ESDU A-Z Index: FORG-FZ

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Forgings
Form Drag
see also
Pressure Drag
Bodies
brief discussion, AERO B.S.02.03.01
Form Factors
see
Beams in General
Beams of Angle Section
Beams of Channel Section
Beams of Circular Section
Beams of I-section
Beams of Rectangular Tubular Section
Beams of T-section
Beams of Unlipped Z-section
Form Rolling
see
Screw Threads
Splined Steel Shaft Assemblies
Fouling
see also
Fouling in Combustion Plant
Fouling in Cooling Water Systems
Cleaning Methods, 86038
Discussion of Influence on Heat Exchanger Performance
see also
Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
effect on flow distribution, 86038
effect on heat transfer, 86038
effect on operating costs, 86038
effect on pressure drop, 86038
heat flux resistance, 86038
Effect on Condenser Performance, 85022
Mechanisms, 00016, 86038, 88024, 92012
effect of temperature and velocity, 00016, 86038
Possible Mitigation in Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers
by using tube inserts, 00016, 00041, 97007
Taking Account of Resistance Due to
in design and operation of heat exchangers, 86038
in design of shell-and-tube heat exchanger networks using process integration, 00043
Use of Antifoulants, 00016, 86038
Fouling in Combustion Plant
Assessment of Coal Ash Fouling Potential
ash, chlorine, sodium oxide and total alkali content, 92012
Assessment of Coal Ash Slagging Potential
base/acid ratio, silica ratio, slagging index, viscosity indices, 92012
temperature indicators and comparison of national standards, 92012
Assessment of Gas and Oil Fouling Potential
Conradson carbon residue, 92012
Ramsbottom carbon residue, 92012
Cleaning Off-Line
dry, 92012
steam or water, 92012
Cleaning On-Line
chemical, shot, sonic techniques, sootblowing, water lancing, 92012
Definitions of Fouling and Slagging, 92012
Design Implications
air preheater and radiant section, 92012
Emission Limits for Incineration Plants, 92012
Gas Side Fouling Factors (Resistances), 92012
Mechanisms of Combustion and Effect on Fouling
coal, natural gas, oil or waste fuel, 92012
Mechanisms of Deposition
adhesion, chemical reaction, corrosion, particulate, vapour diffusion, 92012
Use of Additives to Reduce Deposition, 92012
Use of Fuel Blending and Preparation to Reduce Deposition, 92012
Fouling in Cooling Water Systems
Cleaning Methods, 88024
Control
biological treatment methods, 88024
chemical treatment methods, 88024
operational techniques, 88024
Cooling Towers
effect of drift and windage on make-up water needs and polution, 88024
Corrosion and Its Control, 88024
Design Considerations to Minimise and Control, 88024
Detailed Discussion of Biocides Used, 88024
Devices for Assessment, 88024
Effect on Materials, 88024
Filtration to Control Particulate, 88024
Scale Control
chemical treatment methods, 88024
Sources of, 88024
Sources of Water and Effect on Fouling, 88024
Typical Resistance Values
dependence on material, 88024
dependence on temperature, 88024
dependence on velocity and water quality, 88024
Visual Evidence for Various Types, 88024
Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
Control
costs of antifoulant use, 00016
use of dispersants or antioxidants, 00016
Description of Mechanisms for Asphaltene Deposition and Coking, 00016
Discussion of Sources, 00016
Economic Effects
additional energy use, plant down-time and mitigation costs, 00016
Effect in Pressure Drop in Tubes, 00016
Environmental Effects
additional carbon dioxide generation, 00016
disposal of cleaning fluids, 00016
Equation for Estimating Rate of, 00016
Estimation
model for rate of fouling build-up, 00016
Factors Affecting Rate of
asphaltene content of crude and formation of iron sulphide, 00016
desalting, 00016
impurities (including particulates, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur), 00016
oil properties and mixing oils from different sources, 00016
surface material and its condition, 00016
temperature (and Arrhenius equation to model effects), 00016
velocity, 00016
Heat Exchanger Design to Minimise
increasing surface shear stress by increasing flowrate, 00016
use of helical flow bafflles, rod baffles or twisted tubes, 00016
use of inside tube inserts (wire matrix or moving elements), 00016
use of low fin tubing, 00016
