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Rainfall
Accumulation of rainfall on runway surfaces, 19005
Radiation
see also
Radiation Heat Transfer
Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
Resistance of Various Dry Rubbing Bearing Materials to
carbon, polymer, thermoset, solid lubricant impregnated metal, 87007
Resistance of Various Synthetic Lubricants to, 94020
Solar
see
Solar Heating
Sound
see
Noise
Use in Temperature Measurement
see
Temperature Measurement
Radiation Efficiency
Cylinders, 15010
Frequency-Averaged Radiation Efficiency of Plates, 15010
Modal Radiation Efficiency, 15010
Relationship to Coupling Loss Factor, 15010
Sound
see
Flat Rectangular Plates
Radiation Heat Transfer
see also
Heat Transfer
Thermal Emissivity
Equation for, 69004, 69009, 69012, 77031
View Factor (Configuration Factor) Algebra, 77031
View Factors to Nearby Flat Surface
cylinder, inclined or parallel plate, and sphere, 77031
Radiography
Use in Non-Destructive Examination for Flaws, 91027
Radius of Gyration
Planar Shapes and Sections With/Without Holes
see
Moments of Area of Planar Shapes and Sections With/without Holes
Radius of Turn
Estimation in Climb and Descent
as function of load factor, rate of turn and speed, PERF EG8/1
program using known drag, lift and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Rain Dispersal Systems
Drains, Gutters and Windscreen Wipers etc
guidance on contribution to aircraft drag, 94044
Rainflow
see also
Standard Fatigue Loading Sequences
Method of Cycle Definition, 95006
Raman Scattering
see
Temperature Measurement
Ram Efficiency
Intakes
variation with boundary layer thickness and geometry for flush intakes, 03006, 86002
variation with boundary layer thickness and geometry for scoop intakes, 86002
variation with Mach number and pressure ratio for air in adiabatic flow, 66028
Ramp Fairings
Wave Drag of Rectangular Planform, 71018
Ramp Functions
Use With Logic Functions to Fit Discontinuous Curves, 01011
Ram Pressure
see
Impact Pressure
Random Processes
see also
Turbulence Near Ground
Introduction to Concepts and Definitions
basic notions and types of processes (ergodic, non-stationary, stationary), 83041
conditional probability function, 83041
correlation functions, 83041
Fourier transform, 83041
probability density and distribution functions, 83041, 92040
spectral density, 83041
Range
see also
Flight Path Optimisation
Specific Air Range
Effects of Wind on Optimum Cruise Speed, 73018
Introduction to Estimation, 73018, 80026
Piston-Engine Aircraft
analysis of measured data, 80009
estimation for various cruise flight conditions, 75018
estimation of range (time, fuel) lost due to climb and descent, 77015
estimation of stage length (time, fuel), 75018, 77015
reduction of measured data, 80009, PERF RP1/0, PERF RP1/3, PERF RP2/0
Simplified Treatment for Civil Transport
to show effect of using winglets from wing design initiation, 98013
Turbine Helicopters
performance analysis, 74042, 80009
Turbo-Fan and Turbo-Jet Aircraft
see also
Buoyancy
Gravitational Acceleration
analysis of measured data, 70020, 70021, 70022, 80009
comparison of flight paths in cruise-climb and range corrections for four aircraft, 73019
correction of level flight data to cruise-climb, 73019
estimation for cruise-climb, 73019
estimation for various cruise flight conditions, 73019
estimation of range (time, fuel) lost due to climb and descent, 74018
estimation of stage length (time, fuel), 73019, 74018, 74041
example of calculation of stage length, 74041
flight path followed and engine setting during cruise-climb, 73019
reduction of measured data, 80009, PERF RJ2/0
use of expression for sfc with or without thrust inclination angle, 73019
Turbo-Prop Aircraft
estimation for various cruise flight conditions, 75018
estimation of range (time, fuel) lost due to climb and descent, 77015
estimation of stage length (time, fuel), 75018, 77015
reduction of measured data, 80009, PERF RT1/0, PERF RT1/3
Range-mean-pairs
Method of Cycle Definition, 95006
Rate of Climb
see also
Flight Path Optimisation
Analysis of Flight Measurements
piston-engine aircraft, 70023
turbo-fan and turbo-jet aircraft, 70020, 70021, 70023, 80009, PERF RJ1/2
Calculation of Variability of Take-Off Climb Gradient From Known Contributing Variabilities
as illustration of use of statistical techniques, 91020
Constant Calibrated or Equivalent Airspeed or Mach Number
acceleration in Off-Standard or Standard Atmospheres, 81046
Correction of Measured for Wind Gradient, 70023
Determination of Ceiling From
program using known drag and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Effect of Small Changes in Density, Drag, Weight, Speed, Thrust (or Power), 94039
