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L
see
Rolling Moment
Rolling Moment Due To Rolling (Lp or Clp)
Rolling Moment Due To Rudder Deflection (Lζ or Cl Δ r)
Rolling Moment Due To Sideslip (Lv or Cl β)
Rolling Moment Due To Yawing (Lr or Clr)
Labyrinth Seals
see also
Rotating Machinery
see
Rotary Seals
Design of, 09004
Performance Assessment of, 09004
Selection of, 09004, 80012
Types Available
advantages and limitations, 09004, 80012
life, 09004, 80012
maximum fluid pressure and shaft speed, 09004, 80012
radial, 09004
shaft and housing finishes required, 09004, 80012
special design features that can be used, 09004, 80012
staggered, 09004
stepped, 09004
straight-through, 09004
typical applications, 09004, 80012
Lag
Air Temperature Probes
response to transients, 84007
Anemometric Data Measuring System in Aircraft
effect of transition from laminar flow on use of ground calibration, 87038
experimental determination for installed system, 87038
incorporation of correction to pitot and static pressures, 83029, 87038, 88025
pitot and static errors due to, 85011
theoretical treatment of acoustic and viscous, 87038
Laminar Flow
see
Aerodynamic Heating
Boundary Layer
Falling Film Evaporation
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Free Convection Heat Transfer
Journal Bearings
Mixed Forced-free Convection Heat Transfer
Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
Pressure Drop in Non-newtonian Flow
Laminated Construction Using Composites
see also
Beams of Sandwich Construction
Corner Section in Specially-orthotropic Plates
Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Curved Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Cylinders of Laminated Construction
Faceplate Wrinkling
Failure Modes
Flat Panels with Fibre-reinforced Unflanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Corrugated Cores)
Flat Sandwich Panels (Truss Cores)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Flat Strips of Orthotropic Materials
Flat Unbalanced Laminated Rectangular Plates
Sandwich Panels and Plates
Spherical Shells of Laminated Construction
Struts of Sandwich Construction
Criterion for Edge Delamination Failure, 95028
Definition of Balanced and Unbalanced Laminates, 94003
types of stiffness coupling in unbalanced, 94003
Dynamic Response to Excitation
see
Response of Lightweight Structures
Elastic Constants
calculation from properties of individual layers, 02009, 83035, 94003
calculation from properties of matrix and fibres, 02009, 83035
Fatigue Strength Under Acoustic Loading
aluminium-glassfibre epoxy (GLARE) laminates including temperature effects, 84027
design considerations to improve, 86025
fibre-reinforced laminates and skin-rib joints, 84027
Flexural and In-Plane Stiffnesses
calculation from properties of individual layers, 02009, 83035, 94003
calculation from properties of matrix and fibres, 02009, 83035
related to any reference plane in terms of those related to central plane, 94003
Interlaminar Stresses at Free Edges in Composite Plates Under Uniaxial Strain
program for estimation, 95028
use to predict delamination, 95028
Layer Strains and Stresses
formulae for transforming values between axes systems, 94003
Layer Stresses in Balanced and Unbalanced Laminates
due to applied loads and moments and temperature variation, 94004
due to method of manufacture, 94004
Layer Stresses in Unbalanced Laminates
due to restraining flat, 94004
Plate Curvatures and Strains for Balanced and Unbalanced Laminates
due to applied loads and moments and temperature variation, 94004
due to method of manufacture, 94004
Plates Tapered in Thickness by Ply Drop-Offs
program to predict uniaxial load for delamination, 91003
use of fracture mechanics to predict delamination, 91003
Plate Strains for Unbalanced Laminates
due to restraining flat, 94004
Program to Compute Stress and Strain Distribution Around Circular Hole, 85001
use to design reinforcement in fibre-reinforced composites, 86003
Program to Design Most Effective Laminate to Support In-Plane Loads and Bending Moment
choice of ply thicknesses and lay-up using 0?, 90?, ?45? layers only, 96036
Stacking Sequences for Special Orthotropy, 82013
selection of stacking sequence to meet stiffness criteria, 82013
Structural Damping
discussion of effect of fibre angle, length and volume, and temperature, 91012
program for calculation of fibre-reinforced, 85012
typical values, 91012
Through-Thickness Shear Stiffnesses of Plate Materials, 89013
illustration of trends with material characteristics, 89013
Lanchester Balancer
Partial Balancing of Planar Multi-Bar Linkages
