ESDU AZ Index: WIWZ
 Multiple Wire Mesh
 minimum capillary radius, permeability and effective thermal conductivity, 79013
 Packed Spherical Particles
 minimum capillary radius, permeability and effective thermal conductivity, 79013
 Sintered Felted Metal Fibres
 minimum capillary radius, permeability and effective thermal conductivity, 79013
 WireMeshCovered Grooves and Annuli
 minimum capillary radius, permeability and effective thermal conductivity, 79013
 see also
 Wind Speed
 Correction of Airborne Distance During Landing, 91032
 Correction of Measured Climb Angle, 70023, PERF RJ2/0, PERF RP1/2
 Effect on Forces, Moments and Pressures on SurfaceMounted Structures

 see
 Shear Flow
 Effect on Noise Measurements Near Ground, 89036
 Representative Maximum Values, 70023
 Dynamic Response of Buildings and Structures to Atmospheric Turbulence
 Estimation of Wind Speed

 see
 Wind Speed
 Estimation of Wind Turbulence Characteristics
 Mean and Peak Forces and Moments on Boundary Walls and Hoardings
 Mean Forces and Moments on Lattice Frames and Towers
 Mean Forces, Moments and Pressures on Buildings
 Mean Forces, Moments and Pressures on Paraboloidal Antennas
 see also
 Asymmetric Flight
 see also
 Asymmetric Flight
 Drag, PERF ED1/1
 see
 Canopy
 Calculation From Aircraft AirData and Inertial Systems, 79018
 Effect on Airborne Distance During Landing, 91032
 Effect on Aircraft Ground Performance, 85029
 incorporation in equations of motion, 85030
 Effect on Climb Gradient at Constant Pressure Height, 70023, 79018
 Estimation of Hours Exceeding Specified Values
 from data on extreme values, 88038
 Estimation of MeanHourly Near Ground
 correction of measured values to other conditions, 01008
 effect of direction, 82026
 effect of height, upwind terrain and topographical features, 01008, 82026
 effect of risk of exceeding and exposure, 82026
 Estimation of SpeedUp Over Cliffs, Embankments, Escarpments, Hills or Valleys, 91043
 effect of flow separation, 91043
 effect of wind inclination to ridge line, 91043
 interference from nearby topographic features, 91043
 program, 01008
 threedimensional effects, 91043
 Profile Near Ground
 effect of upwind terrain and topographical features, 01008, 82026
 over specific terrains, 70015, 71016, 79026, 80003, 81017
 Reference Extreme Values in UK, 82026
 Representative Data for Maximum Horizontal Variation, 70023
 Sources of Reference Extreme Values for Countries Other Than UK, 82026
 see also
 Aerofoils
 Extrapolation to full scale Reynolds Number, 07010, 09015, 09016, 11006
 In OpenJet or VentilatedWall or SolidWall Tunnel
 blockage on drag, flow parameters and velocity, 76028
 criterion for zero solid blockage, 76028
 discussion of order of application of corrections, 76028
 lift interference on aerodynamic centre, incidence, lift and loading, 76028
 Correction of Forces, Pressures, Strouhal Numbers and Velocities
 application of Maskell's and Cowdrey's methods, 80024
 application of streamlinedbody methods, 80024
 elimination of liftdependent term in drag correction, 80024
 methods using wall pressure measurements, 80024
 Critical Reynolds Number, 80024
 Discussion of Causes and Effects of Blockage, 80024, 81021
 Recommended Methods, 80024
 Summary of Methods Available, 80024
 Testing for Blockage Effects
 practical considerations, 80024
 Extrapolation to full scale Reynolds Number, 07010, 09015, 09016, 11006, 12006
 SolidLiner Tunnel at Subsonic Speeds
 aerodynamic centre position and aft shift due to interference upwash, 95014
 angle of attack to give same vortex drag and lift as in free air, 95014
 variation of interference upwash spanwise and mean value, 95014
 Analysis of windtunnel data to determine installed tailplane liftcurve slope (Appendix A), 89029
 Considerations in Model Design, Measurement Techniques and Defining Test Programme, 97017
 Determination of Buffet Onset and Severity of Buffeting on Wings, 87012
