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Wicks of Small Pore Size
Multiple Wire Mesh
minimum capillary radius, permeability and effective thermal conductivity, 79013
Packed Spherical Particles
minimum capillary radius, permeability and effective thermal conductivity, 79013
Sintered Felted Metal Fibres
minimum capillary radius, permeability and effective thermal conductivity, 79013
Wire-Mesh-Covered Grooves and Annuli
minimum capillary radius, permeability and effective thermal conductivity, 79013
Wilby Compressibility Factor
Velocity Distribution on Aerofoils, 72025, 76002
Wind Gradient
see also
Wind Speed
Correction of Airborne Distance During Landing, 91032
Correction of Measured Climb Angle, 70023, PERF RJ2/0, PERF RP1/2
Effect on Forces, Moments and Pressures on Surface-Mounted Structures
see
Shear Flow
Effect on Noise Measurements Near Ground, 89036
Representative Maximum Values, 70023
Wind Loading
Dynamic Response of Buildings and Structures to Atmospheric Turbulence
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Estimation of Wind Speed
see
Wind Speed
Estimation of Wind Turbulence Characteristics
see
Turbulence Near Ground
Mean and Peak Forces and Moments on Boundary Walls and Hoardings
see
Boundary Walls and Fences
Hoardings (Elevated Above Ground Level)
Mean Forces and Moments on Lattice Frames and Towers
see
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Torsional Moment on Structures
Mean Forces, Moments and Pressures on Buildings
see
Axial Force
Base Pressure
Bluff Bodies
Critical Conditions in Fluid Flow
Internal Pressure
Normal Force
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Pressure Distribution
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Torsional Moment on Structures
Mean Forces, Moments and Pressures on Paraboloidal Antennas
see
Pressure Distribution
Profile Drag
Rotational Moment
Sideforce
Windmilling Engines
see also
Asymmetric Flight
Turbo-Fan and Turbo-Jet
calculation of drag, 84005
drag and mass flow through uninstalled, 81009
spillage drag, 84004
Windmilling Propellers
see also
Asymmetric Flight
Drag, PERF ED1/1
Windscreen
see
Canopy
Wind Speed
see also
Extreme Wind Speeds
Turbulence Near Ground
Wind Gradient
Calculation From Aircraft Air-Data and Inertial Systems, 79018
Effect on Airborne Distance During Landing, 91032
Effect on Aircraft Ground Performance, 85029
incorporation in equations of motion, 85030
Effect on Climb Gradient at Constant Pressure Height, 70023, 79018
Estimation of Hours Exceeding Specified Values
from data on extreme values, 88038
Estimation of Mean-Hourly Near Ground
correction of measured values to other conditions, 01008
effect of direction, 82026
effect of height, upwind terrain and topographical features, 01008, 82026
effect of risk of exceeding and exposure, 82026
Estimation of Speed-Up Over Cliffs, Embankments, Escarpments, Hills or Valleys, 91043
effect of flow separation, 91043
effect of wind inclination to ridge line, 91043
interference from nearby topographic features, 91043
program, 01008
three-dimensional effects, 91043
Profile Near Ground
effect of upwind terrain and topographical features, 01008, 82026
over specific terrains, 70015, 71016, 79026, 80003, 81017
Reference Extreme Values in UK, 82026
Representative Data for Maximum Horizontal Variation, 70023
Sources of Reference Extreme Values for Countries Other Than UK, 82026
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Aerofoils
see also
Aerofoils
Extrapolation to full scale Reynolds Number, 07010, 09015, 09016, 11006
In Open-Jet or Ventilated-Wall or Solid-Wall Tunnel
blockage on drag, flow parameters and velocity, 76028
criterion for zero solid blockage, 76028
discussion of order of application of corrections, 76028
lift interference on aerodynamic centre, incidence, lift and loading, 76028
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Bluff or Quasi-streamlined Bodies
Correction of Forces, Pressures, Strouhal Numbers and Velocities
application of Maskell's and Cowdrey's methods, 80024
application of streamlined-body methods, 80024
elimination of lift-dependent term in drag correction, 80024
