ESDU A-Z Index: FLE-FORF

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Flow Measurement
Laser-Doppler Anemometry (LDA), 16001, 17008
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), 16001, 17009
Thermal Anemometry (CTA), 16001, 16002
Flexibility
Aircraft
see
Static Aeroelasticity
Strength Analysis
see
Bolted Joints
Bolted Lap Joints
Pipe Bends (unrestrained)
Pipe Bends (with End Flanges)
Pipe Bends (with Straight Pipe Attachments)
Shear Webs
Flexural Buckling
see also
Flat Panels in General
Flat Panels Under Compression
description, 72012
Struts Under Compression
see
Struts in General
Struts of Channel Section
Struts of Lipped or Unlipped Z-section
Struts of Thin-walled Open Section
Flexural Properties
see
Angle Sections with Lips
Channel Sections with Lips turned inwards
Channel Sections without Lips
Laminated Construction Using Composites
Z-sections
Flexure-pivots
Crossed Strip
angular spring rate, 67021
applications, 67021
buckling criterion, 67021
deflection, 67021
design procedure, 67021
load capacity, 67021
Flight Dynamics
see
Aerodynamic Loading
Ailerons
Attitude Angles
Axes Systems in Aircraft Dynamics and Performance
Control Systems
Direction Angles
Dutch Roll
Dynamic Stability
Equations of Motion
Handling Qualities
Incidence Angles
Lateral Stability and Response
Linear Systems
Longitudinal Stability and Response
Non-linear Systems
Notation
Parameter Identification
Rolling
Rudder
Sampled-data Systems
Static Aeroelasticity
Flight Effects on Noise Measured Under Static Conditions
see also
Jet Noise
Discussion of Changes to Various Noise Sources, 02020
Doppler frequency shifting due to aircraft velocity, 02020
Flight Envelope
Typical and Load Factor Values for Various Aircraft Types, 94009
Flight Instrumentation
see
Ambient Temperature
Anemometric Data Correction
In-flight calibration of an angle of attack sensor, 17013, TM 185
Parameters measured and recorded during flight test manoeuvres in order to derive performance model, 15001
Flight Path
see also
Air Path
Flight Path Optimisation
Constraints on Climb and Descent Due to Rate of Change of Cabin Pressure, 94040
Introduction to Estimation, 80026
Relationship of Velocity With Air-Path Velocity and Wind Velocity, 79018
Flight Path Optimisation
see also
Cruise-climb
Climb Using Energy Height Techniques
calculation method for rapid estimation by personal computer, 91016
calculation methods, 90012, 91016
calculation method using flight test level accelerations, 70023
comparison of results with those from a multivariate gradient-search method, 93021
effect of using practical off-optimum climb schedule, 90012
estimation of effect of required simplifications on results, 90012
introduction to method and required simplifications of equations of motion, 90012
likely errors caused by assumptions intrinsic to method, 90012
worked example of time to height showing effect of weight change, 70021
worked examples of time and fuel to height and speed, 90012, 91016
worked examples of time and fuel to height, speed and distance, 90012, 91016
Discussion of Use of Mutivariate Gradient-Search Techniques
basis of method and need to set tolerance on result, 94012
difficulties in application with specific examples, 94012
need for user-written routines to calculate flight path segments, 94012
operation of program RQPMIN, 94012
Examples of Mutivariate Gradient-Search Applied to Complete Sortie (Climb, Cruise, Descent, Hold, etc)
to maximise range under chosen design and operational constraints, 94016
to maximise various objective functions under various design and operational constraints, 93021
General Introduction to Data Items on, 80026
Introduction to General Cases, 89015
simplifications possible to achieve practical solutions, 89015
Flight Testing
see also
Aircraft Performance Analysis
Aircraft Performance Reduction
Ambient Temperature
Anemometric Data Correction
Helicopter Performance Analysis
Parameter Identification
Vectored-jet-thrust Aircraft
Development of mathematical model from flight test data, 15001
In-flight calibration of an angle of attack sensor, 17013, TM 185
Methods of Processing Performance Data, 80009
factors affecting choice of method, 80009
Performance Data from Manoeuvring Flight, TM 190
Thrust-drag Accounting From Flight Test Data, 16003