Estimation in Steady Speed Climb
from simplified equations, 80032, 92019
value at minimum drag speed, 92019
Estimation in Steady Speed Climb or Accelerated Climb
aircraft performance program, ESDUperf
using known drag, lift and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Flight at Constant Pressure, 70023, 79018
Introduction to Data Items on Estimation, 80026
Maximum in Steady Speed Climb for Propeller-Powered Aircraft
graphical correlation for range of aircraft aerodynmics and use to estimate values, 92019
Reduction of Flight Measurements
piston-engine aircraft, 80009, PERF RP1/0, PERF RP1/2, PERF RP2/0
turbo-fan and turbo-jet aircraft, 80009, PERF RJ2/1
turbo-prop aircraft, 80009, PERF RT1/0, PERF RT1/2
Speed for Maximum, 92019
Statistical Analysis of Second Segment Climb Flight Tests
to show effect on scheduled performance of small airframe changes, 93023
Rate of Descent
Estimation in Steady Speed Descent or in Accelerated Descent
using known drag, lift and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Rate of Turn
Estimation in Climb or Descent
aircraft performance program, ESDUperf
as function of load factor, radius and speed, PERF EG8/1
program using known drag, lift and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Rayleigh Mode
Unstiffened Thin-Walled Circular-Cylindrical Shells
natural frequencies and mode shape, 78004
Rayleigh Scattering
see
Temperature Measurement
R-curves
see
Resistance Curves
Real Gas Factor
see
Air
Reboilers
see
Boiling Flow in Pipes
Reciprocating Seals
Selection From Clearance, Contact or Membrane Types, 83031
Selection of Material for Contact Type
cost, maintenance and reliability, 83031
discussion of friction, leakage, life and lubrication, 83031
fluid compatibility, 83031
maximum sealing pressure, sliding speed and temperature, 83031
mechanical considerations, 83031
requirements for component surface finish, 83031
Selection of Type of Contact Seal
moulded O-, U- or V-ring or packed, 83031
piston rings, 83031
Recovery
see
Pressure Recovery
Recovery Factor
see
Temperature Recovery Factor
Recovery Temperature
Definition, 69009, 89022
Effect of Changes on Stresses in Structural Components
see
Cylinders of Laminated Construction
Flat Rectangular Heated Plates
Spherical Shells of Laminated Construction
General Discussion, 69009
Variation With Local Mach Number and Temperature
laminar boundary layer, AERO W.S.00.03.18
turbulent boundary layer, AERO W.S.00.03.18
Rectangular Holes in Flat Plates
Aerodynamic Characteristics
see
Cavities
Excrescences
Various In-Plane Loadings
stress concentration data, 80027
Rectangular Plates
see also
Boundary Walls and Fences
Hoardings (Elevated Above Ground Level)
Inclined to Flow
see
Flat Rectangular Plates
centre of pressure, 70015
normal force, 70015
Normal to Flow
interference effects between pair, 70015
normal force, 70015
shear flow effects on forces, 70015
surface-mounting effects on forces, 70015
Stress Analysis
see
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Rectangular Heated Plates
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Rectangular Plates Tapered in Thickness
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Stress Response to Acoustic Loading
see
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Vibration
see
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Curved Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Rectangular-section Cylinders
Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Mean Forces, Moments and Pressures Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
see
Axial Force
Base Pressure
Bluff Bodies
Critical Conditions in Fluid Flow
Internal Pressure
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Pressure Distribution
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Torsional Moment on Structures
Rectangular-section Diffusers
see
Plane-walled Diffusers with Single-plane Expansion
Rectangular Strain Gauge Rosette
Analysis of Data, 72014
Rectangular Wings
see also
Indicial Aerodynamics
Wing-body Combination
Wings
Centre of Pressure of Sharp-Edged Low Aspect Ratio
subsonic flow to high angles of attack below stall, 95022
Normal Force and Pitching Moment on Sharp-Edged Low Aspect Ratio
supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 90013
Normal Force on Sharp-Edged Low Aspect Ratio
subsonic flow to high angles of attack below stall, 93034
Rolling Moment Due to Rolling at Supersonic Speeds
effect of interference from cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.02
used in three- or four-wing arrangements, AERO A.S.06.03.01, AERO A.S.06.03.03
Transonic Drag-Rise, AERO W.S.02.03.09
Wave Drag for Various Aerofoil Sections, 71018
Rectified Airspeed
see