methods using wall pressure measurements, 80024
Critical Reynolds Number, 80024
Discussion of Causes and Effects of Blockage, 80024, 81021
Recommended Methods, 80024
Summary of Methods Available, 80024
Testing for Blockage Effects
practical considerations, 80024
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Wings
Extrapolation to full scale Reynolds Number, 07010, 09015, 09016, 11006, 12006
Solid-Liner Tunnel at Subsonic Speeds
aerodynamic centre position and aft shift due to interference upwash, 95014
angle of attack to give same vortex drag and lift as in free air, 95014
variation of interference upwash spanwise and mean value, 95014
Wind-tunnel Testing
see also
Dynamical Similarity
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Aerofoils
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Bluff or Quasi-streamlined Bodies
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Wings
Analysis of wind-tunnel data to determine installed tailplane lift-curve slope (Appendix A), 89029
Considerations in Model Design, Measurement Techniques and Defining Test Programme, 97017
Determination of Buffet Onset and Severity of Buffeting on Wings, 87012
extrapolation of results to full-scale, 87012
Extrapolation to full scale Reynolds Number, 07010, 09015, 09016, 11006, 12006
Measurement of average downwash angle at the tailplane (Section 7.1.2), 97021
Model Testing to Measure Building Damping for Wind Response, 83009
Practical Considerations in Representative Modelling for Bluff Bodies, 77032, 80024
Predicting First Resonant Frequency in Ventilated-Wall With Plenum Chamber
limit for flutter or dynamic testing, 90005
Transition Fixing, 09015, 09016, 14007
Wing-body Combination
see also
Aerodynamic Loading
Derivatives
Static Aeroelasticity
Wave Drag
Aerodynamic Centre of Net Wing (Section 5.3), TD MEMO 6309
Angle of Attack for Zero Lift
cambered and twisted wings with approximately circular-section fuselage, 89042
Axisymmetric Body With Sharp-Edged Delta, Cropped Delta or Rectangular Wings of Low Aspect Ratio
normal force in supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 91042
pitching moment in supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 92043
Body Geometry
effect on drag, lift and pitching moment due to flaps, 97003
effect on rolling moment due to sideslip, 00025, 73006
effect on yawing moment due to sideslip, 00025, 79006
Design of Wing-Body Intersection to Control Pressure Distribution in Transonic Flow, 97017
Drag-Rise Mach Number
relationship to that of basic aerofoil, 78009
High/Low Wing Position
effect on drag, lift and pitching moment due to flaps, 97003
effect on rolling moment due to sideslip, 00025, 73006
Lift-Curve Slope of Missile-Type
mid-wing configuration at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 91007
Lift of Missile-Type
effect of wing height at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 95009
Pitch-Break
prediction of type based on wing planform geometry, 01005
Pitching Moment at Zero Lift
cambered and twisted wings with approximately circular-section fuselage, 89042
Position of Aerodynamic Centre for Missile Type (Truncated Rear Body)
effect of wing height at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 95009
mid-wing configuration at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 92024
Position of Aerodynamic Centre for Transport Aircraft Type (Smoothly Tapered Rear Fuselage)
effect of fuselage geometry, 76015
effect of rear-fuselage nacelle geometry and position, 78013
effect of underwing nacelle geometry and position, 77012
effect of wing sweep, 76015
program for wing-body-nacelle combinations, 13009
Rolling Moment Due to Rolling at Supersonic Speeds
effect of interfence on wing from cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.02
three- or four-wing arrangements on cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.01, AERO A.S.06.03.03
Swept Straight-Tapered Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
prediction of lift and lift dependent drag, 95025
Upwash Induced at Any Point Upstream of Wing
