ESDU AZ Index: AFAL
 Incremental afterbody drag, 16003
 Incremental afterbody force, 16003
 Planform Areas of Various Shapes and Their Centroids, 77028
 Pressure at Downstream End of BoatTail on Truncated CircularArc or ParabolicArc
 effect of supersonic Mach number and geometry, 00026
 Pressure at Downstream End of BoatTail on Truncated Conical
 effect of supersonic Mach number and geometry, 00017
 Pressure Distribution on CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc (Long Afterbodies)
 effect of supersonic Mach number and geometry, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Pressure Distribution on CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc (Short Afterbodies)
 effect of supersonic Mach number and geometry, 00028
 Pressure Distribution on CircularArc or ParabolicArc in Supersonic Flow With Central Jet
 base pressure less than pressure on end of boattail, 00028, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Pressure Distribution on Conical in Supersonic Flow With Central Jet
 base pressure less than pressure on end of boattail, 00028, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Pressure Distribution on Truncated CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc (Long Afterbodies)
 effect of supersonic Mach number and geometry, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Pressure Distribution on Truncated CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc (Short Afterbodies)
 effect of supersonic Mach number and geometry, 00028
 Pressure Distribution on Truncated CircularArc or ParabolicArc in Supersonic Flow With Central Jet
 base pressure less than pressure on end of boattail, 00028, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Pressure Distribution on Truncated Conical in Supersonic Flow With Central Jet
 base pressure less than pressure on end of boattail, 00028, AERO B.S.05.03.01
 Pressure Drag on CircularArc or ParabolicArc in Subsonic or Transonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 96012
 Pressure Drag on Conical or Truncated Conical in Subsonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 77020
 effect of rounding after to midbody junction, 77020
 Pressure Drag on Conical or Truncated Conical in Supersonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 79022
 Pressure Drag on Conical or Truncated Conical in Transonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 78041
 Pressure Drag on Truncated CircularArc or ParabolicArc in Subsonic Flow With Central Jet
 annular base width greater than 0.05 base diameter, 02012
 negligible annular base area, 01012
 Pressure Drag on Truncated CircularArc or ParabolicArc in Subsonic or Transonic Flow
 effect of Mach number and geometry, 96012
 Pressure Drag on Truncated CircularArc or ParabolicArc in Supersonic Flow With Central Jet
 base pressure less than pressure at end of boattail, 00026
 Pressure Drag on Truncated (CircularArc Running into Conical) in Subsonic Flow With Central Jet
 negligible annular base area, 01012
 Pressure Drag on Truncated Conical in Supersonic Flow With Central Jet
 base pressure less or greater than pressure at end of boattail, 00017
 base pressure less than pressure at end of boattail, 00026
 Pressure Drag on Truncated (ParabolicArc Running into Conical) in Subsonic Flow With Central Jet
 negligible annular base area, 01012
 Surface Area and Volume, Tail Angle or Radius of Curvature of Various Shapes and CrossSections, 77028
 Truncated CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc in Supersonic Flow
 boattail angle as function of dimensions, 00026, 00028
 Wave Drag on CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc
 effect of Mach number and geometry, AERO B.S.02.03.02
 introduction to estimation methods and effect of crosssection shape, AERO B.S.02.03.01
 Wave Drag on Truncated CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc
 effect of Mach number and geometry, AERO B.S.02.03.02
 introduction to estimation methods and effect of crosssection shape, AERO B.S.02.03.01
 Wave Drag on Truncated CircularArc, Conical or ParabolicArc of Elliptical Cross Section, AERO B.S.02.03.01
 effect of Mach number and geometry, AERO B.S.02.03.02
 see also
 Cowls
 Interference Wave Drag
 conical, ducted conical or parabolicarc forebody with midbody, AERO B.S.02.03.08
 conical or truncated conical or parabolicarc afterbody with midbody, AERO B.S.02.03.08
 Planform Areas of Various Shapes and Their Centroids, 77028
 Surface Area and Volume, Nose or Tail Angle or Radius of Curvature
 various shapes and crosssections, 77028
 Calculation of Deflection Required in Steady Asymmetric Level Flight
 estimation of order of magnitude, 01010
 sideslipping, turning or with failed engine, 01010
 Estimation of Rolling Moment Due to Plain (L sub xi or C sub l delta a), 88013, 88040
 Estimation of Yawing Moment Due to Plain (N sub xi or C sub n delta a), 88029, 88040
 Calculation of Runway Surface Temperature From Air Temperature and Ambient Temperature, TM 188
 Compressibility Factor
 pressure and temperature variation in gaseous state, 88025
 Density
 altitude variation in model atmospheres, 68046, 72018, 77021, 77022, 78008
 Dynamic Viscosity
 altitude variation ( 0.5 km to 80 km) in model atmosphere, 77021, 77022
 temperature variation (100 K to 3 000 K) in gaseous state, 73017
 temperature variation (215 K to 290 K) in gaseous state, 77021, 77022
 temperature variation in liquid state, 66024
 Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Ducts
 variable gas property effects, 81045, 92003, AERO 00.02.05
 Gas Constant, AERO 00.01.09
 Kinematic Viscosity
 altitude variation ( 0.5 km to 80 km) in model atmosphere, 77021
 temperature variation in liquid state, 66024
 Mean Free Path
 altitude variation (80 km to 1 000 km) in model atmosphere, 77021
 Mean Particle Speed
 altitude variation (80 km to 1 000 km) in model atmosphere, 77021
 Molecular Mass, AERO 00.01.08
 altitude variation (80 km to 1 000 km) in model atmosphere, 77021
 Molecular Vibrational Temperature, AERO 00.01.09
 Sources of Data for Thermodynamic and Transport Properties
 in liquid and gaseous states, 87009
 Specific Enthalpy
 pressure and temperature variation in gaseous state, 88025
 temperature variation in gaseous state, AERO 00.01.09
 Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure
 pressure and temperature variation in gaseous state, AERO 00.01.09
 Specific Heat Capacity Ratio
 pressure and temperature variation in gaseous state, AERO 00.01.09
 temperature variation in gaseous state, AERO 00.01.08
 Speed of Sound
 altitude variation in model atmospheres, 68046, 72018, 77021, 77022
 pressure and temperature variation in gaseous state, 73017
 temperature variation in gaseous state, 69026
 Thermal Conductivity
 altitude variation ( 0.5 km to 80 km) in model atmosphere, 77021
 temperature variation (200 K to 1 000 K) in gaseous state, 77031
 temperature variation (200 K to 1 500 K) in gaseous state, 99005
 temperature variation (215 K to 290 K) in gaseous state, 77021
 see
 Gas Bearings
 see
 Landing
 see also
 Spoilers
 Centre of Pressure and Normal Force, 70015
 Effect of Cabin Pressure and Its Rate of Change on Climb and Descent Profiles

