated skin panels subjected to random acoustic loading.
Estimation of rms strain in laminated face plates of simply-supported sandwich panels subjected to random acoustic loading. Including a simplified natural frequency prediction method.
Edge effects on the response of sandwich panels subjected to acoustic loading.
- ESDU 67028
Section 6: Natural Frequencies of Plate and Shell Structures
Natural frequencies of built-up, flat, periodic skin-stringer structures. Part I: stringers rigid in bending.
Reference frequency of panel with flexible stiffeners.
Natural frequencies of rectangular flat plates with various edge conditions.
Natural frequencies of rectangular, specially orthotropic laminated plates.
Natural frequencies of rectangular singly-curved plates.
Natural frequencies of singly-curved laminated plates with simply-supported edges.
Natural frequencies of isotropic and orthotropic rectangular plates under static in-plane loading (including shear loading).
ESDU TM 71
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM A Rayleigh-Ritz method of analysis for vibration of orthotropic plates under static in-plane loading (including shear)
Natural frequencies of thin-walled isotropic, circular-cylindrical shells.
Free vibration of thin-walled, orthogonally stiffened, circular-cylindrical shells.
Natural frequencies of thick-walled isotropic circular-cylindrical shells (shear diaphragm end conditions).
- ESDU 72003
Section 7: Natural Frequencies of Sandwich Panels and Box Structures
Section 8: Analysis of the Dynamic Response of Structures
Methods for analysis of the dynamic response of structures.
An introduction to Statistical Energy Analysis.
Estimation of transmission efficiencies of coupled plates.
Sound power radiation from isotropic plates.
Sound radiation from orthotropic rectangular plates. Part I: estimation by asymptotic method.
Sound radiation from orthotropic rectangular plates. Part II: validation by comparison with numerical and experimental results.
Mobilities and impedances of structures. Part 1: Compendium of frequency response functions.
Mobilities and impedances of structures. Part 2: Compendium of point mobilities of infinite structures.
Force limited random vibration testing - The computation of the semi-empirical constant C2 for test article and supporting structure
Compendium of modal densities. Part 1: rods, beams and plates
Compendium of modal densities Part II: Shell structures
Modal density of acoustic spaces
Coupling loss factors
- ESDU 97033
Section 9: Estimation of Fatigue Life of Structures Subjected to Random Loading
Section 10: Damping
Introduction to Damping
Damping in acoustically excited structures.
Estimation of damping in laminated and fibre-reinforced plates.
Methods for improving damping. Part 1: an introduction and guide to practical methods of increasing structural damping.
Methods for improving damping. Part 2: layered damping treatment for structures: analysis and examples.
Methods for improving damping. Part 3: damping material data.
Damping of structural vibrations by acoustic radiation.
ESDU TM 173
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Material damping of metals and alloys
ESDU TM 183
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Compendium of vibration damping data for aerospace structures
- ESDU 09005
Section 11: Additional References
Review of Sonic Fatigue Technology
- Aircraft Noise
- Fatigue - Endurance Data
- Fatigue - Fracture Mechanics
- Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow
- Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow (Aerospace)
- Heat Transfer
- Physical Data, Chemical Engineering
- Stress and Strength
- Transonic Aerodynamics
- Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue
- Wind Engineering