ESDU A-Z Index: LIG-LZ

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Lightening Holes
Effect on Buckling in Shear of Square Plates
see
Flat Square Plates with Central Circular Hole
Flat Square Plates with Central Flanged Circular Hole
Lighthill
Body Profile Shape
surface area and volume, planform area and its centroid, and nose or tail angle, 77028
Method for Aerofoil Design, 99003
Limit Cycles
Non-Linear Systems
use of describing functions to predict, 84009
Linearised Aerodynamic Theory
Supersonic Flow, 70012, 82020, AERO B.S.02.03.01, AERO W.S.00.03.03
Unsteady Aerodynamics, 82020
Linear Regression
see
Regression
Linear Systems
see also
Control Systems
Damping
Dynamic Stability
Application of Discrete or Continuous Forms of Kalman Filter
measurement noise elimination from randomly-excited first-order, 88039
multi-dimensional for randomly-excited multi-state, 88039
Measures of Frequency Response
crossover frequency, frequency range, stability margins and resonance, 80002
Measures of Performance
for steady-state or transient response, 80002
performance indices, 80002
Modes of Response and Determination of Dominant Mode, 80002
Parameter Identification From Frequency Response Measurements, 90006, 93016
determination of initial values from approximation to Nyquist diagram, 90006, 93016
Parameter Identification in Absence of Process Noise
least-squares minimisation including equation- and output-error methods, 87039
maximum likelihood method, 88011
Parameter Identification in Presence of Process Noise
maximum likelihood method, 89032
Response of First- and Second-Order Single Degree of Freedom
graphs for various input functions, 69005
Response of First- and Second-Order Two Degree of Freedom
program to compute for arbitrary input, 82037
Solution by Laplace Transform, 69025
Linkages
see also
Balancing of Linkages
Crank-rocker Mechanisms
Force Balancing of Linkages
Mechanisms Series
Moment Balancing of Linkages
Reduction of Torque Fluctuation in Linkage Drive Shafts
Slider-crank Mechanisms
Calculation of Pin and Link Forces in Multi-Bar Planar
comparison of static, kinetostatic and dynamic methods, 90022
example equations for all classes of four bar mechanisms, 90022
program for all classes of four bar mechanisms, 90022
selection of appropriate method, 90022
Design of Multi-Bar Planar Using OSMEC Program
angular/linear accelerations and velocities, 97026
bearing and driving forces, 97026
cam, piston or trunnion-mounted ram actuated, 97026
design from direct input or by editing provided models, 97026
driving torque, 97026
explanation of modelling procedures, 97026
installation of OSMEC program, 97023
using pivoted or sliding joints, springs and/or gears, 97026
worked examples to illustrate process in practical cases, 98023
Errors in Coupler and Rocker Angles Due to Changes in Link Length, 10019
Four-bar Linkage Analysis Using Constraints Approach, 10019
Library of 43 Multi-Bar Planar Linkage Models Within OSMEC Program
suitable for editing to match user's input/output needs, 97026
Link length tolerances on performance of four-bar linkages, 10019
worked examples crank-rocker linkage and Ackermann steering linkage, 10019
Linseed Oil
Dynamic Viscosity
temperature variation in liquid state, 66024
Kinematic Viscosity
temperature variation in liquid state, 66024
Lipped Channel Sections
see
Beams in General
Beams of Any Hollow or Solid Polygonal Section
Channel Sections with Lips turned inwards
Channel Sections with Lips turned outwards
Struts in General
Struts of Channel Section
Lipped Z-sections
see
Beams in General
Beams of Any Hollow or Solid Polygonal Section
Flat Panels with Lipped or Unlipped Z-section Stiffeners
Struts in General
Struts of Lipped or Unlipped Z-section
Z-sections
Lip Seals
see
Rotary Seals
Liquid Penetrant Test Methods
Use in Non-Destructive Examination for Flaws, 91027
Liquids
Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity
introductory Data Item, 68036
Physical Properties
see
Non-newtonian Fluids
Load Diffusion
see
Flat Panels in General
Loading
see
Acoustic Loading
Aerodynamic Loading
Design
Extreme Wind Speeds
Fatigue Loading
Indicial Aerodynamics
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Standard Fatigue Loading Sequences
Turbulence Near Ground
Wind Speed
Local Buckling
see also
Beams of Sandwich Construction
Corrugated Plates
Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
Faceplate Wrinkling
Flat Panels in General
Flat Panels with Fibre-reinforced Unflanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Flanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Lipped or Unlipped Z-section Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Top-hat Section Stiffeners
Flat Panels with T-section Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Unflanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Unlipped Z-section Stiffeners
Flat Sandwich Panels (Isotropic Cores)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Truss Cores)
Inter-rivet Buckling
Struts in General
Struts of Channel Section
Struts of Lipped or Unlipped Z-section
Struts of Sandwich Construction
Struts of Tubular Section
Sections Composed of Strips, 73007
Location of ESDU Items
Section Number in Aerodynamics Series, 00001