Float-type Flowmeters
Pressure Drop Across, 66030
Flooded Runways
see
Aircraft Tyres
Analysis of Aircraft Tests on Flooded Runways, TM 192
Flow in Piping Systems
see
Pipes with Internal Flow
Flowmetering Devices
Classification of Types, 66030
Estimation of Pressure Drop Across, 66030
Flow Separation
see also
Buffeting
Lift-curve Slope
Maximum Lift
Aerofoils at Subcritical Speeds
characteristics, 66034, 84026, 87012, 94026
effect on lift-curve slope, 66034, 94026
prediction of leading-edge, 88030
prediction of trailing-edge, 88030
Aerofoils at Transonic Speeds
see also
Stratford's Criterion for Flow Separation
application of VGK for separation prediction, 97030
boundary layer criteria for shock-induced separation on upper-surface, 81020
characteristics, 87012, 90008
comparison of results obtained using VGK with experimental data, 97030
criteria for shock-induced flow breakdown, 91021
discussion of shock-induced separation types, 90008
flow breakdown boundary from pressure distribution and boundary layer characteristics, 91021
illustration of shock-induced separation types, 90008
reattachment point on upper surface, 91021
separation boundary from computed pressure distribution, 92008
separation boundary from computed pressure distribution and boundary layer, 81020, 97030
shock/boundary layer interaction length, 90008
shock-induced bubble length, 90008, 91021
upstream Mach number for flow breakdown, 90008, 91021
Area or Mass Flow Ratio for Onset of Intake Spillage
on conical cowls, 84004
on elliptical, parabolic and other cowls, 84004
on NACA 1-Series cowls, 81024, 84004
Control of Shock-Induced
see
Vane Vortex Generators
Crossflow About Bluff Bodies
see also
Critical Conditions in Fluid Flow
Vortex Shedding
discussion of fluctuating forces, 77032
Cylindrical Body at Angle of Attack, 89014
effect of Reynolds number on flow regimes, 89014
vortex separation points in supersonic flow, 91042
Description of Process, 71012
Diffusers
critical geometries for annular, 75026
critical geometries for conical, 73024
critical geometries for plane-walled with single-plane expansion, 74015
discussion of methods of control and their effectiveness, 76027
Induced on Afterbody by Underexpanded Propulsive Jet
discussion of phenomenon, 99010
Over Topographical Features
effect on wind speed-up factors, 01008, 91043
Validation
against RAE Model W4, 13013
of pressures and integral boundary layer data against M2155, 13013
Wings at Subcritical Speeds
prediction of leading- or trailing-edge on plane or cambered and twisted, 88030
Wings at Transonic Speeds
criteria for shock-induced flow breakdown, 91021
flow breakdown boundary from pressure distribution and boundary layer characteristics, 91021
Fluids
Physical Properties
see
Non-newtonian Fluids
Fluid Transients
see
Pressure Transients in Gas (and Steam) Internal Flow
Pressure Transients in Liquid Internal Flow
Fluorescence
Laser Induced for Temperature Measurement of Gases
see
Temperature Measurement
Flushing Oils
Kinematic Viscosity
typical values, 71003
Flush Intakes
see
Intakes
Spillage Drag
Flutter
see also
Flutter Derivatives
Classical and Stall
discussion of sources and methods of alleviating, 77032
Classical Due to Wakes
characteristics of response of a cylinder, 79025
regions of interference between two cylinders, 79025
Introduction to Calculation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Data for, 82020
Flutter Derivatives
Aerofoil Oscillating in Heave or Pitch or With an Oscillating Control
see also
Pressure Distribution
forces and moments as functions of Mach number and frequency, 81034, 82005
lift, pitching moment and hinge moment in subsonic flow, 81034
lift, pitching moment and hinge moment in supersonic flow, 82005
use of aerofoil data in wing flutter calculations, 81034
Bodies of Revolution Oscillating in Bending, Heave or Pitch
lift distribution and pitching moment as functions of frequency, 83010
Relationship With Airforce Coefficients, 81034, 83010
Use to Predict Flutter, 81034, 82020
Flying Qualities
see
Handling Qualities
Fohn Winds
Description, 87034
Force Balancing of Linkages
see also
Balancing of Linkages
Linkages
Advantages and Limitations of Various Methods Singly or in Combination
counterweights, 89043
