ESDU A-Z Index: STE-SZ

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Steam
see also
Water
Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Ducts up to High Pressures
charts for rapid evaluation in turbulent flow in circular-section, 81044
variable gas property effects, 81045, 92003
Superheated
prediction of pressure transients in internal flow after valve closure, 86015
Steam Cylinder Oils
Typical Values of Density, 71003
Typical Values of Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity, 71003
Steam Generators
see
Boiling Flow in Pipes
Fouling in Combustion Plant
Steam Turbine Oils
Typical Values of Density, 71003
Typical Values of Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity, 71003
Steam Turbines
Incorporation in Process Plant as Heat and Power Source
using process integration techniques, 89001
Steels
see also
Austenitic Stainless Steels
Bolted Butt Joints with Cover Plates in Steels
Bolted Double Lap Joints in Steels
Bolted Doublers on Both Sides of Plate in Steels
Chromium Plating
Disc Springs
Duplex Stainless Steels
Fretting Fatigue
Gears
Helical Springs of Round Wire
High Alloy Steels
High Tensile Low Alloy Steels
Low Tensile Low Alloy Steels
Lugs (Fatigue Strength)
Lugs (Static Strength)
Maraging Steels
Martensitic Stainless Steels
Materials Properties
Nickel Steels
Nuts
Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
Roughness
Screw Threads
Shafts with Interference-fit Collars
Shafts with Keyways
Splined Steel Shaft Assemblies
Steel Sheets
Studs
Welded Cover Plates on Steel I-beams
Welded Joints in Steels
Welded Longitudinal Joints in Steels Under Axial Loading
Welded Stiffening Gussets on Steel I-beams
Welded Transverse Joints in Steels Under Axial Loading
Welded Transverse Joints in Steels Under Bending
Bearing, Tensile, Torsion and Shear Strengths 00932 (MMDH)
Composition of Specific Specifications 00932 (MMDH)
Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
Creep Behaviour 00932 (MMDH)
Density 00932 (MMDH)
Elastic Moduli in Tension and Rigidity 00932 (MMDH)
Elastic Modulus in Compression 00932 (MMDH), 76016
Electrical Conductivity 00932 (MMDH)
Exfoliation Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
Fatigue Limit
comparison with other metals and alloys, 71009
effect of chromium plating and pre- and post-plating treatments, 86033
effect of surface roughness, 74027
Fatigue Strength
effect of chromium plating and pre- and post-plating treatments, 86033
size (scale) effect with or without stress gradient, 87016
Fatigue Strength Improvement Obtained by Shot Peening, 92015
see also
Shot Peening
effect of post-treatment stretching, 92015
effect of treatment before chromium plating, 86033
Fracture Toughness 00932 (MMDH)
Generalised Stress-Strain Curves, 76016
program to compute from modulus and two inelastic points, 89052
Izod Data 00932 (MMDH)
Poisson's Ratio 00932 (MMDH)
Proof Stresses in Compression 00932 (MMDH), 76016
Proof Stresses in Tension 00932 (MMDH)
Specific Heat Capacity 00932 (MMDH)
Stress Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
Surface Treatments to Improve Fatigue Strength
advantages and limitations of various, 89031
guidance on selection, 89031
mechanical, thermal and thermochemical, 89031
method by which residual stresses are induced, 89031
Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Expansion Coefficient 00932 (MMDH)
Weldability 00932 (MMDH)
Steel Sheets
see also
Resistance Curves
Resistance Curves (R-Curves), 85031
Stefan-boltzmann Radiation Constant
Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Constant, 69009, 69012, 77031, 89022
Steps
Forward- or Rearward-Facing
see
Excrescences
Stop Valves
Pressure Drop Across, 69022
Stopway
Definition and Use in Specifying Take-Off Distance Available, 87018
Strain
Concentration
see
Circular Holes in Orthotropic Plates
Due to Dynamic or Static Loading
see under particular structural element
Plane
see
Plane Strain
Principal
see
Principal Strains and Stresses
Strain Concentration Factor
Definition, 70016
Strain Gauge Data Analysis
see
Principal Strains and Stresses
Stranded Cables
Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Mean Forces Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
see
Axial Force
Normal Force
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Stratford's Criterion for Flow Separation
Applied to Aerofoils
linear pressure rises, 71019
linear pressure rises preceded by pressure jump, 78010