use of program ENTRANS to assess benefits of tube inserts, 00041, 97007
use of program EXPRESS for, 00016, 00042
use of program REVISE for, 00016, 00042
Mixing Oils from Different Sources
definition of compatibility, insolubility number, solubility blending number, 00016
effect in asphaltene solubility, 00016
TEMA Fouling Factors, 00016
Threshold Conditions Below Which No Fouling Occurs
equation for prediction, 00016
graphical presentation to locate heat exchangers in train liable to fouling, 00016
use of program EXPRESS to check if heat exchanger operates within, 00042
use of program REVISE to check if heat exchanger operates within
Typical Fouling Factors, 00016
Four-bar Linkages
see
Balancing of Linkages
Crank-rocker Mechanisms
Force Balancing of Linkages
Linkages
Moment Balancing of Linkages
Slider-crank Mechanisms
Fourier Transform
see
Random Processes
Fowler Flaps
see
Slotted Flaps
Fracture Mechanics
see also
Aluminium Alloy Bars and Plates
Aluminium Alloy Forgings
Aluminium Alloy Sheets
Aluminium-Lithium Alloy Bars
Aluminium-Lithium Alloy Plates and Sheets
Austenitic Stainless Steels
Crack Propagation
Duplex Stainless Steels
Fracture Toughness
High Alloy Steels
High Tensile Low Alloy Steels
Low Tensile Low Alloy Steels
Maraging Steels
Martensitic Stainless Steels
Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
Stress Intensity Factors
Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range
Titanium Alloy (Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-11Sn-5Zr-2Al-1Mo)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-2.5Cu)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-4Al-3Mo-1v)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-4Al-4Mo-2Sn-0.5Si)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-4Al-4Mo-4Sn-0.5Si)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-5Al-2.5Sn)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-2Mo)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-5Zr-0.5Mo-0.25Si)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V)
Titanium Alloys
Titanium Sheets
Fatigue of Welded Joints
comparison of calculated strength with experimental data, 87016
use to show independence of parent material properties, 86013
Introduction to Principles
use in analysis of cracked components under fatigue or static loading, 80036
Use in Analysis of Behaviour of Short Cracks, 92023, 92030
Use in Design for Infinite Life
circlip grooves, 79032
Use to Estimate Effect of Fretting on Fatigue Strength, 90031
Use to Predict Delamination at Ply Drop-Off
tapered laminated plate, 91003
Fracture Toughness
Aluminium Alloys
consideration of effect of rate of loading, 96013
effect of grain orientation, 96013
effect of material specification and heat treatment, 96013
statistical analysis for design values with chosen confidence and probability levels, 96013
values at room temperature 00932 (MMDH)
variation with temperature, 96013
Copper, Magnesium and Titanium Alloys
values at room temperature 00932 (MMDH)
Definition, 80036, 83023
Steels
consideration of effect of rate of loading, 83023
effect of grain orientation, 83023
effect of material specification and heat treatment, 83023
statistical analysis for design values with chosen confidence and probability levels, 83023
values at room temperature 00932 (MMDH), 17003
variation with temperature, 83023
Variation With Stress Conditions and Crack Growth Rate, 80036
Various Sheet Materials
crack growth resistance curves (R-curves), 80036, 85031
critical crack length, 80036, 85031
residual strength, 80036, 85031
Frames
see
Circular Frames
Circular Frames Supported By A Shell
Elliptical Frames
Frameworks of Flat Sided And/or Tubular Members
Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Mean Forces and Moments Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
see
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Torsional Moment on Structures
Mechanical Vibration Characteristics
see
Buildings
Free Convection Heat Transfer
see also
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Heat Transfer
Reynolds-Prandtl Number Regimes for Existence
in horizontal or vertical flow in circular-section ducts, 92003
To or From Horizontal Circular-Section Cylinder or Outside Tube
correlation equation for gases and liquids, 69004, 77031