design of generalised to eliminate single frequency of frame shaking force/moment, 90007
design to eliminate single frequency of frame shaking force, 90007
Landing
Autolanding Threshold Dispersion Data Analysis
as illustration of use of statistical techniques, 91019
Correlation of Changes in Drag-Minus-Thrust and Lift in Airborne Manoeuvre
deduced from speeds at screen and touch-down, 91032, 92020
discussion of effect of landing style, 92020
example plots for wide range of aircraft and power plants, 92020
Determination of Airborne Distance By Regression Applied to Measurements
of airborne time, and screen and touch-down speeds and rates of descent, 92022
Development of Relation Between Approach Speed and Ground Run
by regression applied to measurements, 92021
Estimation
see also
Aircraft Tyres
Brakes
Braking
Friction Coefficient
Ground Effect in Fluid Flow
Ground Performance in Take-off and Landing
Planing of Aircraft Tyres
Runways
airborne distance, 91032, 92020
approach speed, PERF EG6/2
average value of drag-minus-thrust during airborne phase, 91032
certification airborne manoeuvre, 91032
circular arc representation of airborne phase, 91032
discussion of deceleration techniques, 85029
effect of power cut height on airborne distance, 91032
effect of runway gradient, 91032
effect of wind and wind gradient on airborne distance, 91032, 92020
field length factors defined by airworthiness requirements, 84040
ground run, PERF EG6/4
ground run prediction on wet runway from aircraft stopping distance test data, 99015
ground run prediction on wet runway from friction ground-test machine data, 99015
introduction to Data Items on, 80026
limiting speeds defined by airworthiness requirements, 85029
speed loss in airborne phase to touch-down, 91032
thrust decay of turbo-fan and turbo-jet engines, 85029
time delays in response of mechanical deceleration devices, 85029
time from screen to touch-down, 91032
total distance from 50 ft, 84040
touch-down speed from airborne time and screen speed, 92020
typical speed losses before brake application, 85029
typical touch-down speeds related to screen speeds, 85029
typical values of deceleration in ground run, 76011
use of braking parachutes, 85029
Fatigue Loading in Ground Run
see
Fatigue Loading
Impingement Drag Due to Tyre Sidespray Impacting Airframe
see
Impingement Drag
Prediction of Tyre Sidespray Envelope for Water and Slush, 83042
Reduction of Measured Data, 80009, PERF RG2/1
vectored-jet-thrust aircraft, 87037
Turbulence During Approach
see also
Turbulence Near Ground
stalling due to, PERF EG6/2
Landing Gear
see
Undercarriage
Undercarriage Drag Estimation
Lap Joints
Fatigue Strength
see
Bolted Double Lap Joints in Steels
Bonded Single-lap Joints in Clad Aluminium Alloys
Fretting Fatigue
High-load Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Low-load Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Medium-load Transfer Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Riveted Lap Joints in Aluminium Alloy Sheets
Strength Analysis
see also
Bolted Lap Joints
Bonded Double- or Single-lap Joints
Bonded Double-lap Joints
Bonded Joints
Bonded Single-lap Joints
maximum stresses in plates under compression or tension, 67008
Laplace Transform
Relationship With Z-Transform, 86037
Table of Useful Forms, 69025
Use in Solution of Differential Equations With Worked Examples, 69025
Laser Transformation
Surface Treatments of Steels to Improve Fatigue Strength
advantages and limitations, 89031
comparison with other possible surface treatments, 89031
Latent Heat of Vaporisation
Lateral Noise Attenuation
see also
Atmospheric Effects on Sound
Estimation for Aircraft With Rear-Fuselage Turbo-Fan or Turbo-Jet Engines
effect of distance and elevation angle on third-octave sound pressures, 82027, 82027 Addendum
in subjective noise units Addendum, 82027, 82027 Addendum
program for third-octave sound pressures
Estimation for Aircraft With Underwing Turbo-Fan or Turbo-Jet Engines
effect of distance and elevation angle on third-octave sound pressures, 82027, 82027 Addendum
in subjective noise units Addendum, 82027, 82027 Addendum
program for third-octave sound pressures
Explanation of Derivation of Prediction Method for Aircraft
effect of aircraft flow field, 81035
effect of jet-by-jet shielding, 81035, 88023
effect of meteorological conditions, 81035
effect of sampling time, 81035
elimination of background noise, 81035
use of ground reflection correction to data, 81035
use of measured or predicted atmospheric attenuation, 81035
Lateral Stability and Response
see also
Asymmetric Flight
Derivatives
Dynamic Stability
Approximate Solution to Modes of Motion, 83024