Stratified Flow
see
Two-phase (Gas- or Vapour-liquid) Flow
Stress
Allowable
see
Allowable Stresses
Combination for Fatigue Calculations, 75022
Contact
see
Contact Phenomena
Cycle
definition of repeated and reversed, 70016
Definitions
alternating, level, range, ratio and spectrum, 70016
Due to Dynamic or Static Loading
Mean
see
Mean Stress
Plane
see
Plane Stress
Principal
see
Principal Strains and Stresses
Stress Concentration
see also
Adjacent Circular Holes in Flat Plates
Circular Holes in Bars or Strips
Circular Holes in Flat Plates
Circular Holes in Orthotropic Plates
Circular Holes in Round Rods and Tubes
Countersunk Holes
Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
Elliptical Holes in Flat Plates
Fillets in Bars or Strips
Fillets in Flat Plate
Fillets in Round Rods and Tubes
Fillets of Double Radius in Round Rods and Tubes
Grooves of Flat-bottomed Section in Rods
Grooves of Flat-bottomed Section Inside or Outside Tubes
Grooves of U-section in Rods
Grooves of U-section Inside or Outside Tubes
Lugs (Stress Concentration Factors)
Notches in Flat Plate
Notches with Flat Bottoms in Bars or Strips
Notches with Flat Bottoms in Edge of Plate
Rectangular Holes in Flat Plates
Reinforced Circular Holes in Flat Plates
Reinforced Circular Holes Near Edge of Flat Plates
Reinforced Elliptical Holes in Flat Plates
Reinforced Square Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
Reinforced Triangular Holes in Flat Plates
Shafts with Keyways
Slots in Bars or Strips
Splined Steel Shaft Assemblies
Square Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
Triangular Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
U-notches in Bars or Strips
U-notches in Edge of Plate
Definition of Factor, 64001
Effect of Interaction With Adjacent
determination using stress decay from individual concentrations, 75022, 85045
stress decay from pair of circular holes in narrow plate, 85045
Effect on Fatigue Strength
cumulative damage calculations, 95006
design calculations, 75022
inelastic behaviour, 76014
influence of scale, 87016
Guide to Data Available in Data Items
index according to form of geometry, 64001
Holes in Plates
efficiency of form of reinforcement, 80027
Reduction to Improve Fatigue Strength, 71009
Stress Corrosion Resistance
see
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Steels
Steels
Titanium Alloys
Stresses At Free Edges
Interlaminar in Laminated Composite Plates Under Uniaxial Strain
program for estimation, 95028
use to predict delamination, 95028
Stress Intensity Factors
see also
Fracture Mechanics
Application of Range to Fatigue Crack Propagation Calculations, 80036
Calculation by Compounding Known Solutions for Simple Configurations
errors introduced by approximation for particular cases, 78036
method for obtaining values for complex cases, 78036
worked examples for particular cases, 78036
Correction for Local Geometry and Plasticity Effects, 80036
Definition, 80036
Description of Practical Application, 80036
Difficulty of Calculating for Short Cracks, 92023, 92030
Examples of Use in Calculation of Fatigue Crack Growth, 17003, 81011, 84001, 84003
Lugs Axially Loaded Through Clearance-Fit Pins
single corner crack, 83033
two diametrally-opposed corner cracks, 83033
with through-thickness diametral cracks, 81029
Threshold Range and Its Variation With Stress Ratio, 80036
Use With Resistance Curves ( R-Curves)
determination of onset of fast fracture, 85031
Wide Flat Plates Loaded by Clearance-Fit Pin
single corner crack, 83033
two diametrally-opposed corner cracks, 83033
Stress-strain Curves
see also
Adhesives for Bonded Joints
Generalised
calculation of stress for given strain or for given ratio of stress to tangent modulus, 76016
equations for, 76016, 89052
method of determination from limited materials data, 76016
program to compute from modulus and two inelastic points, 89052
variation of Poisson's ratio in inelastic region, 76016
Stringers
see
Flat Panels in General
Response of Lightweight Structures
Struts in General
Struts of Bulb Angle Section
Struts of Channel Section
Struts of I-section
Struts of Lipped or Unlipped Z-section
Strips
see
Flat Strips of Isotropic Materials
Flat Strips of Orthotropic Materials
Normal Force
Strouhal Number
Downstream Cylinder of Pair in Crossflow
examples of variation with incidence and spacing, 79025
Values for Various Straight-Sided Section Shapes