 extrapolation of results to fullscale, 87012
 Extrapolation to full scale Reynolds Number, 07010, 09015, 09016, 11006, 12006
 Measurement of average downwash angle at the tailplane (Section 7.1.2), 97021
 Model Testing to Measure Building Damping for Wind Response, 83009
 Practical Considerations in Representative Modelling for Bluff Bodies, 77032, 80024
 Predicting First Resonant Frequency in VentilatedWall With Plenum Chamber
 limit for flutter or dynamic testing, 90005
 Transition Fixing, 09015, 09016, 14007
 Aerodynamic Centre of Net Wing (Section 5.3), TD MEMO 6309
 Angle of Attack for Zero Lift
 cambered and twisted wings with approximately circularsection fuselage, 89042
 Axisymmetric Body With SharpEdged Delta, Cropped Delta or Rectangular Wings of Low Aspect Ratio
 normal force in supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 91042
 pitching moment in supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 92043
 Body Geometry
 effect on drag, lift and pitching moment due to flaps, 97003
 effect on rolling moment due to sideslip, 00025, 73006
 effect on yawing moment due to sideslip, 00025, 79006
 Design of WingBody Intersection to Control Pressure Distribution in Transonic Flow, 97017
 DragRise Mach Number
 relationship to that of basic aerofoil, 78009
 High/Low Wing Position
 effect on drag, lift and pitching moment due to flaps, 97003
 effect on rolling moment due to sideslip, 00025, 73006
 LiftCurve Slope of MissileType
 midwing configuration at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 91007
 Lift of MissileType
 effect of wing height at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 95009
 PitchBreak
 prediction of type based on wing planform geometry, 01005
 Pitching Moment at Zero Lift
 cambered and twisted wings with approximately circularsection fuselage, 89042
 Position of Aerodynamic Centre for Missile Type (Truncated Rear Body)
 effect of wing height at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 95009
 midwing configuration at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 92024
 Position of Aerodynamic Centre for Transport Aircraft Type (Smoothly Tapered Rear Fuselage)
 effect of fuselage geometry, 76015
 effect of rearfuselage nacelle geometry and position, 78013
 effect of underwing nacelle geometry and position, 77012
 effect of wing sweep, 76015
 program for wingbodynacelle combinations, 13009
 Rolling Moment Due to Rolling at Supersonic Speeds
 effect of interfence on wing from cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.02
 three or fourwing arrangements on cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.01, AERO A.S.06.03.03
 Swept StraightTapered Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 prediction of lift and lift dependent drag, 95025
 Upwash Induced at Any Point Upstream of Wing
 estimation componentbycomponent taking account of interference, 90020
 Use of Vane Vortex Generators to Control Separation in WingBody Junction, 93024
 Velocity Distribution on Wing (Section 8.4), 73012
 see also
 Wing Geometry
 Effect on Velocity Distribution (Section 8.3), 73012
 Length and Position of Aerodynamic and Geometric (or Standard) Mean Chords
 straighttapered planforms, or planforms with cranks or sawteeth, 10023, 76003, TM 168
 Relationship Between Control/Wing Chord Ratios in Different Planes, 74009
 Relationship Between Sweeps of Different Percentage Chord Lines, 10023, 76003
 Relationship Between Thickness/Chord Ratios in Different Planes, 74009
 Representation of Cranked Planform by StraightTapered Planform, 10023, 76003, 95010
 Consideration of Design Features
 planform, section, incidence setting and twist, and junction design, 98013
 Discussion of Wing Design to Include to Reduce Trailing Vortex Drag, 98013
 added to existing wing with or without span constraint, 98013