comparison with full solution for particular aircraft, 83024
Description of Modes of Lateral Motion and Effect of Aircraft Characteristics on Them
Dutch roll, 83024, 86021
rolling subsidence and spiral mode, 86021
Desirable Characteristics of Lateral Modes for Good Aircraft Handling Qualities, 92006
Effect of Control Augmentation on Dutch Roll, 83024
Effect of Idealised Yaw Damper on Dutch Roll, 83024
Equations of Motion
rigid aircraft, 67003, 83024, 86021
separation of lateral/longitudinal sets and appropriate characteristic equations, 67003, 86021
Estimation of Roll Response to Aileron Input, PERF EG8/2
Inertia Coupling of Lateral/Longitudinal Equations
rapid rolling manoeuvre, 67005, 67006, 67007
Requirements for Minimum Values of Damping and Frequency of Dutch Roll
for military aircraft handling, according to aircraft class and flight phase, 92006
Requirements for Roll Performance and Roll Time Constant
for military aircraft handling, according to aircraft class and flight phase, 92006
Lattice Structures of Flat-sided And/or Tubular Members
Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Mean Forces and Moments Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
see
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Torsional Moment on Structures
Mechanical Vibration Characteristics
see
Buildings
Layered Structure
see
Laminated Construction Using Composites
Lead/bismuth Eutectic Solution
Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity
temperature variation in liquid state, 66024
Leading-edge Devices (sealed)
see also
Leading-edge High-lift Devices
Choice of Optimum Deflection on Aerofoil Using Multivariate Gradient Search and CFD Codes
example studies for single design point, 00022, 00023, 99020
example study together with camber line shape for two design points, 99021
example study together with surface shape for two design points, 01024
Effect of Deflection on Drag, Lift, Hinge and Pitching Moments and Pressure Distribution
in subsonic or transonic flow, 01033
Effect of Deflection on Drag, Lift, Pitching Moment and Pressure Distribution
in subsonic or transonic flow, 96028, 96029
Leading-edge High-lift Devices
Drooped Leading Edge or Plain Flap
angle of attack for maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
effect on lift of wings at zero angle of attack, 96032, 97002
effect on maximum lift of basic aerofoil and its lift at zero angle of attack, 94027
effect on maximum lift of wings, 92031
effect on pitching moment of basic aerofoil and wing, 00029, 03017
lift curve from zero to maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
program to predict, 99031
Effect of Deflection on Drag, Hinge and Pitching Moments, Lift and Pressure Distribution
in subsonic or transonic flow, 01033
Example of Calculation of Local Excrescence Contribution to Drag, 93032
Slats or Sealed Slats
angle of attack for maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
effect on lift of wings at zero angle of attack, 96032, 97002
effect on maximum lift of basic aerofoil and its lift at zero angle of attack, 94027
effect on maximum lift of wings, 92031
effect on pitching moment of basic aerofoil and wing, 00029, 03017
lift curve from zero to maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
program to predict, 99031
Slats or Sealed Slats in Combination With Trailing-Edge High-Lift Devices
angle of attack for maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
effect on lift of wings at zero angle of attack, 93019, 95021, 96032, 97002, 97009, 97011
effect on maximum lift of basic aerofoil and its lift at zero angle of attack, 94027, 94028, 94029, 94030, 94031
effect on maximum lift of wings, 91014, 92031
effect on pitching moment of basic aerofoil and wing, 00029, 03017
lift curve from zero to maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
program to predict, 99031
Unvented and Vented Krugers
angle of attack for maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
effect on lift of wings at zero angle of attack, 96032, 97002
effect on maximum lift of basic aerofoil and its lift at zero angle of attack, 94027
effect on maximum lift of wings, 92031
effect on pitching moment of basic aerofoil and wing, 00029, 03017
lift curve from zero to maximum lift of aerofoils and wings, 96003
program to predict, 99031
With Slot
contribution to airframe noise, 90023
Leading-edge Suction
Aerofoils
attainable value from theoretical value for thin aerofoil, 95025, 96025
Swept Non-Planar and Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
spanwise distribution of attainable values, 96025
