ESDU 94044
Excrescence drag levels on aircraft.
Abstract:
ESDU 94044 is based on manufacturer's estimated values for a large number of aircraft as manufactured and provides a guide to standards that have been achieved and a method to obtain a first approximate estimate. In most cases a datum drag parameter is presented at the troposphere and a Mach number of 0.8; a correction factor to other altitudes and speeds whose derivation is included is based on a detailed study of the variation of excrescence drag with Reynolds and Mach numbers. The drag parameter is plotted against wetted area for complete airframes but, for a more detailed estimate, values for some categories of excrescence are also given graphically. They are: surface and control imperfections, airdata systems, lights and beacons, antennas, static discharge wicks, auxiliary power unit, and features required for rain dispersal, for ventilation/cooling, for airconditioning and for fuel systems. Some information is included on the extent that 'cleanup' has proved possible on several aircraft.Indexed under:
 Air Data System
 Airconditioning
 Antennas
 Auxiliary Power Unit
 Beacons and Lights
 Cabin Conditions
 Controls (Aerodynamic)
 Cooling and Ventilation Systems
 Excrescences
 Fuel Systems
 Rain Dispersal Systems
 Skin Friction Drag
 Static Discharge Wicks
 Surface Finish
Details:
Data Item ESDU 94044  

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This Data Item contains 22 interactive graph(s) as listed below.
Graph  Title 

Figure 1  Overall excrescence drag levels on aircraft (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M) 
Figure 2  Excrescence drag levels due to airframebuild surface imperfections (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M) 
Figure 3a  Excrescence drag levels due to imperfections associated with movable aerodynamic surfaces (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M)  Leading edge devices 
Figure 3b  Excrescence drag levels due to imperfections associated with movable aerodynamic surfaces (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M)  Trailing edge devices 
Figure 4b  Excrescence drag levels due to aircraft systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M)  lights and beacons 
Figure 4c  Excrescence drag levels due to aircraft systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M)  antennae 
Figure 4d  Excrescence drag levels due to aircraft systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M)  static discharge wicks (rigid types) 
Figure 4f  Excrescence drag levels due to aircraft systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M)  drains 
Figure 4g  Excrescence drag levels due to aircraft systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M)  fuel systems 
Figure 5  Excrescence drag levels due to ventilation/cooling systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M) 
Figure 6a  Part 1  Excrescence drag levels due to air conditioning systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M) 
Figure 6a  Part 2  Excrescence drag levels due to air conditioning systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M) 
Figure 6b  Excrescence drag levels due to air conditioning systems (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M) 
Figure 7a  Excrescence drag levels due to auxiliary power unit (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M) 
Figure 7b  Excrescence drag levels due to auxiliary power unit (at datum conditions of H_{p} and M) 
Figure 8a  Part 1  Effects of pressure height and Mach number on excrescence drag 
Figure 8a  Part 2  Effects of pressure height and mach number on excrescence drag  aft facing step 
Figure 8b  Part 1  Effects of pressure height and mach number on excrescence drag  forward facing step 
Figure 8b  Part 2  Effects of pressure height and mach number on excrescence drag  forward facing step 
Figure 8c  Part 1  Effects of pressure height and mach number on excrescence drag  groove transverse to flow 
Figure 8c  Part 2  Effects of pressure height and mach number on excrescence drag  groove transverse to flow 
Figure B1  Values of constants A and B in empirical representation of excrescence drag 
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