 incorporated in initial design, 98013
 methods of aerodynamic analysis available, 98013
 Effect of Combined Lower and Upper Elements, 98013
 Examples of Trailing Vortex Drag Reduction With Lift and Wing Root Bending Moment Constrained
 various winglet lengths and cant angles (including wing tip extension), 98013
 Simplified Assessment of Effect on Range of Civil Transport, 98013
 When Added to Existing Wing Design
 comparison of benefits with those from wing tip extension, 98013
 effect of wing loading distribution on benefits, 98013
 Aerodynamic Centre
 spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, TD MEMO 6309
 subsonic flow, 70011
 supersonic flow, 70012
 Aerodynamic Characteristics
 limits of linearity in lowspeed flow, 88030
 Analogous Wing Concept, 73012
 Buffeting Behaviour
 effect of aspect ratio, camber, thickness and sweep, 87012
 variation with angle of attack and Mach number, 87012
 Calculation of Bending Moment, Loading and Torque on in Steady Level Asymmetric Flight
 sideslipping, turning or with failed engine, 01010
 Centre of Pressure
 program for position for wings with camber and twist, 95010
 program for position for wings with camber, twist and deflected plain flaps, 95010
 spanwise position for wings with camber and twist, 83040
 spanwise position for wings with symmetric section, TD MEMO 6403
 Contribution to Airframe Noise, 90023
 Critical Pressure Coefficient
 estimation, 75027
 Deformation in Bending and Twist Using Orthogonal Modes, 97032
 Deformation Using Normal Modes, 99033
 Discussion of Design to Include Winglets to Reduce Trailing Vortex Drag
 added to existing wing with or without span constraint, 98013
 incorporated in initial design, 98013
 Discussion of Effect of Control or Flap Gaps on Aerodynamic Characteristics, 92039
 Discussion of Spanwise Variation of Chordwise Pressure Distribution
 at transonic speeds, 90008
 Drag Due to Excrescences

 see also
 Excrescences
 examples of calculation of contribution of typical excrescences on transport aircraft, 93032
 method to calculate momentum thickness increase due to transition trip using sparsely distributed ballotini, 13013
 relative importance of typical excrescences (and their fit/sealing) on transport aircraft, 93032
 Drag Estimation
 use of simple sweep rules, 97016
 use of strip theory for swept, 97016
 DragRise Mach Number
 estimation using charts relating to aerofoils, 72027
 influence of fuselage, 78009
 Effect of Static Deformation on Load Distribution, 96037
 Estimation of Upwash Induced at Any Point Upstream of Wing, 90020
 Factors to Consider in Wing/Winglet Optimum Design, 98013
 analysis of Boeing and Douglas wing modification studies, 98013
 Fatigue Life Estimation
 Flow Separation
 prediction of leading or trailingedge on plane, cambered or twisted, 88030
 validation against RAE Model W4, 13013
 validation of pressures and integral boundary layer data against M2155, 13013
 Flutter Calculations
 use of aerodynamic data for aerofoils, 81034
 Guide to Design in Transonic Flow
 body intersection shaping to control pressure distribution, 97017
 desirable features of pressure distribution in two or threedimensions, 97017
 pylon shaping to control pressure distribution, 97017
 stepbystep procedure, 97017
 structural considerations including effects of flexibility, 97017
 tip body shaping to control pressure distribution, 97017
 use of curvature distribution in two or threedimensions, 97017
 use of fences, stall strips, and vortex generators, 97017
 use of windtunnel testing, 97017
 Infinite Yawed
 relationship of threedimensional flow to flow over twodimensional surface, 90008
 Lift
 curve against angle of attack from zero to maximum, 96003
 prediction from leadingedge suction analogy, 95025
 program for nonplanar and planar to high angles of attack, 96025
 program to predict, 99031
 straighttapered planar to high angles of attack, 95025