effect of non-uniform surface temperature distribution, 77031
effect of variable fluid properties, 69004
effect of vibrations, 77031
simplified correlation equation for atmospheric air, 77031
To or From Horizontal, Inclined or Vertical Flat Plates
correlation equation for gases and liquids, 77031
effect of laminar or turbulent flow, 77031
effect of non-uniform surface temperature distribution, 77031
effect of stratification of surroundings, 77031
effect of vibrations, 77031
simplified correlation equation for atmospheric air, 77031
To or From Spheres
correlation equation for gases and liquids, 77031
effect of non-uniform surface temperature distribution, 77031
effect of stratification of surroundings, 77031
effect of vibrations, 77031
simplified correlation equation for atmospheric air, 77031
To or From Various Elementary Components for Use in Calculation of Bearing Temperature
horizontal or vertical cylinder or plate, plummer block, shaft, 78029, 97019
To or From Vertical Circular-Section Cylinder or Outside Tube
correlation equation for air, 69004
correlation equation for gases and liquids, 77031
effect of laminar or turbulent flow, 77031
effect of non-uniform surface temperature distribution, 77031
effect of stratification of surroundings, 77031
effect of variable fluid properties, 69004
effect of vibrations, 77031
simplified correlation equation for atmospheric air, 77031
Free Spinning Nuts
see
Double Lock Nuts
Frequency
see also
Airforce Coefficients
Flutter Derivatives
Coincidence
effect on averaged radiation efficiency of isotropic rectangular plates, 02009
effect on radiation efficiency of isotropic rectangular plates in various modes, 02009
formulae for two values for orthotropic rectangular plates, 02009
for plate when phase velocity of fluid around it equals that of bending waves, 00002
Damped Natural
definition and formula, 66013, 77032
effect of fluid flow, 77032, 79025
Fundamental Natural
definition, 66013, 77032
Resonant
definition and formula, 66013, 77032
use to determine edge restraint for dynamically excited flat plates, 00002
Undamped Natural
see also
Box Structures
Buildings
Crossflow Heat Exchangers
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
Flat Panels in General
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Flat Square Plates
Modal Density
Pipes with Internal Flow
Response of Buildings and Structures
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
definition and formula, 66013
Frequency Response
Aliasing and Folding Frequency
digital-to-analogue transformation, 04023, 92044
Cavity Aero-Acoustics
rectangular planform cavity in flat plate, 04023, 09001, 09002, 16004
Characteristics of Digital Equivalents of Analogue Filters
Bode diagrams of gain and phase for various, 92044
Definition, 74021
Measurements
use in parameter identification of linear systems, 90006, 93016
Non-Linear Systems, 84032
Use in Linear System Analysis and Design
see
Bode Diagram
Hall Chart
Inverse Nyquist Diagram
Nichols Chart
Nyquist Diagram
Fretting Fatigue
Aluminium Alloys
effect of alloy composition, 89004
effect of clamping pressure, 89004
effect of salt water environment, 89004
effect of shot peening, 92015
effect of surface coatings and treatments, 89004
Description of Process, 90031
crack position and direction of growth, 90031
effects of principal variables, 90031
in bolted joints, 96014
Effect on Cumulative Fatigue Damage
need to use appropriate constant amplitude data, 95006
using simple Palmgren-Miner rule for aluminium alloys, 69024
Effect on Endurance of Pin Joints, FAT A.05.02
Effect on Endurance of Steel Lugs With Clearance-Fit Pins, 82022
Failure Diagnosis, 90031
Methods of Alleviating or Avoiding Effects, 90031
Physical Nature, 86040, 90031
Selection of Coatings to Resist
see
Wear Resistant Surface Coatings and Treatments
Titanium Alloys
effect of shot peening, 92015
Titanium and Titanium Alloys
effect of alloy composition, 88027
effect of anodising, 88027
effect of clamping pressure, 88027
effect of salt water environment, 88027
effect of surface coatings and treatments, 88027
effect of temperature, 88027
Friction Coefficient
see also
Rolling Bearings
Self-contained Bearing Assemblies
Skin Friction Drag
Accumulation of rainfall on runway surfaces, 19005
Aircraft Tyre on Wet/Dry or Contaminated Runway
see also