duplicate linkage added antisymmetrically or with mirror-image symmetry, 89043
dyad added, 89043
Lanchester balancer, 89043
Design Procedure for Elimination of Shaking Force on Planar Multi-Bar Linkages
determination of masses and their locations, 89028
use of OSMEC program to determine masses and their locations, 97026
Use of Constant Speed Rotating Counterweights For Partial Balance of Planar Linkages
alignment and mass of generalised Lanchester Balancer, 90007
alignment and mass of Lanchester Balancer, 90007
alignment and mass of single counterweight, 90007
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
see also
Crossflow Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers
Roughness
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Annular-Section Pipes With Uniform or Varying Axial Heat Flux, 81045
criteria for negligible effects of free convection, 81045
eccentricity effects, 81045
entrance effects, 81045
variable fluid property effects, 81045
Archimedian or Helical Coils, 78031
criteria for applicability of data for straight ducts, 78031
criteria for negligible effects of free convection, 78031
non-circular cross-section effects, 78031
pitch effects, 78031
thermal entrance effects, 78031
variable fluid property effects, 78031
variation of heat transfer around circumference, 78031
Between Parallel Plates With Uniform or Varying Axial Heat Flux, 81045
Circular-Section Cylinders or Tubes in Crossflow
approximate equation for atmospheric air, 78029
effect of number of rows in bank, 73031
effect of tube bank arrangement and geometry, 73031
gases and liquids about single tube, 69004
gases and liquids through tube bank, 73031
orientation effects for single tube, 69004
orientation effects for tube bank, 73031
row-to-row variation through tube bank, 73031
variable fluid property effects for single tube, 69004
variable fluid property effects for tube bank, 73031
Colburn j-Factor Used to Model Inside Tubes
approximate expressions for various types of tube inserts, 97007
definition, 97007
Discussion of Aerodynamic Heating and Equilibrium Surface Temperature, 69009, 89022
Enhancement by Use of Roughness Elements
calculation of effect of random or systematic roughness from known friction factor, 82021
random or systematic roughness in turbulent flow, 82021
twisted tape inserts, 00041, 95027, 97007
various types of tube inserts including twisted tapes, 00041, 97007
Flat Plates at Incidence in Supersonic Flow
laminar boundary layer, 69010
turbulent boundary layer, 69011
Flat Plates at Zero Incidence in Subsonic or Supersonic Flow
application to circular-section cylinders at zero incidence, 69010, 69011
application to cones and wedges at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 69010, 69011
laminar boundary layer, 69010
turbulent boundary layer, 69011
Flow in Circular-Section Pipes
charts for rapid evaluation for steam or water, 81044
gases, 92003, 93018, AERO 00.02.05
liquids, 92003, 93018
Flow in Non-Circular Section Ducts
gases, AERO 00.02.05
High-Fin Tubes in Crossflow
comparison of predictions with experimental results, 86022
effect of number of rows in bank, 86022
effect of tube bank arrangement and geometry, 86022
effect of variable fluid properties for flow through bank, 86022
single-phase gas or liquid flow through bank, 86022
Laminar Flow in Circular-Section Pipes With Combined Forced/Free Convection, Uniform Wall Temperature
horizontal pipes, 93018
vertical pipes, buoyancy-assisted or -opposed, 93018
Laminar Flow in Circular-Section Pipes With Uniform Wall Temperature or Uniform Heat Flux
effect of radial variation of liquid viscosity, 93018
fully-developed, thermally-developing or simultaneously-developing entrance flow, 93018
Low-Fin Tubes in Crossflow
comparison of predictions with experimental results, 84016
effect of number of rows in bank, 84016
effect of tube bank arrangement and geometry, 84016
effect of variable fluid properties for flow through bank, 84016
single-phase gas or liquid flow through bank, 84016
Recovery Temperature in Gas Flow
variation with Mach number and temperature, AERO W.S.00.03.18
Rotating Shafts in Crossflow
approximate equations for atmospheric air, 78029, 97019
To or From Shapes Approximating Rectangular Bodies
