ESDU A-Z Index: G-GZ

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Gain Margin
Linear Systems
definition, 74021, 80002
Galloping
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Galvanising
see
Zinc Plating
Gap
Effect on Control Hinge Moments, AERO C.04.01.00, AERO C.04.01.04
Effect on Drag of Chordwise and Spanwise Round Controls or Flaps
examples of calculation, 93032
undeflected at low speeds, 92039
Effect on Lift-Curve Slope, AERO C.01.01.04
Effect on Lift Variation With Control Deflection, AERO C.01.01.04
Effect on Tab Hinge Moments, AERO C.04.01.08
Garabedian and Korn Method
Extension to Viscous Flow (VGK) for Computation of Pressure Distribution on Aerofoils, 81019
application of VGK to separation prediction, 97030
comparison of excrescence drag magnification factor results with those from BVGK, 98031
comparison of results obtained for predicted separation with experimental data, 97030
comparison of results with results from other theories and experiment, 96028
evaluation of excrescence drag magnification factor due to pressure gradient, 87004, 98031
influence of grid size on results, 96028
influence of values of variable parameters in program on results, 96028
introduction to and outline of method, 96028
prediction of separation boundary, 81020, 97030
prediction of separation boundary directly, 92008
program disc and user manual, 96029
use for section design with specified upper-surface pressure distribution, 99032
use to determine effect of deflecting sealed leading- and/or trailing-edge plain flaps, 01033
use with multivariate gradient search program for drag minimisation, 00022, 00023, 01024, 99019, 99020, 99021
Velocity Distribution on Aerofoils, 79009
Gas Bearings
Journal Type
guide to applications, 65007
Thrust Type
guide to applications, 67033
Gas Constant
Gases
Calorically Imperfect Diatomic
calculated thermodynamic properties, AERO 00.01.09
Physical Properties
Gas Generator Method
Thrust Measurement in Flight, 69007
Gas Oils
Typical Values of Density, 71003
Typical Values of Dynamic Viscosity, 71003
Typical Values of Kinematic Viscosity, 66024, 71003
Gasolines
Typical Values of Density, 71003
Typical Values of Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity, 66024, 71003
Gas Thermometry
see
Temperature Measurement
Gas Turbines
see also
Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Turbo-prop Engines
Fuels
see
Gasolines
Kerosines
Gas Turbine Noise From Aero-engines, 12001
Incorporation in Process Plant as Heat and Power Source
using process integration techniques, 89001
Gate Valves
Pressure Change Prediction in Pipeline Due to Closure
see
Pipes with Internal Flow
Pressure Transients in Gas (and Steam) Internal Flow
Pressure Transients in Liquid Internal Flow
Pressure Drop Across in Single-Phase Flow, 69022, 89012
Pressure Drop Across in Two-Phase Gas- or Vapour-Liquid Flow, 89012
Gaussian Distribution
see
Statistics
Gauss-Legendre, -Hermite and -Laguerre Formulae
Numerical Techniques for Definite Integrals
see
Quadrature
Gauzes
Rectangular or Square Mesh
porosity, 72009
pressure drop through, 72009
Use to Improve Diffuser Performance
effect on static pressure recovery, 87015
recommendations for porosities and locations, 87015
Gears
see also
Contact Phenomena
Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication
Epicyclic Gear Train
Mechanisms Series
Shafts with Interference-fit Collars
Driving Planar Multi-Bar Linkages
analysis using OSMEC program, 97026
Parallel Axis Straight Spur and Helical
accuracy and its influence on design, 88033
application and dynamic factors to BS 436, 88033
avoidance of tooth resonance, 77002, 88033
choice between, 77002
choice of centre distance and facewidth, 68040, 88033
choice of helix angle, 77002
choice of number of teeth, 77002, 88033
choice of standard normal modules and pitches, 77002
crowning, 88033
definition and limits of tip diameter factor, 77002
definition of addendum modification, 77002
design to BS 436 with discussion of design factors and their values, 88033
effect of case hardening on design, 88033
effect on pressure angle of change of centre distance, 77002
facewidth ratio, 88033
fatigue strength, 68040, 88033
geometric design in British or SI units, 77002
illustration of tooth forms, 77002
lead correction and accuracy required, 88033
limits of speed and torque, 77002
load factors to BS 436, 88033
manufacturing processes and relative costs, 88033
preliminary design procedure, 88033
properties of steels for use in, 68040, 88033
ratio split, 88033
relationship of diametral pitch to normal module and pitch, 77002
relative production costs, 88033
safety factors to BS 436, 88033
shaft deflection and effect on rating, 88033
sizing for bending and surface stresses, 88033
surface treatments, 68040, 88033, 89031
table of preferred normal modules and pitches, 77002
types of cutter, 77002
Geneva Mechanisms
External or Internal, Lubricated or Unlubricated, With Pin or Roller