 see
 Cabin Conditions
 Guidance on Contribution to Aircraft Drag, 94044
 Noise Generation and Transmission in Ducting
 see also
 Heat Exchangers
 see
 Aerodynamic Loading
 Ailerons
 Attitude Angles
 Axes Systems in Aircraft Dynamics and Performance
 Control Systems
 Direction Angles
 Dutch Roll
 Dynamic Stability
 Equations of Motion
 Handling Qualities
 Incidence Angles
 Lateral Stability and Response
 Linear Systems
 Longitudinal Stability and Response
 Nonlinear Systems
 Notation
 Parameter Identification
 Rolling
 Rudder
 Sampleddata Systems
 Static Aeroelasticity
 see
 Fatigue Loading
 Airframe noise, 90023
 Bandwidth correction, 17011
 Boundary layer noise, 75021, TM 58
 Buzzsaw noise, 75020
 Cabin noise, internal noise, 02008, 04023, 07001
 Combination of noise levels in dB, 17012
 Combustor noise, combustion noise, 05001
 Estimation of sideline noise in subjective noise metrics, 82027 Addendum
 Fan noise, compressor noise, 98008
 Farfield jet noise, 11002, 89041, 98019
 Ground reflection effects, 94035
 Introduction to aircraft noise, 02020
 Jetbyjet noise shielding, 88023
 Lateral attenuation, 81035, 82027
 Nearfield jet noise, 99006
 Noise shielding by barriers, 79011
 Prediction Methods, 09009
 Propeller noise, 11005, 76020, 96027
 Section properties of fuselage stiffeners, 07001 Addendum
 Shock noise from supersonic jets, 13001
 Sound absorption coefficients of liners, 74003, 74004
 Sound attenuation due to air absorption, 78002, 78003
 Sound attenuation in circular ducts, 00012
 Sound attenuation in rectangular and annular ducts, 00024
 Sound propagation, 94036
 Sound propagation in the presence of wind and temperature gradients, 04011, 89036
 Sound radiation from circular ducts, 01015
 Statictoflight effects on coaxial jet noise, 14014
 Statictoflight effects on singlestream jet noise, 87011
 Turbine noise, 12001
 Aircraft on Wet/Dry or Contaminated Runway, 13002
 Atmospheric Data for Use in, 68046, 69026, 72018
 Correlation of Changes in DragMinusThrust and Lift in Airborne Manoeuvre
 discussion of effect of landing style, 92020
 example plots for wide range of aircraft and powerplants, 92020
 from speeds at screen and touchdown, 92020
 Detailed Example
 using accelerometers, airdata system or inertial system, 79018
 Equations for Computation of Atmospheric Data for Use in, 77022
 Examples of Use of Statistical Techniques Applied to Measurements
 to derive a relation between ground run in landing and approach speed, 92021
 to derive certification airborne distance from airborne time, speeds and rates of descent, 92022
 to derive changes to second segment climb schedule due to small airframe changes, 93023
 to estimate from simulation data probability of a short or long autolanding, 91019
 to provide customer guarantees of range from flight test data, 91018
 Explanations of Various Corrections to Measurements
 effects of buoyancy, flexibility and wind, 79018
 Introduction to Data Items on, 80009
 Introduction to Use of Statistical Techniques, 91017
 PistonEngine Aircraft
 methods available for, 80009
 rate of climb, 70023
 Rate of Climb
 effect of small changes in density, drag, weight, thrust (or power), 94039
 Speed in Level Flight
 effect of small changes in drag, weight, thrust (or power), 86004
 TurboFan and TurboJet Aircraft, 70020, 80009