approximate equation for atmospheric air, 78029, 97019
Transitional Flow in Circular-Section Pipes
recommendations for interpolating between laminar and turbulent flow, 93018
Turbulent Flow in Circular-Section Ducts, 92003, AERO 00.02.05, AERO 00.03.26
accuracy of six estimation equations in various Reynolds-Prandtl number regimes, 92003
charts for rapid evaluation for steam or water, 81044
compressibility effects, AERO 00.02.05
distribution of Nusselt number in thermally- or simultaneously-developing flow, 93018
distribution of Stanton number in thermally-developing flow, AERO 00.02.05
free convection effects, 93018
graphical comparison of six estimation equations, 92003
Petukov equations for estimation, 92003
Reynolds-Prandtl number regime for existence, 92003
thermal entrance lengths for various Reynolds-Prandtl number regimes, 92003
variable fluid property effects, 92003, AERO 00.02.05
variable heat flux distribution, AERO 00.02.05, AERO 00.03.26
Turbulent Flow in Non-Circular Section Ducts, AERO 00.02.05
compressibility effects, AERO 00.02.05
thermal entrance effects, AERO 00.02.05
variable fluid property effects, AERO 00.02.05
variable heat flux distribution, AERO 00.02.05, AERO 00.03.26
Forces
Aerodynamic
expressed as an expansion in terms of small perturbations, 67003, 86021
functional dependence, 86021
Axes Transformation, 67004, 67036, 78038, 82031, 85030, 86041
Contact
see
Contact Phenomena
Due to Internal Flow
see
Pipes with Internal Flow
On Aircraft and Components
see
Aerodynamic Loading
Axial Force
Base Drag (without Blowing or Jet Efflux)
Base Drag with Central Propulsive Jet
Drag
Flutter Derivatives
Ground Performance in Take-off and Landing
Interference
Lift
Sideforce
Similarity Laws
Thrust of Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
On Bearings in Planar Multi-Bar Linkages
analysis using OSMEC program, 97026
worked example to illustrate use of OSMEC program to calculate, 98023
On Buildings and Structures Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
see
Axial Force
Boundary Walls and Fences
Derivatives
Hoardings (Elevated Above Ground Level)
Normal Force
Profile Drag
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Sideforce
Forebody
see also
Cones
Cowls
Blunted
description of flow development with increasing Mach number, 82018
Blunted Conical
axial pressure force at low incidence in transonic flow, 89033
foredrag (pressure drag and skin friction) at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 68021
geometrical relations for spherical blunting, 68021, 77028, 82018, 82028, 83017
normal-force-curve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
normal pressure force at low incidence in transonic flow, 89033
optimum blunting for minimum pressure drag, 89033
pitching-moment-curve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
planform area and its centroid, 77028
pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
pressure distribution at zero incidence in subsonic or transonic flow, 83018
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in high supersonic or hypersonic flow, 82028
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 83017, 89033
surface area and volume, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
Blunted Paraboloid
geometrical relations for spherical blunting, 79004
planform area and its centroid, 77028
pressure distribution at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 79004
surface area, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
volume, 77028, 79004
Blunted Tangent or Secant Ogive
geometrical relations for spherical blunting, 77028, 82018, 83017
planform area and its centroid, 77028
surface area and volume, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
Conical
see also
Boundary Layer
Equilibrium Surface Temperature
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Skin Friction Drag
foredrag (pressure drag and skin friction) at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 68021
pressure distribution at zero incidence in subsonic or transonic flow, 83018
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in high supersonic or hypersonic flow, 82028
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 83017
Cowl
Cowl afterbody forces, 16003
Cowl forebody forces, 16003
