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Earthquake Effects on Structures
Mechanical Vibration Characteristics for Use in Calculating Response
see
Buildings
Eddy Current
Use in Non-Destructive Examination for Flaws, 91027
Use in Temperature Measurement
see
Temperature Measurement
Edge Effects on Strains or Stresses
see also
Stresses At Free Edges
Rectangular Sandwich Panel With Bevelled Edge Subjected to Acoustic Loading
surface strain ratio at centre of faceplates, 95026
surface strains at mid-point of longer side, 95026
Effective Roughness Height
see
Roughness
Efflux
see also
Jet Mixing
Jet Noise
Jet/flap Interference
Compressible Flow Equations and Curves
see
One-dimensional Flow
Eigenvector
see
Modes
Ejectors
Design and Performance Prediction of Gas
one-dimensional equations for dissimilar (or identical) primary and secondary flows, 92042
program for basic dimensions with air primary and secondary flows, 92042
program to calculate flow conditions throughout given ejector, 92042
program to optimise design for dissimilar (or identical) primary and secondary flows, 92042
recommendations for design of contraction (or diffuser), 92042
recommendations for design of mixing duct, 92042
recommendations for design of primary and secondary nozzles, 92042
Design and Performance Prediction of Liquid
cavitation limit, 85032
definition of shut-off, 85032
geometric considerations, 85032
losses in mixing duct, 85032
losses in primary and secondary nozzles, 85032
mechanical considerations, 85032
off-design behaviour, 85032
one-dimensional equations for dissimilar (or identical) miscible primary and secondary flows, 93022
optimum area ratio for central primary nozzle, 85032
program to calculate flow conditions throughout given ejector, 93022
program to optimise design for dissimilar (or identical) primary and secondary flows, 93022
step-by-step procedure and flowchart, 85032
typical characteristic and efficiency curves, 85032
use of annular- or multi-nozzle arrangements, 85032
use of approximate design method, 85032
Design and Performance Prediction of Steam/Gas
considerations in shut-down and start-up, 86030, 94046
design method to obtain optimum using charts, 86030
geometric considerations, 86030, 94046
instability, 86030, 94046
mechanical considerations, 86030, 94046
noise and vibration considerations, 86030, 94046
one-dimensional equations for primary and secondary flows, 94046
program to calculate flow conditions throughout given ejector, 94046
program to optimise design, 94046
shut-off limits, 86030, 94046
steam supply conditions and vapour freezing, 86030
typical operating characteristic, 86030, 94046
use in multi-stages, 86030, 94046
use of annular- or multi-nozzle arrangements, 86030, 94046
Design and Performance Prediction of Steam/Liquid
cavitation limit, 86030
considerations in shut-down and start-up, 86030
design method to obtain optimum using charts, 86030
geometric considerations, 86030
instability, 86030
mechanical considerations, 86030
noise and vibration considerations, 86030
off-design behaviour, 86030
shut-off limits, 86030
steam supply conditions and vapour freezing, 86030
typical operating characteristic, 86030
use in multi-stages, 86030
use of annular- or multi-nozzle arrangements, 86030
vapour binding limit, 86030
One-Dimensional Flow Theory, 85032, 86030, 92042
Practical Applications, 85032, 86030
Elastic Moduli
see also
Adhesives for Bonded Joints
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Damping
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Steels
Secant Modulus
Steels
Tangent Modulus
Titanium Alloys
Effective Values for Components in Contact, 85027, 89045, 94017
Values for Various Ceramic Materials, 78035, 84041, 85027
Values for Various Metallic and Polymer Materials, 78035, 84041, 85027, 94017, 96002
Values for Various Piping Materials, 83046, 87027
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
see also
Cams
Acceptable Values of Film Thickness
cams and gears, 85027, 89045
rolling bearings, 85027, 89045
Determination of Film Thickness in Three-Dimensional (or Point) Contact, 89045, 91038
Determination of Film Thickness in Two-Dimensional (or Line) Contact, 85027, 91037
typical minimum values, 85027
Effect of Film Thickness/Surface Roughness on Fatigue Life, 85027
Regions of Lubrication, 85027, 94017
Typical Surface Finish Roughness
gears, 85027, 89045
rolling bearings, 85027, 89045
Elastomers
Use as Material to Provide Additional Structural Damping, 91012