contact ellipse and stress, 96002, 96011, ME3
contact force between pin or roller and slot, 96002, 96011, ME3
crank shaft torque and peak value, 96002, 96011, ME3
design for fixed diameter wheel or fixed centre distance, 96002, 96011
forces on crank and wheel shafts and peak values, 96002, 96011, ME3
geometry of crank and wheel, 96002, 96011, ME3
guidance on use of program to inprove design, 96002
kinematic and kinetostatic equtions, ME3
lubricant film thickness and entrainment velocity, 96002, 96011, ME3
program for design, 96011
roller life estimation, 96002, 96011, ME3
shaking force, 96002, 96011, ME3
time for dwell and indexing motion, 96002, 96011, ME3
wheel acceleration, displacement and velocity, 96002, 96011, ME3
Worked Examples Illustrating Design Procedure and Use of Software, 96035
analysis of start-up/shut-down effects including determination of worst case, 99001
design changes required to bring contact stress below allowable value, 99001
treatment of varying external torque and crank speed, 99001
Geometric Mean Chord
see also
Aerodynamic Mean Chord
Standard Mean Chord
Length and Position
straight-tapered wing planforms, or wing planforms with cranks or sawteeth, 10023, 76003, TM 168
Geometric Relationships
Axes Transformation
see
Axes Systems in Aircraft Dynamics and Performance
Diffusers
see
Annular Diffusers
Conical Diffusers
Plane-walled Diffusers with Single-plane Expansion
Ellipsoidal and Spherical, and Blunted Tangent and Secant Ogive Forebodies
see
Forebody
Wings
see
Wing Geometry
Geopotential Altitude
Definition, 68046, 73017, 77021, 77022, 78008
Graph of Equivalent Geometric Altitude to 80 km, 77021
Program to Convert Atmospheric Data
to data in geometric or pressure height, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Relationship With Pressure Altitude
in any atmosphere, 78012
in extreme design atmospheres, 78008
in off-standard and standard atmospheres, 77022
Tables of Equivalent Geometric Altitude to 50 km, 68046, 77022
Gerber Parabola
Estimation of Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Strength, 75022
Girders
see
Beams in General
Glands
see
Rotary Seals
Glare
Composite Aluminium Glass-Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Laminate
see
Composite Structures
Skin-rib Joints in Composite Structures
Glasgow University
Low-Drag Aerofoil Design
see
Gunaca Aerofoils
Globe Valves
Pressure Change Prediction in Pipeline Due to Closure
see
Pipes with Internal Flow
Pressure Transients in Gas (and Steam) Internal Flow
Pressure Transients in Liquid Internal Flow
Pressure Drop Across in Single-Phase Flow, 69022, 89012
Pressure Drop Across in Two-Phase Gas- or Vapour-Liquid Flow, 89012
Glued Joints
see
Bonded Double- or Single-lap Joints
Bonded Double-lap Joints
Bonded Double-strap Joints in Clad Aluminium Alloys
Bonded Joints
Bonded Single-lap Joints
Bonded Single-lap Joints in Clad Aluminium Alloys
Joints
Goethert Compressibility Rule
Application to Bodies of Revolution, 74013
Goodman Line
Estimation of Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Strength, 75022
Gothic Wings
see
Slender Wings
Gradient of Climb
see
Rate of Climb
Grand Composite Curve
Use in Process Integration, 87030, 89001, 90033
Use in Process Integration
Graphite
Condensers Manufactured From, 85022
Use as Bearing Material With Fillers
see also
Dry Rubbing Bearings
sketches of typical variation of friction coefficient with load and speed, 89044
Use as Contact Seal Material in Reciprocating Applications, 83031
Use as Filler in Polymer (With or Without Backing) Bearing Materials
see
Dry Rubbing Bearings
Use as Plate Material in Plate-and-Frame Heat Exchangers, 95007
Gravitational Acceleration
Effect of Heading, Height, Latitude and Speed on Local Value Experienced
approximate expressions and graphical solutions, 73018
detailed equations, 79018
great circle and rhumb-line tracks, 79018
Inclusion in Equations of Motion of an Aircraft, 67003, 86021
Method of Excluding From Three-Axis Accelerometer Readings
in determining aircraft true acceleration, 98024
Standard Sea-Level Value, 77021, 77022
Variation of Local Value With Height, 77022, 79018
International Reference Ellipsoid, 79018
Variation of Local Value With Latitude, 79018
aircraft performance program, ESDUperf
inclusion in program for aircraft performance estimation, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Grease in Rolling Bearings
Estimation of Grease Renewal or Relubrication Interval
effect of bearing type, 78032
effect of cage location, 78032
effect of grease type, 78032
effect of load, 78032
effect of shock and vibration environment, 78032
effect of speed, 78032
effect of temperature, 78032
effect of type of mounting, 78032
Temperature Behaviour From Start-Up
typical examples, 78032
use as indicator of over- or under-greasing, 78032
Grids
see also
Gauzes
Normal Force
Used in Computational Fluid Mechanics
see
