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Pitch-break (Pitch-up or Pitch-down)
On Wings or Wing-Body Combinations
discussion of effect of wing flow field and planform shape on, 01005
prediction of type based on wing planform geometry, 01005
Pitching Moment
see also
Aerodynamic Centre
Airforce Coefficients
Centre of Pressure
Flutter Derivatives
Pitching Moment Due To Acceleration in Heave (Mw dot or CMα dot)
Pitching Moment Due To Pitching (Mq or Cmq)
Pitching-moment-curve Slope (MW or Cmα)
Trim
Unsteady Aerodynamics
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Wings
Aerofoil Design to Optimise Using Multivariate Gradient Search and CFD Codes
introduction to method, 99019
Aerofoils
comparison of results from VGK with experimental results, 96028
estimation in viscous subsonic or transonic flow using VGK, 96028, 96029
Aerofoils at Angle of Attack
all high-lift devices, 03017
Aerofoils at Constant Angle of Attack
variation with increasing high subsonic Mach number, 90008
Aerofoils at Zero Angle of Attack
effect of double-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 99014
effect of leading-edge high-lift devices, alone or with trailing-edge flaps, 00029, 01013
effect of plain flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 98017
effect of single-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 99004
effect of split flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 98009
effect of triple-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 99014
Aerofoils at Zero Lift
in inviscid subsonic flow, 72024
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series, 99003
program to predict minimum for subcritical speeds, 06020
Aerofoils With Sealed Leading- and/or Trailing-Edge Controls or Flaps
effect of deflection in subsonic or transonic flow, 01033, 96028, 96029
Aircraft
increment due to ground effect, 72023
Biconvex Aerofoils, AERO W.S.00.03.04
Bodies of General Cross Section
elliptical, 05015
square with corner rounding, 07005
square without corner rounding, 04007
triangular without corner rounding, 04007
Controls
variation with control deflection, AERO C.08.01.01
Derivation of Pitching Moment Coefficient from Flight Test Data, TM 190
Double-Wedge Aerofoils, AERO W.S.00.03.04
Flaps
see
Flaps
Interference
Jet/flap Interference
Flat Plates Inclined or Normal to Flow
circular, 70015
elliptical or semi-elliptical, 70015
rectangular or square, 70015
triangular, 70015
Forebody-Cylinders With Boat-Tailing
incidences to 90? and Mach numbers to 5, 87033, 89014, 90034
Forebody-Cylinders Without Boat-Tailing
incidences to 90? and Mach numbers to 5, 89014, 90034
Sharp-Edged Delta, Cropped Delta and Rectangular Wings of Low Aspect Ratio
in combination with axisymmetric body in supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 92043
isolated in supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 90013
Similarity Laws at Subsonic or Supersonic Speeds
applied to coefficient in axisymmetric flow, 97025
Similarity Laws at Subsonic, Supersonic or Transonic Speeds
applied to coefficient in two- or three-dimensional flow, 97025
Single or Contra-Rotating Propellers at Low Forward Speeds
due to local angle of sideslip, 89047
Slender Wings
increment due to ground effect, 71007
in free air, 71006
Wing-Fuselage Combination at Zero Lift
estimation for cambered and twisted wings and approximately circular-section fuselage, 89042
Wings
increment due to split flaps with trailing-edge forward of swept wing trailing edge, AERO F.08.01.02
increment due to split flaps with trailing-edge forward of unswept wing trailing edge, AERO F.08.01.01
Wings at Angle of Attack
all high-lift devices, 03017
Wings at Zero Angle of Attack With Full- or Part-Span Flaps
effect of drooped leading-edge, slats or sealed slats, 00029, 01013
effect of Kruger, vented or unvented, 00029, 01013
Wings at Zero Angle of Attack With Full- or Part-Span Leading-Edge High-Lift Devices
effect of double-slotted flaps, 01013, 99014
effect of leading-edge high-lift devices alone, 00029, 01013
effect of plain flaps, 01013, 98017
effect of single-slotted flaps, 01013, 99004
effect of split flaps, 01013, 98009
effect of triple-slotted flaps, 01013, 99014
Wings at Zero-Lift
effect of Mach number, 87001
effect of spanwise camber variation and twist, 87001
Wings With Camber and Twist
program for spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
Wings With Camber, Twist and With Plain Leading- and/or Trailing-Edge Flaps Deflected
program for spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
Pitching-moment-curve Slope (MW or Cmα)
see also
Pitch-break (Pitch-up or Pitch-down)
Aerofoils
prediction of initial non-linearity, 88030
Forebody-Cylinders With Boat-Tailing
zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 87033, 89008
Forebody-Cylinders Without Boat-Tailing
zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
Wings