estimation component-by-component taking account of interference, 90020
Use of Vane Vortex Generators to Control Separation in Wing-Body Junction, 93024
Velocity Distribution on Wing (Section 8.4), 73012
Wing Cranks or Notches
see also
Wing Geometry
Effect on Velocity Distribution (Section 8.3), 73012
Wing Geometry
Length and Position of Aerodynamic and Geometric (or Standard) Mean Chords
straight-tapered planforms, or planforms with cranks or sawteeth, 10023, 76003, TM 168
Relationship Between Control/Wing Chord Ratios in Different Planes, 74009
Relationship Between Sweeps of Different Percentage Chord Lines, 10023, 76003
Relationship Between Thickness/Chord Ratios in Different Planes, 74009
Representation of Cranked Planform by Straight-Tapered Planform, 10023, 76003, 95010
Winglets
Consideration of Design Features
planform, section, incidence setting and twist, and junction design, 98013
Discussion of Wing Design to Include to Reduce Trailing Vortex Drag, 98013
added to existing wing with or without span constraint, 98013
incorporated in initial design, 98013
methods of aerodynamic analysis available, 98013
Effect of Combined Lower and Upper Elements, 98013
Examples of Trailing Vortex Drag Reduction With Lift and Wing Root Bending Moment Constrained
various winglet lengths and cant angles (including wing tip extension), 98013
Simplified Assessment of Effect on Range of Civil Transport, 98013
When Added to Existing Wing Design
comparison of benefits with those from wing tip extension, 98013
effect of wing loading distribution on benefits, 98013
Wings
see also
Aerodynamic Loading
Aerofoils
Annular Wings
Cruciform Fins/wings
Delta Wings
Dihedral
Downwash
Flaps
Ground Effect in Fluid Flow
Indicial Aerodynamics
Lifting Surfaces
Rectangular Wings
Slender Wings
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Wings
Wing Geometry
Wing-body Combination
Winglets
Aerodynamic Centre
spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, TD MEMO 6309
subsonic flow, 70011
supersonic flow, 70012
Aerodynamic Characteristics
limits of linearity in low-speed flow, 88030
Analogous Wing Concept, 73012
Buffeting Behaviour
effect of aspect ratio, camber, thickness and sweep, 87012
variation with angle of attack and Mach number, 87012
Calculation of Bending Moment, Loading and Torque on in Steady Level Asymmetric Flight
sideslipping, turning or with failed engine, 01010
Centre of Pressure
program for position for wings with camber and twist, 95010
program for position for wings with camber, twist and deflected plain flaps, 95010
spanwise position for wings with camber and twist, 83040
spanwise position for wings with symmetric section, TD MEMO 6403
Contribution to Airframe Noise, 90023
Critical Pressure Coefficient
estimation, 75027
Deformation in Bending and Twist Using Orthogonal Modes, 97032
Deformation Using Normal Modes, 99033
Discussion of Design to Include Winglets to Reduce Trailing Vortex Drag
added to existing wing with or without span constraint, 98013
incorporated in initial design, 98013
Discussion of Effect of Control or Flap Gaps on Aerodynamic Characteristics, 92039
Discussion of Spanwise Variation of Chordwise Pressure Distribution
at transonic speeds, 90008
Drag Due to Excrescences
see also
Excrescences
examples of calculation of contribution of typical excrescences on transport aircraft, 93032
method to calculate momentum thickness increase due to transition trip using sparsely distributed ballotini, 13013
relative importance of typical excrescences (and their fit/sealing) on transport aircraft, 93032
Drag Estimation
use of simple sweep rules, 97016
use of strip theory for swept, 97016
Drag-Rise Mach Number
estimation using charts relating to aerofoils, 72027
influence of fuselage, 78009
Effect of Static Deformation on Load Distribution, 96037
Estimation of Upwash Induced at Any Point Upstream of Wing, 90020
Factors to Consider in Wing/Winglet Optimum Design, 98013
analysis of Boeing and Douglas wing modification studies, 98013
Fatigue Life Estimation
see
Fatigue Under Variable Amplitude Loading
Standard Fatigue Loading Sequences
Flow Separation