 see also
 Buoyancy
 Gravitational Acceleration
 centre of gravity variation effects, 70020
 engine operation effects, 70020
 fuel consumption, 70021, 70022
 range, 70021, 70022, PERF RJ2/0
 rate of climb, 70021, 70023, PERF RJ1/2
 Reynolds number effects, 70020
 speed in level flight, 70021, 70022
 thrust inclination to flight path effects, 70020
 thrust measurement in flight, 69006, 69007, 69008
 TurboProp Aircraft, 80009
 rate of climb, 70023
 VectoredJetThrust
 takeoff performance, including skijump, 87037
 Aircraft on Wet/Dry or Contaminated Runway, 13002
 Applications of Data Calculated
 in airworthiness, design, flight testing and operations, 80026
 Conditions for Minimum Drag and Minimum Power, 81026
 Estimation of Effect of Small Changes on Level Speed
 drag, weight, thrust (or power), 86004
 Estimation of Effect of Small Changes on Rate of Climb
 density, drag, weight, thrust (or power), 94039
 Estimation of Trim Drag Due to Asymmetry
 inoperative engine or other sources, 88006
 Estimation of Variability of Characteristic Due to Contributions of Component Variabilities, 91020
 Introduction to Data Items on, 80026
 Program Using Known Airframe Drag Characteristics and Installed Thrust/Fuel Consumption
 aircraft performance program, ESDUperf
 point behaviour including specific range and ceiling, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
 Representation of Drag by Simple Laws
 parabolic with minimum at zero or at finite lift, 81026
 VectoredJetThrust
 takeoff performance, including skijump, 87037
 Introduction to Data Items on, 80009
 PistonEngine Aircraft, 80009, PERF RP1/0
 fuel consumption and range, PERF RP1/3, PERF RP2/0
 landing and takeoff, PERF RG2/1
 rate of climb, PERF RP1/2, PERF RP2/0
 speed in level flight, PERF RP1/1, PERF RP2/0
 TurboFan and TurboJet Aircraft, 80009
 fuel consumption and range, PERF RJ2/0
 landing and takeoff, PERF RG2/1
 rate of climb, PERF RJ2/1
 speed in level flight, PERF RJ2/0
 TurboProp Aircraft, 80009, PERF RT1/0
 fuel consumption and range, PERF RT1/3
 landing and takeoff, PERF RG2/1
 rate of climb, PERF RT1/2
 speed in level flight, PERF RT1/1
 VectoredJetThrust
 nondimensional parameters appropriate and their derivation, 87037
 see also
 Friction Coefficient
 Rubber
 Slip Ratio
 Aircraft Tyre on Wet/Dry or Contaminated Runway, 10002, 10003, 10004, 13002
 Runway contaminants and the classification and distribution of hard runway surfaces, 15002
 Calculation of Runway Temperature From Air Temperature and Ambient Pressure to Determine Rebound Resilience, TM 188
 Decelerating Forces on MultipleWheel Undercarriages
 in lineastern and lineabreast arrangements, 11004
 rolling or braking on precipitate contaminated runways, 11004
 Design Factors and Effect on Tyre/Runway Braking Friction, 16008
 inflation pressure and tread materials and patterns, 16008
 Drag When Running Through Slush or Water
 multiple tyre undercarriage, 11004
 single tyre, 05011, 10015, 15007
 Drag When Running Through Slush, Water or Snow, 10002, 10003, 10004
 multiwheel undercarriages rolling or braking, 13002
 Mumeter Mk 6: a continuous friction measuring device, TM 167
 Operating On A SnowCovered Runway, 15008
 Planing of Aircraft Tyre, Partial Planing, Complete Planing, 15003, 15009
 Prediction of Sidespray Envelope for Water and Slush
 centre plume from inner edges of sidebyside tyre arrangement, 83042
 effect of cross wind or head or tail wind, 83042
 effect of tyre chine on height, 83042
 side plumes from outer edges of sidebyside tyre arrangement, 83042
 side plumes from single tyre, 83042
 use of spray alleviation deflectors, 83042
 width, height and location of inner and outer edges, 83042
 Sidespray Impingement Drag on Airframe