prediction of initial non-linearity, 88030
Wings or Wing-Body Combinations
effect on pitch-break characteristics, 01005
Pitching Moment Due To Acceleration in Heave (Mw dot or CMα dot)
Contribution Due to Tailplane at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
Forebody-Cylinders at Low Incidence and Supersonic Speeds
with or without boat-tailing or fins, 91004
Pitching Moment Due To Pitching (Mq or Cmq)
Contribution Due to Body at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
Contribution Due to Tailplane at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
Contribution Due to Wing at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
Contribution Due to Wing at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.08.03.02
Effect of Wing/Body Interference at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
Forebody-Cylinders at Low Incidence and Supersonic Speeds
with or without boat-tailing or fins, 91004
Pitot Intakes
see
Intakes
Spillage Drag
Pitot Pressure
see also
Anemometric Data Correction
Definition, 69026
Equations and Graphs for Variation With Calibrated Airspeed and Mach Number, 69026
Pitot Probes
see also
Pitot-static Probes
Measurement of Airspeed and Mach Number
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Position (Pressure) Error, 83029, 85036, 86006
sources of, 86006
typical values due to local flow incidence, 86006
Typical Flow Measurement Errors, 85011
Pitot-static Probes
see also
Impact Pressure
Pitot Probes
Static Pressure Sensors
Graphs of Total/Static Pressure Ratio in Supersonic Flow, AERO S.00.03.15
Pivots
see
Dry Rubbing Bearings
Flexure-pivots
Linkages
Plain Flaps
see also
Downwash
Flaps
Hinge Moment
Interference
Leading-edge High-lift Devices
Drag Increment Due to Chordwise and Spanwise Sealed or Unsealed Gaps
undeflected at low speeds, 92039
Effect of Deflection in Subsonic Flow of Leading- and/or Trailing-Edge
on wing loading distribution, 95010
Effect of Deflection in Subsonic or Transonic Two-Dimensional Flow
on drag, hinge and pitching moments, lift and pressure distribution, 01033
on drag, lift, pitching moment and pressure distribution, 96028, 96029
on shock-induced separation, 97030
Effect on Maximum Lift of Wings, 91014
Introduction to Data Items on Effect of High-Lift Devices on Drag and Lift, 97002
Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils at Zero Angle of Attack
alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94026, 94027, 94028
Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Wings at Zero Angle of Attack
alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 96032, 97002, 97011
Maximum-Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils
alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94026, 94027, 94028
Maximum-Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Wings, 91014
with leading-edge high-lift devices, 92031
Normal Force, AERO F.05.01.01
Pitching Moment Increment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils and Wings
alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 98017
Profile Drag Increment Due to Deployment on Wings, 06014, 87024, AERO F.02.01.07
Trailing Vortex Drag Increment Due to Deployment on Cambered and Twisted or Plane Wings
program for estimation for any flap and wing geometry, 01007
tabulated values for selected flap and wing geometries, 01007
Planar Shapes and Sections With/without Holes
Program for Calculation of Area, Moments of Area and Principal Axes, 02007, TM 119
Plane Strain
Conditions for, 80036
Definition, 72013, 80036
Plane Stress
Conditions for, 80036
Definition, 72013, 80036
Plane-walled Diffusers with Single-plane Expansion
see also
Diffusers
Flow Regimes for Turbulent or Laminar Entry Flow, 74015
Geometrical Relationships, 74015
Methods of Improving Performance, 87015
Optimum Geometry for Maximum Pressure Recovery, 74015
Static Pressure Recovery
aspect ratio effects, 74015
asymmetry effects, 74015
geometry effects, 74015
inlet boundary layer effects, 74015
inlet turbulence effects, 74015
roughness effects, 74015
tailpipe effects, 74015
Total Pressure Loss
derivation from static pressure recovery, 74015
with tailpipe, 74015
Planing of Aircraft Tyres
Accumulation of rainfall on runway surfaces, 19005
Parameters that effect planing
effect of runway surface macro-texture depth on planing speed, 15003, 15009
effect of tyre diameter on planing speed, 15003, 15009
effect of tyre inflation pressure on planing speed, 15003, 15009
effect of tyre width on planing speed, 15003, 15009
effect of water depth on planing speed, 15003, 15009
Partial Planing Speed, Complete Planing Speed, 15003
Plant Design
see
Combined Heat and Power Systems
Process Integration
Water Conservation in Process Plants
Plasticity
see
Aluminium Alloys
Beams in General
Beams of Angle Section
Beams of Any Hollow or Solid Polygonal Section
Beams of Channel Section
Beams of Circular Section
Beams of I-section
Beams of Rectangular Tubular Section