Section Number in Aircraft Noise Series, 00010
Section Number in Mechanisms Series, 00004
Section Number in Performance Series, 99035
Section Number in Structures Series, 00030
Section Number in Transonic Aerodynamics Series, 99034
Section Number in Tribology Series, 00005
Section Number in Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series, 00011
Locking
Bolted Joints
see also
Double Lock Nuts
discussion of various methods, 14001, 14002
illustration of types of locking nuts, 14002
phenomenon of self-loosening, TM 175
unscrewing during shear loading, TM 175
Logarithmic Decrement
Linear Systems
definition, 67038, 73011, 77032, 83009
formula for small damping, 73011, 77032, 83009
Logic Functions
Introduction to Use for Curve Fitting or Data Analysis
with or without a ramp function to represent discontinuous functions, 01011
Longitudinal Force
Wing/Flap/Nacelle Combination Submerged in Propeller Slipstream
estimation for multi-propellers on straight wing, 88031
Longitudinal Stability and Response
see also
Derivatives
Dynamic Stability
Condition for Constant Speed Static Stability for Flexible Aircraft, 96037
relation with elevator manoeuvre margin, 96037
Condition for Overall Static Stability for Flexible Aircraft, 96037
relation with elevator trim margin, 96037
Description of Modes of Longitudinal Motion and Effect of Aircraft Characteristics on Them
phugoid and short-period oscillation, 86021, 92006
Desirable Characteristics of Longitudinal Modes for Good Aircraft Handling Qualities, 92006
Equations of Motion
rigid aircraft, 67003, 86021
separation of lateral/longitudinal sets and appropriate characteristic equations, 67003, 86021
Estimation of Trim Drag and Choice of Datum Conditions, 97016
Inertia Coupling of Longitudinal/Lateral Equations
rapid rolling manoeuvre, 67005, 67006, 67007
Information on the use of Data Items on the Longitudinal Stability of Aircraft, 13005
Requirements for Damping and Frequency of Short-Period Oscillation
for military aircraft handling, according to flight phase, 92006
Requirements for Phugoid Damping and Speed Stability Characteristics
for military aircraft, 92006
Static
see also
Static Aeroelasticity
definitions of manoeuvre and neutral points, 86021
expressions for static and manoeuvre margins, 86021
introduction to concept, 86021
relationship between margins and dynamic stability, 86021
Longitudinal Welded Joints
see
Welded Joints in Steels
Welded Longitudinal Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Welded Longitudinal Joints in Steels Under Axial Loading
Losses
Fluid Flow
see
Boiling Flow in Pipes
Condensing Flow in Pipes
Fouling
Fouling in Combustion Plant
Fouling in Cooling Water Systems
Pressure Drop Across Obstructions in Ducts
Pressure Drop Across Tube Banks
Pressure Drop in Gas- or Vapour-liquid Internal Flow
Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
Pressure Drop in Non-newtonian Flow
Pressure Drop in Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Sudden Contractions in Ducts
Sudden Expansions in Ducts
Two-phase (Gas- or Vapour-liquid) Flow
Vibrational Power Transmitted Between Coupled Curved or Flat Plates
efficiency for direct coupling or coupling through a beam, 98020
Loss Factor
see also
Damping
Coupling
equation for connected plates, 98020, 99009
equation for plate/cavity using plate radiation efficiency, 00002
use in statistical energy analysis, 98020, 99009
Definition for Linear Systems, 73011, 91012
Use in Statistical Energy Analysis, 98020, 99009
Lost Fuel, Range and Time
Due to Climb and Descent
piston-engine aircraft, 77015
turbo-fan aircraft, 74018
turbo-jet aircraft, 74018
turbo-prop aircraft, 77015
Love Mode
Unstiffened Thin-Walled Circular-Cylindrical Shells
mode shape, 78004
natural frequencies, 78004
Low-drag Aerofoils
see
Gunaca Aerofoils
NACA Aerofoils
Low-load Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
see also
Fretting Fatigue
Fatigue Strength Under Axial Loading
comparison of constant and variable amplitude loadings, 89046
effect of alloy composition and heat treatment, 89046
effect of different fastener types, heads and materials, 89046
effect of fit and various interfay treatments, 89046
effect of initial corner cracks, 89046
effect of mean stress, 89046
effect of plate thickness, 89046
Low Tensile Low Alloy Steels
see also
Steels
Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate
see also
Crack Propagation
characteristic slopes of plots against stress intensity factor, 81011
effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 81011
effect of tensile stress, 81011
in corrosive environment, 93033
Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate (Short Cracks)
effect of alloy composition, 93033
effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 93033
in corrosive environment, 93033
Fatigue Limit Under Axial Loading
effect of mean stress for unnotched specimens, 88008
effect of notch size and type, 74016
probability of attainment for unnotched specimens, 88008
relationship with tensile strength for notched specimens, 74016
relationship with tensile strength for unnotched specimens, 88008
semi-range/mean stress diagram, 88008
Fatigue Limit Under Bending
effect of notch size and type, 74016