Calibrated Airspeed
Reduction
Aircraft Performance
see
Aircraft Performance Analysis
Aircraft Performance Reduction
Axes Systems in Aircraft Dynamics and Performance
Helicopter Performance Analysis
Reduction of Torque Fluctuation in Linkage Drive Shafts
Design Considerations, 92016
Sources of Fluctuations, 92016
Techniques Available
adding dyad, springs and/or dampers, 92016
cost, design and space implications of choice, 92016
effect on joint forces and balance, 92016
link mass reduction and optimisation, 92016
principal use of each method and use in combination, 92016
use of flywheel, 92016
Redwood Seconds
Measurement of Viscosity, 68036, 81002
Reflection of Sound Power
Between Coupled Plates
see
Response of Lightweight Structures
By Ground
see
Ground Reflection Effect on Noise
Reflectors
Mean Forces Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows on Paraboloidal, 82031
Moments Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows on Paraboloidal, 82031
Pressure Distribution Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows on Paraboloidal, 83020
Reflux Condensers
see also
Condensers
Advantages and Limitations of Type, 89038
Condensate Local and Mean Heat Transfer Coefficient
recommended prediction methods for various Reynolds number ranges, 89038
Design or Performance Rating Procedure
single- or multi-component flows, 89038
Discussion of Available Data on Pressure Drop, 89038
Flooding Mechanisms, 89038
Prediction of Flooding Vapour Velocity
accuracy of correlation, 89038
effect of tube end cut and tube inclination, 89038
Refractive Index
see
Temperature Measurement
Refractory Lining Materials
Back-Up Insulating Materials, 80041
Bibliography of ASME, BS and DIN Standards, 80041
Calculation of Steady-State Heat Transfer Through Combinations, 80041
Cold Crushing Strength
method of measurement, 80041
values for various materials and forms, 80041
Factors Involved in Selection, 80041
Fixing and Mechanical Support Systems, 80041
Glossary of Terms, 80041
Heat Transfer Mechanism in Fibrous or Porous Materials, 80041
List of Manufacturers and Their Addresses, 80041
Maximum Service Temperature
guidance for various materials and forms, 80041
Mechanical Properties
methods of measurement and values for various materials, 80041
Thermal Conductivity
effect of surrounding gas, 80041
methods of measurement and values for various materials and forms, 80041
Thermal Diffusivity
effect on time to reach equilibrium, 80041
Thermal Expansion
values for various materials and forms, 80041
Types of Forms and Materials Available, 80041
Typical Arrangement of Combinations, 80041
Use of Fibrous Materials, 80041
Refrigerator Oils
Density
typical values, 71003
Dynamic Viscosity
typical values, 71003
Kinematic Viscosity
typical values, 71003
Refutas Chart
Kinematic Viscosity, 68036
blending of petroleum products, 71003
Regression
Linear Two Variable (Least Squares)
confidence intervals for regression relationship, 91017
correlation coefficient, 91017
derivation of regression relationship and manual calculation, 91017
example calculation using measurements of ground run and approach speed, 92021
example of accuracy assessment of resulting correlation of experimental data, 98026
example of use of confidence coefficient to establish significance of correlation, 92021
test for significance of correlation and table of statistics, 91017
test for significance of regression relationship, 91017
variance of ordinand about regression line, 91017
Multiple Linear
derivation of regression relationship, 91017
example calculation using airborne time, speeds and rates of descent in landing flare, 92022
Reheated Engines
Approximate Relationship Between Design Specific Thrust and By-Pass Ratio, 76034
Mixed Flow
estimation of variation of thrust with speed during take-off, 76034
Reinforced Beams, Plates and Strips
see
Beams of Sandwich Construction
Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Curved Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Faceplate Wrinkling
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Flat Strips of Orthotropic Materials
Flat Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Laminated Construction Using Composites
Response of Lightweight Structures
Sandwich Panels and Plates
Struts of Sandwich Construction
Reinforced Circular Holes in Flat Plates
Design of Reinforcement in Fibre-Reinforced Laminates, 86003
Effect on Buckling in Shear of Square Plates
see
Flat Square Plates with Central Flanged Circular Hole
Stress Concentration Data for Various In-Plane Loadings, 80027
use for symmetric or asymmetric compact or flange reinforcement, 80027
Reinforced Circular Holes Near Edge of Flat Plates
Stress Concentration Data for Tension Loading, 80027