Beams of T-section
Beams of Unlipped Z-section
Bonded Double- or Single-lap Joints
Bonded Double-lap Joints
Bonded Single-lap Joints
Corrugated Plates
Crack Propagation
Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
Flange Buckling
Flat Panels with Flanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Lipped or Unlipped Z-section Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Top-hat Section Stiffeners
Flat Panels with T-section Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Unflanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Unlipped Z-section Stiffeners
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Corrugated Cores)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Isotropic Cores)
Flat Strips of Isotropic Materials
Materials Properties
Steels
Stress Concentration
Stress Intensity Factors
Stress-strain Curves
Struts in General
Struts of Channel Section
Struts of I-section
Struts of Lipped or Unlipped Z-section
Struts of Tubular Section
Plastics
see also
Roughness
Use as Cam Materials
see
Cams
Use as Dry Rubbing Bearing Materials
see
Dry Rubbing Bearings
Use as Seal Materials
see
Reciprocating Seals
Plate-fin Heat Exchangers
see also
Heat Exchangers
Approximate Design of Multi-Stream Using Process Integration, 97006
worked example comparing with use of a network of exchangers, 97006
Cost Assessment Method Based on Active Volume Alone Using Volumetric Heat Transfer Coefficients
film volumetric heat transfer coefficient for various fluids for use in calculation, 97006
multi-stream up to six streams, 97006
Detailed Cost Data for Various Fluids as Function of Heat Load for Two-Stream Exchangers, 97006
effect of change from aluminium to stainless steel, 97006
effect of pressure, 97006
effect of single- or two-phase fluids, 97006
use in selection of heat exchanger type for given duty, 92013
Typical Applications With Approximate Pressure and Temperature Ranges, 97006
Typical Construction Details and Materials, 97006
Plate Heat Exchangers (Gasketed or Welded)
see also
Heat Exchangers
Detailed Cost Data for Various Fluids as Function of Heat Load and Operating Pressure, 95007
comparison with shell-and-tube for comparable duty, 95007
effect of changing from gasketed to semi welded, 95007
effect of plate material and operating pressure, 95007
effect of single- or two-phase fluids, 95007
use in selection of heat exchanger type for given duty, 92013
Thermal Effectiveness - NTU Method for Design and Performance Rating
charts of thermal effectiveness in co- or counter-current flow, 98005
effect of even or odd number of thermal plates, 98004, 98005
maximum heat transfer effectiveness, 98005
Plates
Aerodynamic and Flow Characteristics
see
Boundary Layer
Boundary Walls and Fences
Centre of Pressure
Hoardings (Elevated Above Ground Level)
Normal Force
Orifices
Perforated Plates
Pressure Distribution
Skin Friction Drag
Wave Drag
Endurance Under Acoustic Loading
see
Integrally-machined Panels
Heat Transfer
see
Equilibrium Surface Temperature
Flat Rectangular Heated Plates
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Free Convection Heat Transfer
Radiation Heat Transfer
Orifice
see
Orifices
Perforated
see
Perforated Plates
Stress Analysis
see also
Corner Section in Specially-orthotropic Plates
Corrugated Plates
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Curved Square Plates
Flat Circular Plates
Flat Panels in General
Flat Parallelogram Panels
Flat Parallelogram Plates
Flat Plates Tapered in Plan
Flat Rectangular Heated Plates
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Rectangular Plates Tapered in Thickness
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Corrugated Cores)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Truss Cores)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Flat Square Plates
Flat Square Plates with Central Circular Hole
Flat Square Plates with Central Flanged Circular Hole
Flat Strips of Isotropic Materials
Flat Strips of Orthotropic Materials
Flat Triangular Plates
Flat Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Laminated Construction Using Composites
Stresses At Free Edges
Stress Concentration Data
see
Adjacent Circular Holes in Flat Plates
Circular Holes in Bars or Strips
Circular Holes in Flat Plates
Circular Holes in Orthotropic Plates
Countersunk Holes
Elliptical Holes in Flat Plates
Fillets in Bars or Strips
Notches with Flat Bottoms in Bars or Strips
Notches with Flat Bottoms in Edge of Plate
Rectangular Holes in Flat Plates
Reinforced Circular Holes in Flat Plates
Reinforced Circular Holes Near Edge of Flat Plates
Reinforced Elliptical Holes in Flat Plates
Reinforced Square Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
Reinforced Triangular Holes in Flat Plates
Slots in Bars or Strips
Square Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
Stress Concentration
Triangular Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