probability of attainment for unnotched specimens, 88008
relationship with tensile strength for notched specimens, 74016
relationship with tensile strength for unnotched specimens, 88008
Fatigue Limit Under Tension
probability of attainment for unnotched specimens, 88008
relationship with tensile strength for unnotched specimens, 88008
Fracture Toughness
variation with temperature, 83023
Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range, 81012
effect of maximum stress intensity factor, 81012
effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 81012
effect of tensile strength, 81012
L-sections
see
Angle Sections
Angle Sections with Bulbs
Angle Sections with Lips
Lubricants
Composition and Contamination Conducive to Material Corrosion, 88018
Guidance on Effect on Friction Coefficient, 89044
Introduction to Viscosity Behaviour and Classification by Viscosity, 68036
Petroleum Products
effect of pressure on dynamic viscosity, 71003, 94017, 96002
effect of temperature on kinematic viscosity, 71003
typical values of density, 71003
typical values of dynamic viscosity, 66024, 71003, 85027, 89045, 94017, 96002
typical values of kinematic viscosity, 66024, 71003
typical values of pressure exponent, 85027, 89045
Solid Impregnated Metal Bearings
see
Dry Rubbing Bearings
Suitability of Various Dry Rubbing Bearing Materials for Use With
carbon, polymer, solid lubricant impregnated metal, 87007
Synthetic
advantages and limitations, 94020
decomposition and degradation, 94020
flash points and spontaneous ignition temperatures, 94020
oxidation limits, 94020
relative costs, 94020
resistance to nuclear radiation, 94020
selection of most suitable, 94020
temperature limits for selected life, 94020
thermal stability limits, 94020
typical values of density, 94020
typical values of dynamic viscosity and pressure exponent, 85027, 89045, 94020
typical values of kinematic viscosity, 66024
typical values of specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity, 94020
volatility, 94020
Lubricating Oils
see
Lubricants
Lubrication
see
Bolted Joints
Cams
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
Geneva Mechanisms
Grease in Rolling Bearings
Journal Bearings
Lubrication Systems
Rolling Bearings
Rotors
Thrust Bearings
Tribology Series
Lubrication Systems
see also
Filters
Reciprocating Seals
Rotary Seals
Tanks for Forced-Circulation Oil
baffles, 68039
design principles and materials, 68039
dwell time in, 68039
heaters and coolers for, 68039
proportions and volume, 68039
ventilation, 68039
Lugs (Fatigue Strength)
see also
Fretting Fatigue
Axially-Loaded Aluminium Alloy With Interference-Fit Pins, 84025
effect of alloy composition and treatment, 84025
effect of bushing hole, 84025
effect of degree of interference, 84025
effect of mean stress, 84025
effect of size, 84025
Axially-Loaded Aluminium Alloy With Push-Fit Pins, 80007
effect of alloy composition, 80007
effect of mean stress, 80007
effect of size, 80007
Axially-Loaded Steel With Clearance-Fit Pins, 82022
effect of anti-fretting compounds and greases, 82022
effect of clearance and side relief of pin, 82022
effect of cold-working hole, 82022
effect of material composition, 82022
effect of mean stress, 82022
effect of size, 82022
effect of surface treatment and plating, 82022
Axially-Loaded Titanium Alloy With Push-Fit Pins, 77017
effect of alloy composition, 77017
effect of bushing hole, 77017
effect of cold working hole, 77017
effect of mean stress, 77017
Bush or Pin Interference in Joint Loaded Through Pin
effect on alternating stresses, 84025
Estimation From Fatigue Data for Other Types of Specimens
interference- or push-fit pins, FAT A.05.02
Lugs (Static Strength)
Axially-Loaded in Any Material
effect of pin bending in double shear joint, 91008
prediction of failure by overall permanent deformation, 91008
prediction of failure by shear rupture or bearing permanent deformation, 91008
prediction of failure by tensile rupture, 91008
Non-Axially-Loaded Aluminium Alloy or Steel
effect of pin bending in double shear joint, 91008
prediction of failure by permanent deformation, 91008
prediction of failure by rupture, 91008
Lugs (Stress Concentration Factors)
Axially-Loaded Round-Ended Waisted With Clearance-Fit Pins
effect of clearance on position of maximum stress, 81006
effect of geometry and slotted shank on stress concentration, 81006
Axially-Loaded Round- or Square-Ended With Clearance-Fit Pins
see also
Pin Joints
effect of clearance and lug thickness on stress concentration, 81006
effect of clearance on position of maximum stress, 81006
Axially-Loaded With Interference-Fit Bushes
effect of adjacent interference-fit bush on maximum tensile stress, 71011
interface pressure and maximum tensile stress, 71011
Axially-Loaded With Interference-Fit Pins
effect of adjacent interference-fit pin on maximum tensile stress, 71011
maximum shear and tensile stresses, 71011
Axially-Loaded With Interference- or Push-Fit Pins
maximum shear stresses, 66011, FAT A.05.02
Lugs (Stress Intensity Factors)
Axially-Loaded Round-Ended With Clearance-Fit Pins
through-thickness cracks, 81029
Axially-Loaded Square-Ended With Clearance-Fit Pins
hole corner cracks, 83033

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