angle-, I-, rectangular-, T-, triangular-, and square-sections, 90036
Variation With Reynolds Number and Roughness
circular-section cylinder, 96030
Structural Instability
see
Beams in General
Beams of Sandwich Construction
Buckling
Composite Structures
Corrugated Plates
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Cylinders of Circular Section (Strength and Vibration)
Faceplate Wrinkling
Flange Buckling
Flat Panels in General
Flat Panels with Fibre-reinforced Unflanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Flanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Lipped or Unlipped Z-section Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Top-hat Section Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Transverse Stiffeners
Flat Panels with T-section Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Unflanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Panels with Unlipped Z-section Stiffeners
Flat Parallelogram Panels
Flat Parallelogram Plates
Flat Plates Tapered in Plan
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Rectangular Plates Tapered in Thickness
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Corrugated Cores)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Isotropic Cores)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Truss Cores)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Square Plates with Central Circular Hole
Flat Square Plates with Central Flanged Circular Hole
Flat Triangular Plates
Flat Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Helical Springs of Round Wire
Hydraulic Jacks
Struts in General
Struts of Bulb Angle Section
Struts of Channel Section
Struts of I-section
Struts of Lipped or Unlipped Z-section
Struts of Sandwich Construction
Struts of Thin-walled Open Section
Struts of Tubular Section
Structures Series
Location of Items in ESDU Series, 00030
Record of Amendments to Items in ESDU Series, 00030
Struts in General
see also
Struts of Bulb Angle Section
Struts of Channel Section
Struts of I-section
Struts of Lipped or Unlipped Z-section
Struts of Sandwich Construction
Struts of Thin-walled Open Section
Struts of Tubular Section
Allowable Stresses, SS3
Conservative (Fixed-Direction) Loading
effect on buckling load, 92038
Description of Buckling Modes
flange, 78021
flexural, local and torsional-flexural, 78021, 88034
Discussion of Effect of Initial Irregularities and Loading Eccentricity, 78021, 88034
Discussion of Effect of Plasticity, and Residual and Thermal Stresses, 78021
Dynamic Response to Excitation
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Response of Lightweight Structures
Equivalent Length to Take Account of Loading and End Restraint Effects on Buckling Load
stepped under direct loading with rigid intermediate support at step, 92038
tapered along length or at both ends under direct loading, 92038
uniform section under direct and conservative or non-conservative distributed loading, 92038
uniform section under direct and distributed loading with elastic intermediate support, 92038
uniform section under direct loading angled to neutral axis, 92038
uniform section under direct loading with rigid intermediate support, 92038
Factors of Safety, SS3
Flexural Buckling Load
effect of bow and/or eccentricity of loading, 88034, 90002, STRUCT 01.01.01
effect of manufacturing tolerances, 88034, 90002, STRUCT 01.01.01
effect of single change of cross section along length, STRUCT 01.01.23
hydraulic jacks, STRUCT 01.01.24
program for estimation for any section shape, 98016
Flexural Buckling Load Taking Account of Plasticity
program for estimation for any section shape, 01001
program treating bow, manufacturing tolerances and loading eccentricity, 90002
Flexural Strength Based on Extreme Fibre Stress and Taking Account of Plasticity
program treating bow, manufacturing tolerances and loading eccentricity, 90002
Guide to Use of Data Items on Stability, 78021
Inter-Rivet Buckling Strength Taking Account of Plasticity
program for fabricated sections, 90002
Introduction to Crossflow Behaviour for Wind Loading Considerations, 71012
Local Buckling Load
program for estimation for any section shape, 98016
Local Buckling Load Taking Account of Plasticity
program for estimation for any section shape, 01001
Local Buckling Strength Taking Account of Plasticity
program for estimation for any section shape, 90002
Non-Conservative (Tangential) Loading