effects of frequency and temperature on loss factor and modulus, 91012, 92001
variation of loss factor and modulus with frequency and temperature for specific, 92001
Elbows
Stress Analysis
see
Pipe Bends (unrestrained)
Pipe Bends (with End Flanges)
Pipe Bends (with Straight Pipe Attachments)
With Internal Flow
see also
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Noise in Air-conditioning Duct Systems
Pipes with Internal Flow
Pressure Drop in Gas- or Vapour-liquid Internal Flow
Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
design information for guide vanes, 83037
Electrical Conductivity
Values for Various Metallic Materials
aluminium, copper, magnesium and titanium alloys, and nickel steels and steels 00932 (MMDH)
Electrical Permittivity
see
Temperature Measurement
Electric Generators
DC Used in Servomechanisms
basic mathematical representation and transfer functions, 85026
Electric Motors
AC or DC Used in Servomechanisms
basic mathematical representation and transfer functions, 85026
For Use With Fans and Pumps
see
Fans (Incompressible Flow)
Electron Beam Transformation
Surface Treatments of Steels to Improve Fatigue Strength
advantages and limitations, 89031
comparison with other possible surface treatments, 89031
Elevator
see
Controls (Aerodynamic)
Controls (Gap Sealed)
Controls (with Gap)
Hinge Moment
Trim
Ellipsoidal-nosed Cowls
Geometric Parameters, 84004
Spillage Drag
prediction of onset, 84004
variation with geometry and incidence, 84004
variation with Mach number, 84004
Ellipsoidal-nosed Cylinders
see also
Boat-tailing
Bodies of Revolution
Forebody
Centre of Pressure, Normal Force and Pitching Moment
incidences to 90? and Mach numbers to 5, 89014, 90034
Lift Distribution and Pitching Moment
oscillating in bending, heave or pitch, 83010
Normal-Force-Curve and Pitching-Moment-Curve Slopes
zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
Pitching Moment Derivatives Due to Rate of Pitch and Acceleration in Heave
low incidence and supersonic speeds, with or without boat-tailing and fins, 91004
Planform Area and Its Centroid, 77028
Sideforce at Mach Numbers Below 1.2 and Incidences Above 20?
discussion of sources, 89014
effect of Mach number and Reynolds number, 89014
effect of nose blunting, 89014
envelope of overall maximum with crossflow Mach number, 89014
typical axial distribution, 89014
Surface Area, Volume, and Nose or Tail Radius of Curvature, 77028
Elliptical Cross-section Afterbody
Wave Drag on Truncated Conical or Parabolic-Arc
effect of Mach number and geometry, AERO B.S.02.03.02
Elliptical Cross-section Cylinders
Dynamic Response to Excitation
see
Response of Lightweight Structures
Single Cylinder Normal to Flow
see
Centre of Pressure
Critical Conditions in Fluid Flow
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Profile Drag
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Sideforce
Stress Analysis
see
Cylinders of Elliptical Section
Elliptical Cross-section Forebody
Wave Drag on Ducted Conical or Parabolic-Arc
effect of Mach number and geometry, AERO B.S.02.03.02
Elliptical Frames
Introduction to Stress Analysis, STRUCT 03.06.00
Under Internal Pressure
bending moment, STRUCT 03.06.05
Elliptical Holes in Flat Plates
see also
Reinforced Elliptical Holes in Flat Plates
All In-Plane Loadings
stress concentration factors, 80027
Biaxial Loading
stress concentration factors for circular and optimised shape holes in large plates, 15005
stress decay from hole edge transverse to loading directions, 85045
Uniaxial Loading
stress concentration factors for circular and optimised shape holes in large plates, 15005
stress decay from hole edge transverse to loading direction, 85045
Elliptical Plates
see also
Flat Plates
Inclined to Flow
centre of pressure, 70015
normal force, 70015
Normal to Flow
interference effects between pair, 70015
normal force, 70015
Emission Spectroscopy
Use in Temperature Measurement
see
Temperature Measurement
Emissivity
see
Thermal Emissivity
Empennage
see
Fins
Tails
Endoscopy
Use in Non-Destructive Examination for Flaws, 91027
End Plate Effect
see
Lift-curve Slope
Sideforce Due To Sideslip (Yv or Cy β)
Endurance (Fatigue Life)
see also
Aluminium Alloys
Anodising
Austenitic Stainless Steels
Bolted Butt Joints with Cover Plates in Steels
Bolted Double Lap Joints in Steels
Bolted Doublers on Both Sides of Plate in Steels
Bolted Joints
Bonded Double-strap Joints in Clad Aluminium Alloys
Bonded Single-lap Joints in Clad Aluminium Alloys
Cams
Chromium Plating
Composite Structures
Contact Phenomena
Crack Propagation
Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
Disc Springs
Double Lock Nuts
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
Fretting Fatigue
High Tensile Low Alloy Steels
High-load Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Integrally-machined Panels
Joints
Low Tensile Low Alloy Steels
Low-load Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Lugs (Fatigue Strength)
Lugs (Static Strength)
Lugs (Stress Concentration Factors)
Lugs (Stress Intensity Factors)
Maraging Steels
Martensitic Stainless Steels
Medium-load Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Nuts
Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
Riveted Lap Joints in Aluminium Alloy Sheets
Rolling Bearings
Screw Threads
Shafts with Interference-fit Collars
Shafts with Keyways
Shot Peening
Skin-rib Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Skin-rib Joints in Titanium Alloys
Splined Steel Shaft Assemblies
Steels
Studs
Titanium Alloy (Ti-4Al-4Mo-2Sn-0.5Si)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-5Al-2.5Sn)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn)
Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series
Welded Attachments in Aluminium Alloys
Welded Cover Plates on Steel I-beams
Welded Joints in Steels
Welded Longitudinal Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Welded Longitudinal Joints in Steels Under Axial Loading
Welded Stiffening Gussets on Steel I-beams
Welded Tee Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Welded Transverse Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Welded Transverse Joints in Steels Under Axial Loading
Welded Transverse Joints in Steels Under Bending
Considerations in Improving
attention to surface condition, 71009, 75022
reduction of stress concentration, 71009, 75022
reduction of stress range, 71009, 75022
Fatigue Under Constant Amplitude Loading
calculation of stresses for finite life, 76014
calculation of stresses for infinite life, 75022
definition, 70016
Fatigue Under Variable Amplitude Loading
see
Fatigue Under Variable Amplitude Loading
Size (Scale) Effect With or Without Stress Gradient, 87016
Surface Treatments of Steels to Improve
advantages and limitations of various, 89031
guidance on selection, 89031
mechanical, 89031
method by which residual stresses are induced, 89031
thermal, 89031
thermochemical, 89031
Endurance (Flight Time)
see also
Specific Endurance
Effects of Wind on Optimum Cruise, 73018
Introduction to Estimation, 73018, 80026
Piston-Engine Aircraft
estimation of time (range, fuel) lost due to climb and descent, 77015
Turbo-Fan and Turbo-Jet Aircraft
correction of level flight data to cruise-climb, 73019
estimation for cruise-climb, 73019
estimation for various cruise flight conditions, 73019
estimation of stage time (length, fuel), 73019, 74018, 74041
estimation of time (range, fuel) lost due to climb and descent, 74018
example of calculation of stage time, 74041
Turbo-Prop Aircraft
estimation of time (range, fuel) lost due to climb and descent, 77015
Energy Control
In Chemical Process Plants
see
Process Integration
Energy Height
see also
Flight Path Optimisation
Relationship With Specific Excess Power, 70023, 78038, 80026, 80032
Engine Oils
Classification by Viscosity, 68036
Typical Values of Density, 71003
Typical Values of Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity, 71003
Engines (in Aircraft)
see also
Aircraft Piston Engines
Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Turbo-prop Engines
Engine station designations and definitions, 15001
Failure
see
Abandoned Take-off
Asymmetric Flight
Inoperative Engine
Spillage Drag
Thrust of Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Windmilling Engines
Windmilling Propellers
Noise
see
Jet Noise
Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Turbomachinery Noise
Rundown
see
Thrust of Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Engines (in Process Plants)
see
Diesel Engines
Gas Turbines
Steam Turbines
Engler Degrees
Measurement of Viscosity, 68036, 81002
Enlargement of Ducts
see
Annular Diffusers
Conical Diffusers
Diffusers
Plane-walled Diffusers with Single-plane Expansion
Sudden Expansions in Ducts
Enstaff
see
Standard Fatigue Loading Sequences
Enthalpy
see
Air
Entrainment
see
Jet Mixing
Entrance Region
see
Falling Film Evaporation
Sudden Contractions in Ducts
Thermal Entrance Region
Environment
see also
Atmosphere
Fatigue Loading
Fouling in Combustion Plant
Fouling in Cooling Water Systems
Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
