ESDU 72023
Lowspeed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft in ground effect.
Abstract:
ESDU 72023 provides a means of estimating the changes in the liftcurve, drag, tailplane lift, and downwash from the wing of an aircraft due to ground effect in incompressible flow, typically for use in calculations of aircraft takeoff and landing performance. It is assumed that the freeair conditions are known. The data are applicable to any aircraft except those with pointed slender wings, which are considered in ESDU 71007. The equations and graphical data are generally applicable to aircraft with mechanical highlift devices or having flaps with boundary layer control giving free air lift coefficients less than 4 for wings of quarter chord sweepback less than 45 degrees and for height/chord ratios greater than 0.3. The methods are semiempirical and in general consider the changes in free air conditions as the ground is approached at constant aircraft lift coefficient and hence changing incidence. In the consideration of lift, however, the changes due to ground effect on incidence at constant lift coefficient or in lift coefficient at constant incidence may be found.
A computer program of the method is provided as ESDUpac A7223.
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Data Item ESDU 72023  

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ESDUpac A7223 
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This Data Item contains 7 interactive graph(s) as listed below.
Graph  Title 

Figure 1  Parameters σ, r and φ for calculation of changes in lift and drag 
Figure 2  Parameter τ for calculation of change in lift 
Figure 3  Parameter N for calculation of change in lift 
Figure 4  Thickness correction to lift change 
Figure 5  Parameter β for calculation of change in tailplane lift 
Figure 6a  Parameter for calculation of change in downwash 
Figure 6b  Parameter for calculation of change in downwash 
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