effect on buckling load, 92038
Plasticity Correction Factors for Buckling, 83044
Section Characteristics
area and moment of inertia, 91001
Torsional and Torsional-Flexural Buckling Load
program for estimation for any section shape, 98016
Torsional and Torsional-Flexural Buckling Taking Account of Plasticity
program for estimation for any section shape, 01001
Under Compression
buckling stress for various end conditions, 88034
local and flexural buckling load for any section shape, 98016
torsional and torsional-flexural buckling load for any section shape, 98016
Under Compression Taking Account of Plasticity
local and flexural buckling load for any section shape, 01001
local, flexural and inter-rivet buckling strength for any section shape, 90002
torsional and torsional-flexural buckling load for any section shape, 01001
Under Compression With Any Combination of Lateral Loads and Moments
general equations for bending moment at any point, 78030
worked example of bending moment, deflection and slope distributions, 78030
Under Compression With Constant or Linearly Varying Lateral Load
bending moments at ends and maximum bending moment, 78030
Under Compression With End Moments
bending moments at ends and maximum bending moment, 78030
Under Compression With or Without Lateral Point Loads
bending moments at ends and maximum bending moment, 78030
Worked Example of Stability Calculation, 78021
Struts of Bulb Angle Section
see also
Struts in General
Struts of Thin-walled Open Section
Torsional Buckling, STRUCT 01.01.10
Struts of Channel Section
see also
Struts in General
Struts of Thin-walled Open Section
Mean Forces Due to Wind or Other Fluid Crossflow
see
Profile Drag
Sideforce
With Lips Turned Inwards (Web and Flange Thicknesses Equal)
effect of plasticity on buckling, 76023
flange and local buckling, 76023
flexural and torsional-flexural buckling, 76023
With Lips Turned Outwards (Web and Flange Thicknesses Equal)
effect of plasticity on buckling, 76023
flange and local buckling, 76023
flexural and torsional-flexural buckling, 76023
Without Lips (Web and Flange Thicknesses Equal)
crippling, 78020
effect of plasticity on buckling, 76023, 78020
flexural and torsional-flexural buckling, 76023
local buckling, 76023
Without Lips (Web and Flange Thicknesses Unequal)
crippling, 78020
effect of plasticity on buckling, 78020
local buckling, 78020
Struts of I-section
see also
Struts in General
Struts of Thin-walled Open Section
Mean Forces Due to Wind or Other Fluid Crossflow
see
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Web and Flange Thicknesses Equal or Unequal
crippling, 78020
dimensions for least weight, 66007
effect of plasticity on buckling, 66007, 78020
least weight, 66008
local buckling, 78020
weight penalty for non-optimum design, 66007
Struts of Lipped or Unlipped Z-section
see also
Struts in General
Struts of Thin-walled Open Section
With Lips (Web and Flange Thicknesses Equal)
effect of plasticity on buckling, 77030
flexural buckling, 77030
local buckling, 77030
Without Lips (Web and Flange Thicknesses Equal)
crippling, 78020
effect of plasticity on buckling, 77030, 78020
flexural buckling, 77030
local buckling, 77030, 78020
Without Lips (Web and Flange Thicknesses Unequal)
crippling, 78020
effect of plasticity on buckling, 78020
local buckling, 78020
Struts of Sandwich Construction
Orthotropic (Laminated Composite) Faceplates (Specially-Orthotropic or Unbalanced)
program for prediction of faceplate wrinkling, 87013
Struts of Thin-walled Open Section
see also
Struts in General
Flexural Buckling, 89007
Local Buckling, 88034
Torsional and Torsional-Flexural Buckling, 88034, 89007
Struts of Tubular Section
see also
Struts in General
Circular Section
choice of standard section for minimum weight, 85014
dimensions for least weight, 85014
effect of initial irregularities on dimensions for least weight, 85014
end effects on dimensions for least weight, 85014
local buckling, 83034, 88034
torsional buckling, 88034
Mean Forces and Pressures Due to Wind or Other Fluid Crossflow
see
Base Pressure
Normal Force
Pressure Distribution
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Rectangular Section
crippling, STRUCT 01.01.19
local buckling, 88034, STRUCT 01.01.19
torsional buckling, 88034
Square Section
crippling, STRUCT 01.01.19
dimensions for least weight, 66006
effect of plasticity on buckling, 66006
least weight, 66008
local buckling, 88034, STRUCT 01.01.19