Gravitational Acceleration
Sea Water
Solar Heating
Turbulence
Turbulence Near Ground
Water Conservation in Process Plants
Wind Speed
Effect of Various on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate
aluminium alloy forgings, plate and sheet, 88007
aluminium-lithium alloy plate and sheet, 91015
high tensile low alloy steels, 93033
titanium and titanium alloy plate and sheet, 90028
Effect of Various on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate (Short Cracks)
high tensile low alloy steels, 93033
Fatigue Strength of Transverse Welds in Aluminium Alloys
in salt water, either shot peened or untreated, 92015
Epicyclic Gear Train
Definition of Fixed Carrier Ratio, 83021
Design for Assemblability, 83021
Determination of Degrees of Freedom, 83021
Efficiency Loss Due to Tooth Meshing, 83021
Kinematic Calculation Methods With Worked Examples, 83021
Power Flow Determination, 83021
Reversibility, 83021
Selection of Number of Planets, 83021
Single Carrier Train
graphs of achievable ratio and efficiency for 34 configurations, 83021
Equations of Motion
see also
Differential Equations
Newton's Laws of Motion
Parameter Identification
Asymmetric Flight, 88006
expressions for asymmetric thrust, lift/drag or mass, 88006
simplifications for equilibrium flight conditions, 88006
steady level sideslipping, turning or with failed engine, 01010
Derivation for Rigid Body in Terms of Moving Axes, 78038
Equilibrium for Flexible Aircraft in Quasi-Steady Symmetric Manoeuvres
using normal modes, 99033
using orthogonal modes and assuming rigid fuselage, 97032
For Response of Building or Structure
in terms of mode-generalised parameters, 77032, 83009, 91001
Introduction to Use in Aircraft Performance Estimation, 80026
Rapid Rolling Manoeuvre, 67006
Relationships Between Rates of Change of Attitude Angles and Aircraft Acceleration and Velocity
using Euler angles or quaternion representation of attitude, 98024
Representation of Aircraft Drag by Simple Laws
parabolic either with minimum at zero or at finite lift, 81026
Rigid Aircraft, 67003, 78038, 83024, 85029, 86021
characteristics of roots, 86021
separation into lateral and longitudinal motion sets, 86021
simplifications, 86021
state-space solution, 86021
with vectored-jet-thrust, 87037
Simplified Forms for Use in Aircraft Performance Work, 80032
application in flight path optimisation, 89015
assumptions applied and consequential simplifications, 80032
effect of assuming parabolic drag law, 80032
instantaneous rate of climb for jet- or propeller-powered aircraft, 92019
Use in Analysis of Flight-Measured Performance Data, 79018
Equiangular Strain Gauge Rosette
Analysis of Data, 72014
Equilibrium Surface Temperature
Estimation Under Aerodynamic Heating and Radiation Heat Transfer
cones and wedges with laminar or turbulent boundary layer, 69012
cylinders and flat plates with laminar or turbulent boundary layer, 69012
solar heating contribution, 69015
General Discussion, 69009, 89022
Equivalent Airspeed
Program to Convert Values to Other Airspeed Definitions
Acceleration Experienced in Climb at Constant, 81046
values in Standard and Off-Standard atmospheres, 81046
Any Atmosphere
variation with altitude and Mach number (speed in kn), 69026, 78017
variation with altitude and Mach number (speed in m/s), 78017
Definition, 69026, 86031
Equations for Relationship With Calibrated Airspeed, 69026
International Standard Atmosphere - 0.5 to 32 km
variation with altitude, Mach number and true airspeed (m/s), 78017
International Standard Atmosphere - 2 000 to 65 000 ft
variation with altitude, Mach number and true airspeed (kn), 78017
Measurement in Flight
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Program to Convert Values to Other Airspeed Definitions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Scale-Altitude Correction, 69026
Equivalent Sand Roughness
see
Roughness
Equivalent Wing Geometry
see also
Aerodynamic Mean Chord
Geometric Mean Chord
Standard Mean Chord
Geometric Construction, 76003
Program to Calculate Wing Geometry, 10023
Ergodic Process
Definition, 77032, 83041
Euler Code
Use With Multivariate Gradient Search Program
for optimum aerofoil geometry design, 00023, 01024, 99019
Evaporating Flow in Pipes
see
Boiling Flow in Pipes
Falling Film Evaporation
Pressure Drop in Gas- or Vapour-liquid Internal Flow
Two-phase (Gas- or Vapour-liquid) Flow
Excess Thrust
Definitions Used in UK and US for Propeller Installations
discussion and derivation of expressions for, 85017