use for symmetric or asymmetric compact or flange reinforcement, 80027
Reinforced Elliptical Holes in Flat Plates
Stress Concentration Data for Various In-Plane Loadings, 80027
use for symmetric or asymmetric compact or flange reinforcement, 80027
Reinforced Plastics
see
Composite Structures
Laminated Construction Using Composites
Skin-rib Joints in Composite Structures
Reinforced Shell
see also
Circular Frames Supported By A Shell
Stress Distribution Under Bending, STRUCT 00.06.01
Reinforced Square Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
Stress Concentration Data for Various In-Plane Loadings, 80027
use for symmetric or asymmetric compact or flange reinforcement, 80027
Reinforced Triangular Holes in Flat Plates
Stress Concentration Data for Various In-Plane Loadings, 80027
use for symmetric or asymmetric compact or flange reinforcement, 80027
Relative Damping Ratio
see
Damping Ratio
Reservoirs
Lubrication Systems
see
Lubrication Systems
Residual Strength
see
Resistance Curves
Residual Stresses
Effect on Fatigue Strength of Welded Joints, 86013, 91039, 92017
Effect on Strength of Helical Compression Springs, 83002, 83003
Methods of Inducing in Surface of Steel Components and Guide to Selection, 89031
discussion of effect on fatigue strength, 89031
Resistance Curves
Use in Predicting Onset of Fast Fracture and Residual Strength, 85031
Various Sheet Materials, 85031
effect of loading rate and temperature, 85031
effect of material specification, 85031
Resistance Thermometry
see
Platinum Resistance Thermometers
Temperature Measurement
Thermistors
Resonance in Wind-tunnels
Ventilated-Wall With Plenum Chamber
prediction of first frequency, 90005
Response
see also
Buffeting
Crossflow Heat Exchangers
Dynamic Overswing
Dynamic Stability
Fatigue Loading
Frequency
Frequency Response
Indicial Aerodynamics
Lateral Stability and Response
Linear Systems
Longitudinal Stability and Response
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Response of Lightweight Structures
Rolling
Sampled-data Systems
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Unsteady Aerodynamics
Anemometric Data Measuring System in Aircraft
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Planar Flexible Liquid-Filled Piping System to Transient Pressures
program for liquid pressure and velocity and structural behaviour at junction
Rotors in Journal Bearings
see
Rotors
Structural Elements
see
Box Structures
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
Flat Panels in General
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Temperature Measuring System in Aircraft
see
Ambient Temperature
Three-Dimensional Liquid-Filled Flexible Unbranched Piping System With Rigid Supports
program for coupled response to transient liquid pressure change, 93031
Response of Buildings and Structures
see also
Buildings
Damping
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Aerodynamic Damping, 83009, 87035, 88019, 89045
Expressions for Mode-Generalised Inertias, 91001
Expressions for Mode-Generalised Masses, 91001
Galloping
approximate estimation of wind speed for onset and maximum amplitude, 91010
characteristics of response of a cylinder in a wake, 79025
definition of hard and soft oscillators, 91010
definition of stall and wake, 91010
discussion of origins, 77032, 91010
full equations for maximum amplitude, 91010
full equations for wind speed for onset, 91010
methods of alleviating, 77032
rate of change of force with wind incidence for use in calculation, 93013
regions of interference between two cylinders, 79025
Generalised Masses in Bending, 91001
Introduction to Behaviour Due to Turbulence and Wind
calculation procedure for deterministic and probabilistic inputs, 77032
discussion of added mass term and of interference from nearby bodies, 77032
discussion of vortex shedding, 77032, 96030
guide to significance of various types of response, 77032
introduction to methods of calculation, 77032
methods of alleviating, 77032, 83009, 96030
methods of model testing, 77032
similarity parameters in model testing, 77032
use of normal mode analysis for calculation, 77032, 83009, 91001
Natural Frequency
approximate equation for columns, stacks and towers, 91001
approximate equation for tall buildings, and accuracy, 91001
mode shape functions for cantilevers, and single- and two-span beams, 91001
multi-span beams, 91001
single-span beams, 91001
treatment of additional masses and of non-uniform mass distribution, 91001
Pairs of Circular-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow
characteristics of buffeting, flutter, galloping and jet switching, 79025
discussion of parameters affecting, 79025
methods of alleviating, 79025