Swept Straight-Tapered Plane Wings at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.02.03.02
Swept Straight-Tapered Plane Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
spanwise distribution of attainable values, 95025
Theoretical Values for Thin Straight-Tapered Plane Wings at Subsonic Speeds
spanwise distribution and total, 94037, 94038
Use of Analogy for Lift Estimation at Subsonic Speeds
swept non-planar and planar wings to high angle of attack, 96025
swept straight-tapered plane wings to high angle of attack, 95025
Leaks
Control by Seals
see
Reciprocating Seals
Rotary Seals
Drag
due to a discharge into an external stream, 16006
Effect on Aerodynamic Characteristics
see
Gap
Mass Flow Rate
into an external stream, 16005
Least Weight Design
see
Flat Panels with Unflanged Integral Stiffeners
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Helical Springs of Round Wire
Laminated Construction Using Composites
Struts of I-section
Struts of Tubular Section
Legendre Polynomials
see also
Quadrature
Algebraic Expressions for, 01011
brief consideration of advantages and limitations for curve fitting and data analysis, 01011
Level
see also
Pressure Spectrum Level
Combination of Decibel Values, 17012, 79037
Level Speed
see
Speed
Lieblein Method
Extreme-Value Analysis
see
Gumbel
Life
see
Crack Propagation
Dry Rubbing Bearings
Endurance (Fatigue Life)
Fatigue Life
Fatigue Under Variable Amplitude Loading
Rolling Bearings
Lift
see also
Aerodynamic Loading
Airforce Coefficients
Flutter Derivatives
Interference
Lift Force Due To Pitching (ZQ or Czq)
Lift Limit
Lift Variation with Control Deflection
Lift-curve Slope
Maximum Lift
Normal Force
Pressure Distribution
Sideforce
Unsteady Aerodynamics
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Wings
Aerofoil Design to Optimise Using Multivariate Gradient Search and CFD Codes
introduction to method, 99019
Aerofoils
comparison of results from VGK with experimental results, with/without control deflection, 96028
comparison of results from VGK with results from other theories, 96028
design for low drag over a range of lift coefficient, 99003
discussion of behaviour with fixed transition position of lift-drag polar at subsonic speeds, 00027
estimation at supersonic speeds, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.05
estimation in viscous subsonic or transonic flow using VGK, 96028, 96029
Aerofoils at High Subsonic Freestream Mach Numbers
discussion of variation in relation to flow features, 90008
Aerofoils at Zero Angle of Attack, 72024, 97020, 98011
effect of double-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94027, 94031
effect of leading-edge high-lift devices alone, 94027
effect of plain flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94027, 94028
effect of single-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94027, 94030
effect of split flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94027, 94029
effect of triple-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94027, 94031
introduction to Data Items on effect of high-lift devices on, 94026
Aerofoils With Sealed Leading- and/or Trailing-Edge Controls or Flaps
effect of deflection in subsonic or transonic flow, 01033, 96028, 96029
Aircraft
increment due to ground effect, 72023
Angle of Attack for Maximum Lift
aerofoils or wings with or without leading- or trailing-edge high-lift devices, 96003
program to predict, 99031
Angle of Attack for Zero Lift
aerofoils in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024, 98011
aerofoils in subcritical attached flow, 98011
cambered and twisted wings, 87031
cambered and twisted wings with approximately circular-section fuselage, 89042
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series aerofoils, 99003
Biconvex Aerofoils, AERO W.S.00.03.04
Curve Against Angle of Attack From Zero to Maximum
aerofoils or wings with or without leading- or trailing-edge high-lift devices, 96003
program to predict, 99031
Double-Wedge Aerofoils, AERO W.S.00.03.04, AERO W.S.00.03.05
Elliptical-Section Aerofoils, 79026
Flaps
see
Flaps
Interference
Jet/flap Interference
Missile-Type Wing-Body Combinations
effect of wing height at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 95009
Similarity Laws at Subsonic or Supersonic Speeds
applied to coefficient in axisymmetric flow, 97025
Similarity Laws at Subsonic, Supersonic or Transonic Speeds
applied to coefficient in two- or three-dimensional flow, 97025
Spoiler (Perforated or Solid) Deflected at Low Speed in Free Air
estimation of decrement with trailing-edge flaps deployed, 14005
estimation of decrement with trailing-edge flaps undeployed, 14004