prediction of leading- or trailing-edge on plane, cambered or twisted, 88030
validation against RAE Model W4, 13013
validation of pressures and integral boundary layer data against M2155, 13013
Flutter Calculations
use of aerodynamic data for aerofoils, 81034
Guide to Design in Transonic Flow
body intersection shaping to control pressure distribution, 97017
desirable features of pressure distribution in two- or three-dimensions, 97017
pylon shaping to control pressure distribution, 97017
step-by-step procedure, 97017
structural considerations including effects of flexibility, 97017
tip body shaping to control pressure distribution, 97017
use of curvature distribution in two- or three-dimensions, 97017
use of fences, stall strips, and vortex generators, 97017
use of wind-tunnel testing, 97017
Infinite Yawed
relationship of three-dimensional flow to flow over two-dimensional surface, 90008
Lift
curve against angle of attack from zero to maximum, 96003
prediction from leading-edge suction analogy, 95025
program for non-planar and planar to high angles of attack, 96025
program to predict, 99031
straight-tapered planar to high angles of attack, 95025
Lift at Zero Angle of Attack With Full- or Part-Span Flaps, 93019, 95021, 97002, 97009, 97011
effect of drooped leading edge, slats or sealed slats, 96032
effect of Kruger, vented or unvented, 96032
introduction to Data Items on, 97002
Lift at Zero Angle of Attack With Leading-Edge Full- or Part-Span High-Lift Devices, 96032
effect of double-slotted flaps, 95021, 96032, 97002
effect of plain flaps, 96032, 97002, 97011
effect of single-slotted flaps, 93019, 96032, 97002
effect of split flaps, 96032, 97002, 97009
effect of triple-slotted flaps, 95021, 96032, 97002
introduction to Data Items on, 97002
Lift-Curve Slope
effect of cut-out, AERO W.01.01.04
prediction of initial non-linearity for plane, cambered or twisted, 88030
subsonic flow, 70011, 95010
supersonic flow, 70012
Lift-Curve Slope From Zero to Maximum Lift
program to predict, 99031
with or without leading- and/or trailing-edge high-lift devices, 96003
Lift Dependent Drag
boundary layer contribution in subsonic flow, 66031, 66032, 95025, 96025
effect of flap deployment, 97002, AERO F.02.01.08
supersonic flow, AERO W.S.02.03.02
trailing vortex contribution in subsonic flow, 10022, 74035
Lift Force Due to Rate of Pitch
contribution at subsonic speeds, 90010
contribution at supersonic speeds, AERO W.S.08.03.02
Local Flow Direction
approximation from freestream Mach number, local pressure coefficient and isobar sweep, 93025
Local Mach Number Normal to Isobars
derivation for isentropic flow from pressure distribution, 75027
M151 Forward-Swept Wing, 13013
Maximum Lift With Leading-Edge Part- or Full-Span High-Lift Devices
angle of attack for, 96003
slotted or unslotted, or vented or unvented Kruger, 92031
Maximum Lift Without High-Lift Devices, 89034, 93015
angle of attack for, 96003
program to predict, 99031
Maximum Lift With Trailing-Edge Part- or Full-Span High-Lift Devices
angle of attack for, 96003
plain, slotted or split flaps with leading-edge high-lift devices undeployed, 91014
program to predict, 99031
with leading-edge high-lift devices deployed, 92031
Pitch-Break
prediction of type based on wing planform geometry, 01005
Pitching Moment at Angle of Attack
effect of double-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 99014
effect of leading-edge high-lift devices, alone or with trailing-edge flaps, 00029, 01013, 03017
effect of plain flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 98017
effect of single-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 99004
effect of split flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 98009
effect of triple-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 99014
Pitching Moment at Zero-Lift, 87001
effect of Mach number, 87001
effect of spanwise camber variation and twist, 87001
Pitching Moment Due to Rate of Pitch
contribution at subsonic speeds, 90010
contribution at supersonic speeds, AERO W.S.08.03.02
Pitching Moment for Wings With Camber and Twist
program for spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