 Lift at Zero Angle of Attack With Full or PartSpan Flaps, 93019, 95021, 97002, 97009, 97011
 effect of drooped leading edge, slats or sealed slats, 96032
 effect of Kruger, vented or unvented, 96032
 introduction to Data Items on, 97002
 Lift at Zero Angle of Attack With LeadingEdge Full or PartSpan HighLift Devices, 96032
 effect of doubleslotted flaps, 95021, 96032, 97002
 effect of plain flaps, 96032, 97002, 97011
 effect of singleslotted flaps, 93019, 96032, 97002
 effect of split flaps, 96032, 97002, 97009
 effect of tripleslotted flaps, 95021, 96032, 97002
 introduction to Data Items on, 97002
 LiftCurve Slope
 effect of cutout, AERO W.01.01.04
 prediction of initial nonlinearity for plane, cambered or twisted, 88030
 subsonic flow, 70011, 95010
 supersonic flow, 70012
 LiftCurve Slope From Zero to Maximum Lift
 program to predict, 99031
 with or without leading and/or trailingedge highlift devices, 96003
 Lift Dependent Drag
 boundary layer contribution in subsonic flow, 66031, 66032, 95025, 96025
 effect of flap deployment, 97002, AERO F.02.01.08
 supersonic flow, AERO W.S.02.03.02
 trailing vortex contribution in subsonic flow, 10022, 74035
 Lift Force Due to Rate of Pitch
 contribution at subsonic speeds, 90010
 contribution at supersonic speeds, AERO W.S.08.03.02
 Local Flow Direction
 approximation from freestream Mach number, local pressure coefficient and isobar sweep, 93025
 Local Mach Number Normal to Isobars
 derivation for isentropic flow from pressure distribution, 75027
 M151 ForwardSwept Wing, 13013
 Maximum Lift With LeadingEdge Part or FullSpan HighLift Devices
 angle of attack for, 96003
 slotted or unslotted, or vented or unvented Kruger, 92031
 Maximum Lift Without HighLift Devices, 89034, 93015
 angle of attack for, 96003
 program to predict, 99031
 Maximum Lift With TrailingEdge Part or FullSpan HighLift Devices
 angle of attack for, 96003
 plain, slotted or split flaps with leadingedge highlift devices undeployed, 91014
 program to predict, 99031
 with leadingedge highlift devices deployed, 92031
 PitchBreak
 prediction of type based on wing planform geometry, 01005
 Pitching Moment at Angle of Attack
 effect of doubleslotted flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 01013, 03017, 99014
 effect of leadingedge highlift devices, alone or with trailingedge flaps, 00029, 01013, 03017
 effect of plain flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 01013, 03017, 98017
 effect of singleslotted flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 01013, 03017, 99004
 effect of split flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 01013, 03017, 98009
 effect of tripleslotted flaps, alone or with leadingedge highlift devices, 01013, 03017, 99014
 Pitching Moment at ZeroLift, 87001
 effect of Mach number, 87001
 effect of spanwise camber variation and twist, 87001
 Pitching Moment Due to Rate of Pitch
 contribution at subsonic speeds, 90010
 contribution at supersonic speeds, AERO W.S.08.03.02
 Pitching Moment for Wings With Camber and Twist
 program for spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
 Pitching Moment for Wings With Camber, Twist, and Deflected Plain Leading and/or TrailingEdge Flaps
 program for spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
 Pressure Distribution
 condition for streamwise distribution equivalent to that on aerofoil, 78009
 Profile Drag
 effect of deployment of plain flaps, 06014, 87024, AERO F.02.01.07
 effect of deployment of single slotted flaps, 08013, AERO F.02.01.07
 effect of deployment of split flaps, 74010, AERO F.02.01.07
 in shockfree attached flow, 07002, 07003
 lift dependent contribution, 07002, 07003, 66031, 66032, 95025, 96025
 Program for Swept NonPlanar and Planar to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 prediction of lift and lift dependent drag, 96025