torsional buckling, 88034
weight penalty for non-optimum design, 66006
Stub Wings
see
Excrescences
Student's T Distribution
see
Statistics
Studs
Fatigue Strength
effect of design features on, 13008
steel under axial loading or combined axial loading and bending, 13008
Load Paths Through a Stud Assembly, 13008
Sucrose/water Solution
Dynamic Viscosity
variation with temperature for 50/50 solution by weight, 66024
Kinematic Viscosity
variation with temperature for 50/50 solution by weight, 66024
Suction
see
Boundary Layer
Leading-edge Suction
Sudden Contractions in Ducts
see also
Noise in Air-conditioning Duct Systems
Static Pressure Loss Across in Incompressible Single-Phase Flow, 05024, 89012
effect of velocity profile, 05024
Static Pressure Loss Across in Incompressible Turbulent Single-Phase Flow
effect of edge rounding, 05024
effect of velocity profile, 05024
Static Pressure Loss Across in Two-Phase Gas- or Vapour-Liquid Flow, 89012
Total-Pressure Loss Across in Compressible Turbulent Single-Phase Flow, 05024
choking mass flow, 05024
downstream Mach number, 05024
effect of edge rounding, 05024
static pressure ratio across, 05024
Sudden Expansions in Ducts
Mach Number Decrement Due to, 72011
Pressure Recovery in Single-Phase Flow, 72011, 89012
effect of inlet profile on, 72011
Pressure Recovery in Two-Phase Gas- or Vapour-Liquid Flow, 89012
Total-Pressure Loss Across in Single-Phase Flow, 72011
effect of compressibility on, 72011
Use in Truncated Diffusers to Improve Performance, 87015
Sump Tank Water
Effect on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate
aluminium alloy forgings, 88007
aluminium alloy plates, 88007
aluminium alloy sheet, 88007
Supercritical Steam
see
Water
Superlaminar Flow
see
Journal Bearings
Superposition
Use in Heat Transfer, 81045
example in annular ducts, 81045
Supersonic Area Rule -
Supersonic Flow
Basic Concepts, AERO S.00.03.06
Supersonic-hypersonic Similarity Law -
Surface Finish
see also
Roughness
Shot Peening
Surface Treatments
Thrust Bearings
Waviness
Effect on Choice of Filter Rating for Lubrication Systems, 83030
Effect on Choice of Material for Dry Rubbing Bearings, 87007
Effect on Fatigue Life in Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication, 85027
Effect on Fatigue Strength When Component is Subject to Fretting, 90031
Guidance on Contribution to Aircraft Drag From Manufacturing Imperfections, 12006, 94044
In Relation to Lubricant Film Thickness
use in defining lubrication regimes, 85027, 94008, 94017
Typical Roughness Values
gears, 85027, 89045
machined finish, 94017, 96002
rolling bearings, 85027, 89045
Surface Temperature
see also
Temperature Measurement
Calculation in Dry Rubbing Bearings, 87007, 96015
Calculation of Runway Temperature from Ambient Pressure and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
Equilibrium Under Forced Convection and Radiation Heat Transfer
see
Equilibrium Surface Temperature
Surface Tension
Surface Treatments
see also
Anodising
Cadmium Plating
Case Hardening
Chromium Plating
Cladding
Cold Rolling
Flame Hardening
Nickel Plating
Phosphating
Roughness
Shot Peening
Wear Resistant Surface Coatings and Treatments
Zinc Plating
Discussion of Effect on Fretting Fatigue, 90031
Effect of Various on Fretting Fatigue of Aluminium Alloys, 89004
Effect of Various on Fretting Fatigue of Titanium Alloys, 88027
Effect on Fatigue Strength, 70018, 71009, 75022
need to use appropriate constant amplitude data in cumulative damage calculations, 95006
Effect on Fatigue Strength of Aluminium Alloys, FAT E.07.02
Effect on Fatigue Strength of Bolted Double Lap Joints in Steels, 96014
Effect on Fatigue Strength of Steel Components
guidance on selection of appropriate method, 89031
Shafts With Interference-Fit Collars, 68002, 68005
Tanks for Forced-Circulation Oil-Lubrication Systems, 68039
Use to Reduce Wear in Disc Cams
effect on hardness and size, and advantages and disadvantages, 94017
Sutherland's Law -
Swept Wings
see
Indicial Aerodynamics
Wing Geometry
Wings
Swing Ratio
Linear Systems
definition, 67038
Swirl
see also
Fouling in Crude Oil Distillation Plant
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Effect on Diffuser Performance, 76027
Synthetic Lubricants
see
Lubricants
Systems
see
Control Systems
Linear Systems
Non-linear Systems
Parameter Identification
Sampled-data Systems

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