Pitching Moment for Wings With Camber, Twist, and Deflected Plain Leading- and/or Trailing-Edge Flaps
program for spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
Pressure Distribution
condition for streamwise distribution equivalent to that on aerofoil, 78009
Profile Drag
effect of deployment of plain flaps, 06014, 87024, AERO F.02.01.07
effect of deployment of single slotted flaps, 08013, AERO F.02.01.07
effect of deployment of split flaps, 74010, AERO F.02.01.07
in shock-free attached flow, 07002, 07003
lift dependent contribution, 07002, 07003, 66031, 66032, 95025, 96025
Program for Swept Non-Planar and Planar to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
prediction of lift and lift dependent drag, 96025
Rolling Moment Due to Rolling at Subsonic Speeds, AERO A.06.01.01
Rolling Moment Due to Rolling at Supersonic Speeds
effect of interference on wing from cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.02
three- or four-wing arrangements on cylindrical body, AERO A.S.06.03.01, AERO A.S.06.03.03
Rolling Moment Due to Sideslip
contribution in attached flow, 00025, 80033
effect of full-span dihedral, 00025, AERO A.06.01.03
effect of part-span dihedral, 00025, AERO A.06.01.09
Rolling Moment Due to Yawing
bibliography for separated flow, 72021
contribution in attached flow, 72021
dihedral and twist effects, 72021
Separation
use of vane vortex generators to control shock-induced, 93024, 93025
Separation Prediction at Transonic Speeds
criteria for flow break-down, 91021
flow break-down boundary from pressure distribution and boundary layer characteristics, 91021
Sharp-Edged Delta, Cropped Delta and Rectangular of Low Aspect Ratio
centre of pressure in subsonic flow, 95022
normal force and pitching moment in supersonic flow, 90013
normal force in subsonic flow, 93034
Sideforce Due to Rolling
attached flow, 81014
compressibility effects, 81014
discussion of edge forces, 81014
Similarity Laws Applied to Lift, Pitching Moment, Pressure and Pressure Drag Coefficients
in subsonic, supersonic and transonic flows, 97025
Simple Sweep Rules Applied to Drag, Lift and Pressure Coefficients, 97016
Spanwise Loading
for wings with camber and twist in subsonic flow, 83040
for wings with symmetric section in subsonic flow, TD MEMO 6403
program for wings with camber and twist in subsonic flow, 95010
program for wings with camber, twist and deflected plain flaps in subsonic flow, 95010
Spanwise Variation of Wave Drag
calculation from surface curvature, shock sweep and local Mach number, 87003
Strip Theory Applied to Drag Estimation, 97016
Structure Weight Correlation With Root Bending Moment, 98013
Swept Straight-Tapered Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
prediction of lift and lift dependent drag, 95025
Trailing Vortex Drag of Cambered and Twisted or Plane
in shock-free attached flow, 10022
with or without trailing-edge flaps deployed, 01007
Trailing Vortex Drag of Plane, 66031, 74035
Trapezoidal Planform
Mach number for supersonic leading- or trailing-edges, 75004
spanwise distribution of leading-edge suction, and total suction, 94037, 94038
Two Staggered or One in Combination With Fore- (or Tail-) Plane
program for drag, trimmed with given static margin, 81023
program for lift, trimmed with given static margin, 81023
Typical Shock Patterns and Separation Lines
swept wings in transonic flow, 90008
Validation Against RAE Model W4, 13013
Velocity Distribution
interference effect of fuselage or other bodies (Section 8.4), 73012
subsonic flow, 73012
Wave Drag at Zero Lift
biconvex or double-wedge sections, 75004
With Spanwise Camber and Twist Distributions and Without High-Lift Devices
maximum lift in subcritical flow, 89034, 93015
Yawing Moment Due to Rolling
attached and separated flow, 81014
compressibility effects, 81014
discussion of edge forces, 81014
Yawing Moment Due to Yawing
attached flow, 71017
bibliography for separated flow, 71017
Zero-Lift Angle of Attack in Subcritical Flow
for wings with camber and twist, 87031, 93015
Wire Gauzes
see
Gauzes
Working
Materials

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