 Rolling Moment Due to Rolling at Subsonic Speeds, AERO A.06.01.01
 Rolling Moment Due to Rolling at Supersonic Speeds
 effect of interference on wing from cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.02
 three or fourwing arrangements on cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.01, AERO A.S.06.03.03
 Rolling Moment Due to Sideslip
 contribution in attached flow, 00025, 80033
 effect of fullspan dihedral, 00025, AERO A.06.01.03
 effect of partspan dihedral, 00025, AERO A.06.01.09
 Rolling Moment Due to Yawing
 bibliography for separated flow, 72021
 contribution in attached flow, 72021
 dihedral and twist effects, 72021
 Separation
 use of vane vortex generators to control shockinduced, 93024, 93025
 Separation Prediction at Transonic Speeds
 criteria for flow breakdown, 91021
 flow breakdown boundary from pressure distribution and boundary layer characteristics, 91021
 SharpEdged Delta, Cropped Delta and Rectangular of Low Aspect Ratio
 centre of pressure in subsonic flow, 95022
 normal force and pitching moment in supersonic flow, 90013
 normal force in subsonic flow, 93034
 Sideforce Due to Rolling
 attached flow, 81014
 compressibility effects, 81014
 discussion of edge forces, 81014
 Similarity Laws Applied to Lift, Pitching Moment, Pressure and Pressure Drag Coefficients
 in subsonic, supersonic and transonic flows, 97025
 Simple Sweep Rules Applied to Drag, Lift and Pressure Coefficients, 97016
 Spanwise Loading
 for wings with camber and twist in subsonic flow, 83040
 for wings with symmetric section in subsonic flow, TD MEMO 6403
 program for wings with camber and twist in subsonic flow, 95010
 program for wings with camber, twist and deflected plain flaps in subsonic flow, 95010
 Spanwise Variation of Wave Drag
 calculation from surface curvature, shock sweep and local Mach number, 87003
 Strip Theory Applied to Drag Estimation, 97016
 Structure Weight Correlation With Root Bending Moment, 98013
 Swept StraightTapered Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
 prediction of lift and lift dependent drag, 95025
 Trailing Vortex Drag of Cambered and Twisted or Plane
 in shockfree attached flow, 10022
 with or without trailingedge flaps deployed, 01007
 Trailing Vortex Drag of Plane, 66031, 74035
 Trapezoidal Planform
 Mach number for supersonic leading or trailingedges, 75004
 spanwise distribution of leadingedge suction, and total suction, 94037, 94038
 Two Staggered or One in Combination With Fore (or Tail) Plane
 program for drag, trimmed with given static margin, 81023
 program for lift, trimmed with given static margin, 81023
 Typical Shock Patterns and Separation Lines
 swept wings in transonic flow, 90008
 Validation Against RAE Model W4, 13013
 Velocity Distribution
 interference effect of fuselage or other bodies (Section 8.4), 73012
 subsonic flow, 73012
 Wave Drag at Zero Lift
 biconvex or doublewedge sections, 75004
 With Spanwise Camber and Twist Distributions and Without HighLift Devices
 maximum lift in subcritical flow, 89034, 93015
 Yawing Moment Due to Rolling
 attached and separated flow, 81014
 compressibility effects, 81014
 discussion of edge forces, 81014
 Yawing Moment Due to Yawing
 attached flow, 71017
 bibliography for separated flow, 71017
 ZeroLift Angle of Attack in Subcritical Flow
 for wings with camber and twist, 87031, 93015
 see
 Gauzes
 Materials
Explore ESDU
ESDU Series:
 Aerodynamics
 Aircraft Noise
 Composites
 Dynamics
 Fatigue  Endurance Data
 Fatigue  Fracture Mechanics
 Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow
 Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow (Aerospace)
 Heat Transfer
 Mechanisms
 Performance
 Physical Data, Chemical Engineering
 Stress and Strength
 Structures
 Transonic Aerodynamics
 Tribology
 Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue
 Wind Engineering
ESDU Packages:
Copyright © 2020 IHS Markit. All Rights Reserved