Ducted Conical or Parabolic
external wave drag at zero incidence, AERO B.S.02.03.02
Ducted Elliptical Cross Section
external wave drag at zero incidence, AERO B.S.02.03.02
Ellipsoidal
geometrical relations, 82018
normal-force-curve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
pitching-moment-curve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
planform area and its centroid, 77028
pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 82018
pressure distribution at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008, 82018
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 79004
surface area, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
volume, 77028, 79004
Flat-Faced
pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82028
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
Flat-Faced With Shoulder Radius
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
Hemispherical
foredrag (pressure drag and skin friction) at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 68021
pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
pressure distribution at zero incidence in subsonic flow, 82018, 83018
pressure distribution at zero incidence in transonic flow, 80008, 82018, 83018
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82028
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic, subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 79004, 83017
Introduction to Estimation of Wave Drag, AERO B.S.02.03.01
Ogive
pressure distribution in supersonic flow, AERO B.S.05.03.01
Ogive With Nose Blunting
axial pressure force at low incidence in transonic flow, 89033
normal pressure force at low incidence in transonic flow, 89033
optimum blunting for minimum pressure drag, 89033
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 89033
Ogive With or Without Nose Blunting
geometrical relations for spherical blunting, 77028, 79004, 82018, 83017
normal-force-curve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
pitching-moment-curve slope at zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
planform area and its centroid, 77028
pressure distribution at zero incidence in subsonic flow, 82018, 83018
pressure distribution at zero incidence in transonic flow, 83018
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 80021
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in transonic flow, 79004, 83017
surface area, nose angle or radius of curvature, 77028
volume, 77028, 79004
Planform Areas and Their Centroids for Various Shapes, 77028
Spherically-Curved Face With Sharp Shoulder
pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
pressure (or wave) drag at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82028
Spherically-Curved Face With Shoulder Radius
pressure distribution at zero incidence in hypersonic or supersonic flow, 82018
Surface Area, Nose Angle or Radius of Curvature for Various Shapes and Cross-Sections, 77028
Volume for Various Shapes, 77028, 79004
Forebody-afterbody
see also
Cone Cylinders
Forebody-cylinders
Interference Wave Drag
Ogive Cylinders
Planform Areas and Their Centroids for Various Shapes, 77028
Surface Areas and Volumes, Nose and Tail Angles or Radii of Curvature for Various Shapes, 77028
Forebody-cylinders
see also
Base Drag (without Blowing or Jet Efflux)
Base Drag with Central Propulsive Jet
Centre of Pressure, Normal Force and Pitching Moment
incidences to 90? and Mach numbers to 5, 89014, 90034
Normal-Force-Curve and Pitching-Moment-Curve Slopes
zero incidence and Mach numbers to 5, 89008
Oscillating in Bending, Heave or Pitch
lift distribution and pitching moment, 83010
Pitching Moment Derivatives Due to Rate of Pitch and Acceleration in Heave
low incidence and supersonic speeds, with or without boat-tailing and fins, 91004
Planform Areas and Their Centroids for Various Shapes, 77028
Sideforce at Mach Numbers Below 1.2 and Incidences Above 20?
discussion of sources, 89014
effect of Mach number and Reynolds number, 89014
effect of nose blunting, 89014
envelope of overall maximum with crossflow Mach number, 89014
typical axial distributions, 89014
Surface Areas and Volumes, Nose Angles or Radii of Curvature for Various Shapes, 77028
Foreplanes
see
Wings

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