Rolling Friction Coefficient
Runways
consideration of tread material, 16008
definition, 16008
multiple-wheel undercarriages rolling or braking, 11004
Mumeter Mk 6: a continuous friction measuring device, TM 167
single tyre, 05011, 10015
snow-covered runway, 15008
surface deposit effects, 16008
tread pattern effects, 16008
yawed braked or unbraked rolling, 10002, 13007, 15007
Bearings of Various Types
typical behaviour with load and speed, 89044
typical values in rolling and rubbing bearings, 97019
Dry or Contaminated Runway Surface, 10002, 10003, 10004
Estimation for Aircraft Tyre on Wet/Dry or Contaminated Runway
effects of aircraft velocity, 16008
effects of runway surface texture grooving and wetness, 16008
effects of tyre inflation pressure and wear, 16008
multiple-wheel undercarriages rolling or braking, 11004, 13002
single tyre, 05011, 10015
Ground-test Machine, 10004
Interference-Fit Collars, 68002
Rubber
see also
Reciprocating Seals
data for various surfaces, 16008
surface deposit effects, 16008
surface texture effects, 16008
temperature effects, 16008
Statistical Analysis of Aircraft/Ground-Test Machine Braked Experimental Data to Obtain
decelerating forces on multiple-wheel undercarriages, 11004
derivation of Friction Data Base for aircraft for which no data are available, 99015
derivation of Friction Data Base from existing data, 99015
derivation of method of analysing test results to create Friction Data Base, 99015
effect of limited wetness data on values from resulting Friction Data Base, 99015
example for aircraft with extensive data set available, 99015, 99016
example for aircraft with limited data set available, 99015, 99017
example for ground-test machine, 00018
examples for various aircraft types, 99015
examples for various ground test machines, 99015
explanation of Friction Data Base created from test data, 99015
including effects of aircraft velocity, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017
including effects of runway surface texture and wetness, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017
including effects of tyre inflation pressure, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017
possibility of relationship between water depth and tyre/wet runway friction, 99015
prediction of value from analysis with chosen probability, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017
use of Friction Data Base to predict stopping distance, 99015
Various Dry Rubbing Bearing Materials
carbon, polymer, thermoset, solid lubricant impregnated metal, 87007
sketches of typical behaviour with load and speed, 89044
Wheels and Tyres
sketch of typical behaviour with speed, 89044
Friction Factor
Coils of Various Geometries, 77029
Compressible Flow in Straight Ducts, 66027, 74029
Effect of Various Systematic Roughnesses in Straight Ducts, 79014, 82021
Incompressible Flow in Straight Ducts, 66027, 97007
approximate expressions for various tube inserts, 97007
calculation for twisted tape inserts, 95027
calculation for various systematic and random roughnesses, 82021
effect of duct cross-sectional shape, 82021
estimation of heat transfer from, 82021
Frise Aileron
Control Hinge Moments, AERO C.04.01.00
Fronts
Cold, Occluded or Warm
description of characteristics, 87034
Fuel Consumption
see
Aircraft Performance Analysis
Aircraft Performance Reduction
Aircraft Piston Engines
Endurance (Flight Time)
Flight Path Optimisation
Range
Specific Air Range
Specific Endurance
Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Turbo-prop Engines
Fuel Oils
Typical Values of Density, 71003
Typical Values of Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity, 66024, 71003
Fuels
see
Diesel Fuels
Fuel Oils
Gas Oils
Gasolines
Kerosines
Petroleum Gases
Fuel Systems
Guidance on Contribution to Excrescence Drag, 94044
Functions
Algebraic Expressions for Various for Use in Curve Fitting or Data Analysis, 01011
Furnaces
see
Fouling in Combustion Plant
Fuselage
see also
Aerodynamic Loading
Bending Moment
Bodies of Revolution
Derivatives
Profile Drag
Wing-body Combination
Flexibility
see
Static Aeroelasticity
Typical Noise Transmission Loss Characteristics, 02020
Fuselage Interference Effect
see
Interference
Wing-body Combination
Fuselage Upsweep
see
Profile Drag

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