regions of interference between, 79025
sources of data and their content, 79025
typical characteristics when closely or widely spaced, 79025
use of existing data for prediction, 79025
variation in specific case with incidence, spacing and velocity, 79025
Small Groups of Circular-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow
detailed presentation of data extracted from literature, 79025
general discussion of factors affecting, 79025
methods of alleviating, 79025
sources of data, 79025
use of existing data for prediction, 79025
Structural Damping
approximate data, 77032, 87035, 88019, 91001, 96031
estimation for first translational modes of tall buildings, 83009, 91001
Typical Ranges of Structural Density, 91001
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
see also
Response of Buildings and Structures
Accelerations, Deflections, Loading Due to Across-Wind Components for All Types of Structures
horizontal or vertical, cantilevered or fixed at both ends, 89049
program for constant or varying width, non-uniform or uniform mass, 92036
simple calculation method, 89049
Accelerations, Deflections, Loading Due to Along-Wind Components for Single Circular-Section Cylinder
horizontal or vertical, cantilevered or fixed at both ends, 87035
program for constant or varying width, non-uniform or uniform mass, 92036
simple calculation method, 87035
Accelerations, Deflections, Loading Due to Along-Wind Components for Structures Near Line-Like
horizontal or vertical, cantilevered or fixed at both ends, 87035
program for constant or varying width, non-uniform or uniform mass, 92036
simple calculation method, 87035
Accelerations, Deflections, Loading Due to Along-Wind Components for Structures Not Line-Like
program for constant or varying width, non-uniform or uniform mass, 92036
simple calculation method, 88019
Deflections Due to Across-Wind Components for Single Circular-Section Cylinder
horizontal or vertical, cantilevered or fixed at both ends, 96031
parallel-sided, stepped, tapered, on conical base or with aerodynamic spoilers, 96031
Rate of Change of Force With Wind Incidence for Use in Calculation
buildings, bridge decks and beam sections, 93013
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
see also
Response of Buildings and Structures
Deflections of Single Circular- or Polygonal-Section Cylinder at Any Angle to Wind
cantilevered or fixed at both ends, 96030, 96031
comparison of predictions with experimental results, 96030
derivation of parameters used in method, 96030
fitted with a strake to reduce, 96030, 96031
including effect of across-wind buffeting, 96030, 96031
maximum and rms, 96030, 96031
methods of alleviating, 96030
mounted in a duct or wind-tunnel, 96030, 96031
natural or simulated turbulence levels (in a wind-tunnel), 96030, 96031
parallel-sided, stepped or tapered, 96030, 96031
percentage of time during which response is narrow-band, 96030, 96031
program for broad- and narrow-band response running in Excel, 96031
smooth or rough surfaces, 96030, 96031
uniform or shear flow, 96030, 96031
Deflections of Single Multi-Sided Section Structure, Horizontal or Vertical and Symmetrical to Crossflow
calculation procedure, 90036
cantilevered or fixed at both ends, 90036
maximum and rms, 90036
parallel-sided, stepped or tapered, 90036
Response of Lightweight Structures
see also
Statistical Energy Analysis
Coupling Loss Factor
connected plates, 98020, 99009
Discussion of General Features of Dynamic Response, 97033
choice of global or local model of structure, 97033
Discussion of Types of Excitation
effect on choice of model of structure, 97033
spatial or temporal characteristics, 97033
Example of Calculation for Simple Structure
comparison of results from finite element analysis and statistical energy analysis, 99009
Methods of Modelling Structure
advantages, features and limitations, 97033
boundary element method, 97033
decision tree chart to guide in choice of appropriate method, 97033
dynamic stiffness method, 97033
examples illustrating selection process for appropriate method, 97033
finite element analysis, 97033
global trial functions, 97033
modal interaction analysis, 97033
outline of mathematical modelling of various methods, 97033
statistical energy analysis, 97033
Solution Procedure
choice between frequency and time domains, 97033
Sound Power Radiated by Dynamically Excited Flat Plates
see
Noise
Transmission of Vibrational Power Between Coupled Curved or Flat Plates
efficiency of direct coupling or coupling through a beam, 98020
Typical Fuselage Noise Transmission Loss Characteristics, 02020
dependence of transmission loss behaviour on frequency, 02020

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