U-notches in Bars or Strips
U-notches in Edge of Plate
Stress Intensity Factors
see
Stress Intensity Factors
Stress Response to Acoustic Loading
see
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Panels in General
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Vibration
see
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Curved Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Flat Panels in General
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Flat Square Plates
Flat Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Noise
Response of Lightweight Structures
Plate Viscometer
see
Viscometers
Plating
see
Cadmium Plating
Chromium Plating
Cladding
Nickel Plating
Roughness
Wear Resistant Surface Coatings and Treatments
Zinc Plating
Platinum Resistance Thermometers
see also
Temperature Measurement
Advantages and Limitations, 02006, 06019
Calibration and Hysteresis Effects, 06019
Cost Relative to That of Other Temperature Measuring Techniques, 02006
Methods of Measuring Resistance, 06019
Possible Circuits, 06019
Resistance/Temperature Relationships, 02006, 06019
Response Times, 02006, 06019
Self-Heating Effects, 06019
Use in Measuring Bulk or Surface Temperature, 06019
Various Types of Designs Available, 02006, 06019
accuracy and temperature range, 02006, 06019
dimensions, 06019
Plies
see
Laminated Construction Using Composites
Plug Flow
see
Condensing Flow in Pipes
Two-phase (Gas- or Vapour-liquid) Flow
Plug Valves
Pressure Drop Across in Single-Phase Flow, 69022, 89012
Pressure Drop Across in Two-Phase Gas- or Vapour-Liquid Flow, 89012
Point Estimates
Statistics
definition, 91041, 92040
Poisson's Ratio
see also
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Steels
Steels
Titanium Alloys
Estimated Values for Metallic Materials in Inelastic Region, 76016, 89052
Values for Various Ceramic, Metallic and Polymer Materials, 78035, 84041, 85027, 96002
Values for Various Metallic and Polymer Materials, 94017
Values for Various Piping Materials, 83046
Polishing
Effect on Fatigue Strength of Shot Peened Aluminium Alloys, 92015
Resulting Surface Roughness for Steels and Effect on Fatigue Limit, 74027
Surface Wear of Cam/Follower, 94017
Polyglycols
see
Lubricants
Polymers
Comparison of Physical Properties With Those of Ceramics and Metals, 84041
Density, 84041
Melting or Softening Temperature, 84041
Poisson's Ratio, 78035, 84041, 85027, 94017, 96002
Selection and Use for Dry Rubbing Bearings
see
Dry Rubbing Bearings
Thermal Conductivity and Expansion, and Specific Heat Capacity, 84041
Use as Material to Provide Additional Structural Damping, 91012
effects of frequency and temperature on loss factor and modulus, 91012, 92001
variation of loss factor and modulus with frequency and temperature for specific, 92001
Young's Modulus, 78035, 84041, 85027, 94017, 96002
Polynomials
see
Cams
Curve Fitting
Polyol Esters
see
Lubricants
Polyphenyl Ethers
see
Lubricants
Poppet-type Valves
Pressure Drop Across, 69022
Porosity
see also
Acoustic Absorption Coefficient
Acoustic Impedance
Internal Pressure
Perforated Plates
Spoilers
Effect on Insulating Properties of Refractories
see
Refractory Lining Materials
Effect on Mean Forces and Moments Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
paraboloidal antennas, 82031
Effect on Shelter From Wind Provided by Fences
see
Boundary Walls and Fences
Round-Wire Gauzes, 72009
Porous Metal Bearings
see also
Self-contained Bearing Assemblies
Guidance on Typical Values of Friction Coefficient, 89044
Journal Type
guide to applications, 65007
Thrust Type
guide to applications, 67033
Position Error
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Post Buckling
see
Flat Panels in General
Post Dry-out Heat Transfer
see
Boiling Flow in Pipes
Post-exit Thrust
Thrust-drag Accounting From Flight Test Data, 16003
Turbo-Jet Engines
definition, 69006
Potassium/sodium Eutectic Solution
see
Sodium/potassium Eutectic Solution
Potential Flow Equation
Solution by Finite Difference Techniques
aerofoils in subsonic and transonic flow, 79009
Pour Point
Definition, 71003
Power
Aircraft
conditions for minimum, 81026
estimation of effect of small changes on level speed, 86004
estimation of effect of small changes on rate of climb, 94039
Turbine Helicopters
performance analysis to obtain requirement for hover, 73027
performance analysis to obtain requirement for level speed, 74042
Power Law Body
Planform Area and Its Centroid, 77028
Surface Area and Volume, Nose or Tail Angle or Radius of Curvature, 77028
Power Spectral Analysis
see
Random Processes
Power Spectral Density Function
Bandwidth Correction, 17011
Definition, 17011
Relation to Spectrum Level, 17011
Prandtl
Friction Law for Hydraulically-Smooth Pipes, 66027
Prandtl-glauert Compressibility Factor
Velocity Distribution on Aerofoils, 72025
Prandtl-meyer Expansion
see
Simple-wave Flow
Prandtl Number

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