Excrescences
see also
Cavities
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Intakes
Magnification of Excrescence Drag By Pressure Gradient
Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Vane Vortex Generators
Vortex Generators
Approximate Variation of Contribution to Airframe Drag With Altitude and Mach Number, 94044
Checklist of Excrescences on Wide Range of Aircraft, 94044
Discussion of Effect of Control or Flap Gaps on Wing Aerodynamic Characteristics, 92039
Discussion of Effect on Drag of Mismatch of Control or Flap and Wing Profiles, 92039
Discussion of Significance of Contribution to Overall Aircraft Drag, 90029
Drag Increment Due to
discussion of effect when located upstream of shock on lifting surface, 87004
Drag Increment Due to Chordwise and Spanwise Gaps
sealed or unsealed round undeflected controls or flaps at low speeds, 92039
Effect of Small Changes on Second-Segment Climb Schedule
example of use of statistical analysis applied to measured data, 93023
Guidance on Contribution to Aircraft Drag From Manufacturing Imperfections, 94044
Guidance on Contribution to Aircraft Drag From Various Features
air-conditioning system, 94044
air-data system, 94044
antennas, 94044
auxiliary power unit, 94044
beacons and lights, 94044
control surface imperfections, 93032, 94044
cooling/ventilation system, 94044
fuel system, 94044
rain dispersal systems (drains, gutters and windscreen wipers, etc), 94044
static discharge wicks, 94044
Guidance on Drag Improvement Possible by Airframe Clean-Up, 94044
Guidance on Overall Contribution to Aircraft Drag as Function of Wetted Area, 94044
Interpretation of Wind-Tunnel Drag Data Measured for Isolated on Tunnel Wall, 90029
Introduction to Use of Data Items on Profile Drag Increment Due to Various Types, 90029
Method to Calculate Momentum Thickness Increase Due to Transition Trip Using Sparsely Distributed Ballotini, 13013
Profile Drag Increment Due to Isolated on Flat Plate at Subsonic and Supersonic Speeds
circular cavities in turbulent boundary layer, 74036
circular-section cylinders in turbulent boundary layer, 83025
fairings with height comparable to turbulent boundary layer thickness, 84035
fins with height comparable to turbulent boundary layer thickness, 84035
forward facing steps (plain, chamfered or radiused) in turbulent boundary layer, 75031
rearward facing steps (plain, chamfered or radiused) in turbulent boundary layer, 75031
rectangular cavities in turbulent boundary layer, 79015
rectangular cavities in turbulent boundary layer with closed flow, 00006
rectangular cavities in turbulent boundary layer with open or transitional flow, 00007
rectangular-section grooves aligned, inclined or normal to turbulent boundary layer, 75028
rectangular-section ridges (plain or radiused) in turbulent boundary layer, 75031
spherically-headed rivets (individual) in turbulent boundary layer, 76008
spherically-headed rivets (in single or staggered rows) in turbulent boundary layer, 76008
square-section ridges (plain) in turbulent boundary layer, 75031
Turbulent Boundary-Layer Profiles
The estimation of turbulent boundary layer power-law velocity and q profiles from shape factor and momentum thickness, 18009
Use of Data for Isolated on Flat Plate
examples for typical excrescences on a transport aircraft wing, 93032
in aircraft situation, 90029
Exfoliation Corrosion Resistance
see
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Steels
Steels
Titanium Alloys
Expansion
see
Thermal Expansion
Expansions in Ducts
see
Annular Diffusers
Conical Diffusers
Diffusers
Plane-walled Diffusers with Single-plane Expansion
Sudden Expansions in Ducts
Expansion Waves
see
Simple-wave Flow
Extreme-value Distribution
Use in Analysis and Prediction of Extreme Wind Speeds, 87034
Extreme Wind Speeds
Analysis of Records to Obtain Design Maxima With Known Confidence
example using data for more than one storm mechanism, 88037
example using maximum records from individual storms, 88037
interpretation of records from mixed meteorological sources, 87034
methods of correcting for height and terrain, 87034
Monte-Carlo methods, 87034
use of extreme-value analysis (Gumbel and Lieblein), 87034
Deduction From Records of Hours of Wind Exceeding Specific Values, 88038
example of use, 88037
Discussion of Meteorological Phenomena Leading to
depressions, thunderstorms, tornadoes, tropical storms, 87034
Eyes
With Clearance-Fit Pin Under Axial Loading
stress concentration data, 81006

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