Garabedian and Korn Method
Grilles
Outlets to Air-Conditioning Ducts
see
Noise in Air-conditioning Duct Systems
Grooved Runways
see
Runways
Grooves in Diffuser Walls
Effect on Static Pressure Recovery, 87015
suitable dimensions, 87015
Grooves in Plates
Profile Drag Increment in Turbulent Boundary Layer
see
Excrescences
Grooves Inside Pipes
Effect on Pressure Drop
see
Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
Stress Concentration Data
see
Grooves of Flat-bottomed Section Inside or Outside Tubes
Grooves of U-section Inside or Outside Tubes
Grooves of Flat-bottomed Section in Rods
Large With Respect to Diameter
stress concentration data under axial load, bending or torsion, 89048
Small With Respect to Diameter
stress concentration data under axial load, bending or torsion, 79032
Grooves of Flat-bottomed Section Inside or Outside Tubes
Small With Respect to Diameter
stress concentration data under axial load, bending or torsion, 79032
Grooves of U-section in Rods
Large With Respect to Diameter
stress concentration data under axial load, bending or torsion, 89048
Small With Respect to Diameter
stress concentration data under axial load, bending or torsion, 79032
Grooves of U-section Inside or Outside Tubes
Small With Respect to Diameter
stress concentration data under axial load, bending or torsion, 79032
Gross Thrust
see also
Thrust of Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Definition, 69006
Non-Dimensional Parameter
variation with pressure ratio, 67035, 69008, 81004
Ground Effect in Fluid Flow
see also
Boundary Walls and Fences
Hoardings (Elevated Above Ground Level)
Shear Flow
Aircraft
decrement in lift due to spoiler deployment, 76026
example of effect on lift for particular vectored-jet-thrust aircraft, 87037
increment in downwash, 72023
increment in drag due to spoiler deployment, 76026
increment in drag minus thrust, 91032
increment in tailplane lift, 72023
increments in drag and lift, 72023
Slender Wings
increments in normal force and pitching moment, 71007
Ground Effect on Noise Attenuation
see
Atmospheric Effects on Sound
Ground Reflection Effect on Noise
Ground Manoeuvres of Aircraft
see
Aircraft Tyres
Fatigue Loading
Ground Performance in Take-off and Landing
Standard Fatigue Loading Sequences
Take-off
Ground Performance in Take-off and Landing
see also
Aircraft Tyres
Landing
Take-off
Airframe Impingement Drag Due to Tyre Sidespray
see
Impingement Drag
Axes Systems for Use in, 85030
Basic Equations, 85029
Discussion of Airframe/Ground/Propulsion Interference, 85029
vectored-jet-thrust aircraft, 87037
Force and Moment Components Due to Airframe, Ground Reaction and Propulsion, 85030
General Discussion of Factors Influencing, 85029
Limiting Speeds Defined by Airworthiness Requirements, 85029
Transformation of Parameters Between Various Axes Systems, 85030
Undercarriage Load/Deflection Characteristics, 85029
Ground Production Finish
Effective Roughness Height
see
Roughness
Resulting Surface Roughness for Steels, 74027
effect on fatigue limit, 74027
Ground Reflection Effect on Noise
Correction of Measured Sound Pressure Levels, 94035
basis of theory, 94035
discussion of effect of distributed sources, 94035
effect of real filter characteristics, 94035
effect of source velocity, 94035
effect of turbulence on coherence of direct and reflected waves, 94035
ground impedance two parameter model for use in prediction, 94035
minimisation by choice of microphone height, 94035
sensitivity of results to choice of parameters in ground impedance and turbulence models, 94035
Discussion of Interference Between Reflected and Incident Waves, 02020
Ground Run During Landing
see
Landing
Ground Spoilers
see
Spoilers
Ground-to-air Cycle
see also
Standard Fatigue Loading Sequences
Definition From Cumulative Frequency Diagram, 79024
Guide Vanes
In Bends
design information, 83037
optimum location for one or two in circular-arc, 83037
pressure drop in circular-arc with optimum vane location, 83037
In Diffusers
use to improve performance, 76027
Gumbel
Extreme-Value Analysis, 87034
using Lieblein method, 87034
Gunaca Aerofoils
Design for Low Drag Over a Range of Lift Coefficient
aerodynamic centre and pitching moment at zero lift, 99003
comparison of geometric and inviscid flow characteristics with those of NACA 6-series, 99003
lift-curve slope and zero-lift angle of attack, 99003
pressure and velocity distributions, 99003
program for geometric and inviscid flow characteristics, 99003
Gunmetal
Use as Hydrodynamic Bearing Material
guide to selection, 88018
Gusset Plates
see
Flat Triangular Plates
Welded Stiffening Gussets on Steel I-beams
Gusts
see also
Extreme Wind Speeds
Fatigue Loading
Indicial Aerodynamics
Turbulence
Turbulence Near Ground
Unsteady Aerodynamics
Stalling Due to Vertical Gusts, PERF EG6/2
Gyroscopes
Basic Equations for Behaviour and Transfer Functions, 85026

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