 see
 Impingement Drag
 Yawed Rolling (Unbraked)
 yawed tyre on wet or dry runway, 10002, 13007, 15007
 Aerofoil Oscillating in Heave or Pitch or With an Oscillating Control

 see also
 Pressure Distribution
 forces and moments as function of Mach number and frequency, 81034, 82005
 introduction to calculation methods in subsonic or supersonic flow, 82020
 lift, pitching moment and hinge moment in subsonic flow, 81034
 lift, pitching moment and hinge moment in supersonic flow, 82005
 use of aerofoil data in wing flutter calculation, 81034
 use to calculate flutter, 82020
 Bodies of Revolution Oscillating in Bending, Heave or Pitch
 lift distribution and pitching moment as function of frequency, 83010
 Relationship With Flutter Derivatives, 81034
 Relationship With Indicial Functions, 84020
 see also
 Boundary Layer
 Compressibility Factor
 pressure and temperature variation, AERO 00.01.11, AERO 00.01.12
 Density
 pressure and temperature variation, AERO 00.01.11, AERO 00.01.12
 Dynamic Viscosity
 pressure and temperature variation, AERO 00.01.07
 temperature variation at atmospheric pressures, 73017
 Prandtl Number
 pressure and temperature variation, AERO 00.01.07
 Real Gas Factor
 pressure and temperature variation, AERO 00.01.11, AERO 00.01.12
 Specific Enthalpy and Specific Entropy
 pressure and temperature variation, AERO 00.01.06, AERO 00.01.11, AERO 00.01.12
 Specific Heat Capacity Ratio
 pressure and temperature variation, AERO 00.01.06
 Speed of Sound
 pressure and temperature variation, 73017, AERO 00.01.06, AERO 00.01.11, AERO 00.01.12
 Thermal Conductivity
 pressure and temperature variation, AERO 00.01.07
 Approach Speeds, PERF EG6/2
 Definition of Climb Gradient, 70023
 Determination of Airborne Distance in Landing From Regression Applied to Measurements
 of airborne time, and screen and touchdown speeds and rates of descent, 92022
 Effect on Calculation of AccelerateStop and TakeOff Performance
 example procedure for typical transport aircraft, 87018
 Field Length Factors, 76011, 82033, 84040
 Load Factor Requirements For Various Aircraft Types, 94009
 Speeds for Landing and TakeOff, 85029
 TakeOff Field Lengths and Climb Gradients, 76011
 Treated as Constraint in Optimising Complete Sortie
 example calculation results, 93021
 Wet Runway Accountability, 85029
 see
 Cavities
 Definition, 70016
 Calibration Laws, 86031
 Convergent Nozzle in Altitude Test Facility, TM 189
 Effect of Cabin Pressure and Allowable Pressure Differential on Aircraft Operational

 see
 Cabin Conditions
 Geopotential
 Measurement in Flight
 Pressure
 definition, 77022, 86031
 Variation of Atmospheric Properties

 see
 Air
 see
 Ceramics
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate, 81031, 92030

 see also
 Crack Propagation
 characteristic slopes of plots against stress intensity factor, 81031
 effect of alloy composition and heat treatment, 81031, 92030
 effect of corrosive environment, 88007
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 81031
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate (Short Cracks), 92030
 effect of alloy composition and heat treatment, 92030
 Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 81031
 see also
 Aluminium Alloys
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate, 83007, 92030

 see also
 Crack Propagation
 characteristic slopes of plots against stress intensity factor, 83007
 effect of alloy composition and heat treatment, 83007
 effect of corrosive environment, 88007
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 83007
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate (Short Cracks), 92030
 Resistance Curves (RCurves), 85031