Spoiler (Solid) Deflected at Low Speed in Ground Effect
estimation of decrement due to, 76026
Swept Non-Planar and Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
prediction from leading-edge suction analogy, 96025
Swept Straight-Tapered Plane Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
prediction from leading-edge suction analogy, 95025
Two Staggered Lifting Surfaces Trimmed With Given Static Margin
program for calculation, 81023
Vectored-Jet-Thrust Aircraft
example of jet-induced loss in free air, 87037
example of variation of lift in ground effect, 87037
Wing/Flap/Nacelle Combination Submerged in Propeller Slipstream
for multi-propellers on straight wing, 88031
Wings at Zero Angle of Attack With Full- or Part-Span Flaps, 93019, 95021, 96032, 97002, 97009, 97011
effect of drooped leading edge, slats or sealed slats, 96032
effect of Kruger, vented or unvented, 96032
introduction to Data Items on, 97002
Wings at Zero Angle of Attack With Leading-Edge Full- or Part-Span High-Lift Devices, 96032
effect of double-slotted flaps, 95021, 96032, 97002
effect of plain flaps, 96032, 97002, 97011
effect of single-slotted flaps, 93019, 96032, 97002
effect of split flaps, 96032, 97002, 97009
effect of triple-slotted flaps, 95021, 96032, 97002
introduction to Data Items on, 97002
Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
program for non-planar and planar, 96025
straight-tapered planar, 95025
Lift-curve Slope
see also
Normal-force-curve Slope
Aerofoils
approximate theoretical expressions for, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.04
effect of separation characteristics at low speed on, 66034
in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024
in subcritical compressible flow, 97020
prediction of initial non-linearity without high-lift devices, 88030
prediction of non-linear with high-lift devices deployed, 96003
program to predict minimum for subcritical speeds, 06020
Annular Wings, 77012
Effect of Cut-Out, AERO W.01.01.04
Fins
see
Sideforce Due To Sideslip (Yv or Cy β)
Isolated Lifting Surfaces
supersonic, AERO A.S.01.03.02
Missile-Type Wing-Body Combinations
mid-wing configuration at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 91007
Tailplane
estimation for fin- or body-mounted in subcritical flow, 89029
Wings
prediction of initial non-linearity for plane or non-planar without high-lift devices, 88030
prediction of non-linear with high-lift devices deployed, 96003
subsonic flow, 70011, 95010, TM 169
supersonic flow, 70012
Lift Dependent Drag
see also
Boundary Layer Lift Dependent Drag
Profile Drag
Trailing Vortex Drag
Estimation of Increment Due to Deployment of Perforated or Solid Spoiler, 96026
including effect of downwash at spoiler due to flap deployment, 96026
Introduction, 66031
Program for Swept Non-Planar and Planar Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
prediction from leading-edge suction and viscous axial force, 96025
Swept Straight-Tapered Plane Wings at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.02.03.02
Swept Straight-Tapered Plane Wings to High Angles of Attack at Subsonic Speeds
prediction from leading-edge suction and viscous axial force, 95025
Lift Distribution
see
Aerodynamic Loading
Pressure Distribution
Lift Dumpers
see
Spoilers
Lift Force Due To Pitching (ZQ or Czq)
Contribution Due to Tailplane at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
Contribution Due to Wing at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
Contribution Due to Wing at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.08.03.02
Effect of Wing/Body Interference at Subsonic Speeds, 90010
Lifting Gear
Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Mean Forces and Moments Due to Wind
see
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Torsional Moment on Structures
Mechanical Vibration Characteristics
see
Buildings
Lifting Surfaces
see also
Indicial Aerodynamics
Tails
Winglets
Wings
Isolated
lift-curve slope, AERO A.S.01.03.02
spanwise position of centre of pressure, AERO A.S.06.03.04
Lifting Surface Theory
General Discussion Relating to Use in Unsteady Aerodynamics, 82020
Multhopp's, 82020, 95010, TD MEMO 6309, TD MEMO 6403
Lift Limit
Effect on Ceiling and Turning Performance
program to calculate, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Lift Variation with Control Deflection
see also
Aerodynamic Loading
Controls
three-dimensional flow, 74011, 74012
Controls (Gap Sealed)
two-dimensional flow, AERO C.01.01.03
Controls (With Gap)
two-dimensional flow, AERO C.01.01.04

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