 see also
 Resistance Curves
 effect of material specification, 85031
 Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range, 83007
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 83007
 see also
 Aluminium Alloy Bars and Plates
 Aluminium Alloy Forgings
 Aluminium Alloy Sheets
 AluminiumLithium Alloy Bars
 AluminiumLithium Alloy Plates and Sheets
 Anodising
 Bonded Doublestrap Joints in Clad Aluminium Alloys
 Bonded Singlelap Joints in Clad Aluminium Alloys
 Composite Structures
 Fretting Fatigue
 Highload Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
 Lowload Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
 Lugs (Fatigue Strength)
 Lugs (Static Strength)
 Materials Properties
 Mediumload Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
 Riveted Lap Joints in Aluminium Alloy Sheets
 Skinrib Joints in Aluminium Alloys
 Skinrib Joints in Composite Structures
 Welded Attachments in Aluminium Alloys
 Welded Longitudinal Joints in Aluminium Alloys
 Welded Tee Joints in Aluminium Alloys
 Welded Transverse Joints in Aluminium Alloys
 Bearing, Torsion and Shear Strengths 00932 (MMDH)
 Composition of Specific Specifications 00932 (MMDH)
 Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
 Creep Behaviour and Elongation 00932 (MMDH)
 Cumulative Fatigue Damage
 predictive accuracy of PalmgrenMiner rule, 69024, 95006
 Density 00932 (MMDH)
 Elastic Modulus in Compression 00932 (MMDH), 76016
 Elastic Modulus in Tension 00932 (MMDH)
 Elastic Modulus of Rigidity 00932 (MMDH)
 Electrical Conductivity 00932 (MMDH)
 Exfoliation Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
 Explanation of Composition and Temper Designation System, 91039
 Fatigue Strength
 effect of surface finish, FAT E.07.02
 Fatigue Strength Improvement Obtained by ShotPeening, 92015

 see also
 Shot Peening
 behaviour in salt water environment, 92015
 effect of fretting fatigue, 92015
 effect of posttreatment ageing, polishing or stretching, 92015
 effect of pretreatment ageing or heat treatment, 92015
 Fatigue Strength Under Acoustic Loading, 72015
 effect of cladding, 72015
 Fatigue Strength Under Axial Loading of Notched Specimens, FAT E.07.02
 effect of compressive mean stress, 74038
 effect of tensile mean stress, FAT E.07.03
 Fatigue Strength Under Axial or Bending Loading of Notched or Unnotched Specimens
 effect of anodising, 87026
 Fatigue Strength Under Bending of Unnotched Specimens, FAT E.07.01
 effect of tensile mean stress, FAT E.07.03
 Fracture Toughness 00932 (MMDH)
 variation with temperature, 96013
 Generalised StressStrain Curves, 76016
 program to compute from modulus and two inelastic points, 89052
 Poisson's Ratio 00932 (MMDH)
 Proof Stresses in Compression 00932 (MMDH), 76016
 Proof Stresses in Tension 00932 (MMDH)
 Specific Heat Capacity 00932 (MMDH)
 Stress Corrosion Resistance 00932 (MMDH)
 Tensile Strength 00932 (MMDH)
 Thermal Conductivity 00932 (MMDH)
 Thermal Expansion Coefficient 00932 (MMDH)
 Typical Values of Density, Shear Modulus and Young's Modulus, 91001
 Use as Hydrodynamic Bearing Materials
 guide to selection, 88018
 Weldability 00932 (MMDH)
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate (Short Cracks), 92030
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate, 91015, 92030

 see also
 Crack Propagation
 effect of alloy composition and heat treatment, 91015, 92030
 effect of corrosive and other environments, 91015
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 91015, 92030
 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate (Short Cracks), 92030
 effect of alloy composition and heat treatment, 92030
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 92030
 Threshold Stress Intensity Factor Range, 91015
 effect of mean stress (or stress ratio), 91015
Explore ESDU
ESDU Series:
 Aerodynamics
 Aircraft Noise
 Composites
 Dynamics
 Fatigue  Endurance Data
 Fatigue  Fracture Mechanics
 Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow
 Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow (Aerospace)
 Heat Transfer
 Mechanisms
 Performance
 Physical Data, Chemical Engineering
 Stress and Strength
 Structures
 Transonic Aerodynamics
 Tribology
 Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue
 Wind Engineering
ESDU Packages:
 Home  AZ index  Contact Us  Help  About Us  Terms of Use  Privacy Policy  How we use cookies  How to Subscribe 
© 19992019 IHS ESDU, part of IHS Inc.