ESDU A-Z Index: SHI-SOK

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Shielding
Estimation of Attenuation of Sound Pressure Levels
see
Barriers
Estimation of Jet-by-Jet
see
Jet Noise
From Wind or Other Fluid Flows by Structures
see
Boundary Walls and Fences
Normal Force
Profile Drag
Response of Buildings and Structures
Sideforce
Shock-associated or Shock Cell Noise
Description of Origins in Gas Turbine Exhaust and Typical Spectrum, 02020
Shock Detachment Conditions
Cones
effect of cone angle and Mach number, 70008, 70009, 70010, AERO S.00.03.16
Wedges
effect of wedge angle and Mach number, AERO S.00.03.16
effect of wedge angle, specific heat capacity and Mach number, AERO 00.03.30
Shock-expansion Theory -
Shock Wave/boundary Layer Interaction
see
Aerofoils
Flow Separation
Vane Vortex Generators
Wings
Shock Waves
see also
Airframe Noise (Aeroplanes Not Propeller Powered)
Cavities
Jet Noise
Buffeting at Transonic Speeds Caused by Oscillation and Induced Separation on Aerofoils, 87012
Conical
detachment conditions, 70008, 70009, 70010, AERO S.00.03.16
flow deflection in conical flow field, 70009
inclination to upstream flow direction, 70008, AERO S.00.03.13
Mach number in conical flow field, 70010
Normal
air in dissociation equilibrium, AERO S.00.03.22
downstream Mach number and downstream static pressure, 69026
downstream stagnation pressure, 69026, 82018
ratio of static to total pressure behind in hypersonic flow, 93020
various specific heat capacity ratios, AERO 00.03.28
Oblique
air in dissociation equilibrium, AERO S.00.03.23
detachment conditions, AERO 00.03.30, AERO S.00.03.16
downstream Mach number, AERO S.00.03.09, AERO W.S.00.03.05
downstream static pressure, AERO 00.03.30, AERO S.00.03.09, AERO S.00.03.14, AERO W.S.00.03.05
downstream total pressure, AERO S.00.03.09
inclination to flow direction, AERO S.00.03.09
On Aerofoils at High Subsonic Freestream Mach Numbers
behaviour with varying Mach number and angle of attack, 90008
On Swept Wings
design considerations to minimise drag rise in transonic flow, 97017
typical patterns at transonic speeds, 90008
Separation Induced by
see
Aerofoils
Wings
Short Cracks
see
Aluminium Alloy Bars and Plates
Aluminium Alloy Sheets
Aluminium-Lithium Alloy Bars
Aluminium-Lithium Alloy Plates and Sheets
Austenitic Stainless Steels
High Tensile Low Alloy Steels
Low Tensile Low Alloy Steels
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-6Mo)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-5Zr-0.5Mo-0.25Si)
Titanium Alloys
Short-period Oscillation
Aircraft Longitudinal Stability and Response
desirable characteristics for good aircraft handling qualities, 92006
discussion of origin and characteristics, 86021
influence of aircraft flexibility on, 96037
requirements for damping and frequency for military aircraft, 92006
Shot Peening
see also
Wear Resistant Surface Coatings and Treatments
Consideration of Resulting Surface Finish and Effect on Fatigue Strength, 92015
Effect on Fatigue Strength
see also
Aluminium Alloys
Steels
Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)
Welded Transverse Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Welded Transverse Joints in Steels Under Axial Loading
comparison with effect of other surface treatments, 89031
discussion of advantages and limitations, 89031
helical springs, 83002
splined steel shaft assemblies, 73002
Effect on Fretting Fatigue of Aluminium Alloys, 89004
Effect on Fretting Fatigue of Titanium Alloys, 88027
Need to Consider Use of Treatment at Design Stage, 92015
Parameters Affecting Depth of Plastically Deformed Material, 92015
Use of Almen Strip to Assess Intensity, 92015
Shrink Fits
see
Shafts with Interference-fit Collars
Sideforce
see also
Aircraft Tyres
Sideforce Due To Rolling (Yp or Cyp)
Sideforce Due To Rudder Deflection (Yζ or Cy Δr)
Sideforce Due To Sideslip (Yv or Cy β)
Sideforce Due To Yawing (Yv or Cyr)
Angle-Section Beams, 82007
effect of incidence, yaw and velocity profile, 82007
effect of interference when used in X- or T-configuration, 82007
Channel-Section Beams, 82007
effect of incidence, yaw and velocity profile, 82007
effect of interference when used in H-configuration, 82007
Elliptical-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow
effect of incidence and section aspect ratio, 79026
effect of turbulent shear flow for surface-mounted, 79026
Forebody-Cylinders at Mach Numbers Below 1.2 and Incidences Above 20?
discussion of sources, 89014
effect of Mach number and Reynolds number, 89014
effect of nose blunting, 89014
envelope of overall maximum with crossflow Mach number, 89014
typical axial distributions, 89014
Frameworks of Flat-Sided and/or Tubular Members, 81027
effect of gusset plates and ancillary components, 81027
effect of incidence and yaw, turbulence and velocity profile, 81027
effect of roughness, taper and solidity, 81027
H-Section Beams, 82007
effect of incidence, yaw and velocity profile, 82007
Information on the use of Data Items on yawing moment and sideforce derivatives of an aircraft, AERO A.07.01.00
In-Plane of Single or Contra-Rotating Propellers at Low Forward Speeds
due to local angle of sideslip, 89047
I-Section Beams, 82007
effect of incidence, yaw and velocity profile, 82007
Lattice Towers of Flat-Sided and/or Tubular Members, 81028
effect of chord member arrangement, 81028
effect of gusset plates and ancillary components, 81028
effect of incidence, turbulence and velocity profile, 81028
effect of roughness and solidity, 81028
Multi-Sided Section Cylinders Due to Vortex Shedding
rms value obtained from two-dimensional mean drag, 90036
Pair of Circular-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow on Axis Inclined to Sub- or Supercritical Flow
effect of axis inclination, 84015
effect of roughness and spacing, 84015
on downstream or upstream cylinder, 84015
Pair of Circular-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow on Axis Normal to Flow
effect of spacing in subcritical flow, 84015
Paraboloidal Antennas
discussion of hysteresis effect, 82031
effect of focal length and incidence, 82031
effect of perforated or slatted surface, 82031
effect of shear flow, 82031
Rectangular-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow
blockage effects in duct, 71016, 80024
effect of edge rounding, 71016, 80003
effect of section aspect ratio and turbulence in uniform flow, 71016
effect of section aspect ratio, incidence and turbulence in shear flow, 80003
effect of turbulent shear flow for surface-mounted, 80003
Square-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow
blockage effects in duct, 71016, 80024
effect of edge rounding for various incidences, 71016, 80003
effect of incidence and turbulence in shear flow, 80003
effect of incidence and turbulence in uniform flow, 71016
effect of turbulent shear flow for surface-mounted, 80003
Surface-Mounted Circular-Section Cylinders
effect of isolated spanwise protuberances, 81017
T-Section Beams, 82007
effect of incidence, yaw and velocity profile, 82007
Two-Dimensional Circular-Section Cylinders Inclined to Flow
distributed roughness effects, 80025
turbulence effects, 80025
Two-Dimensional Circular-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow
effect of isolated spanwise protuberances, 80025
effect of nearby flat surface, 80025
Two-Dimensional Rectangular-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow
effect of edge rounding, 71016
effect of section aspect ratio and turbulence, 71016
Two-Dimensional Square-Section Cylinders Normal to Flow
effect of edge rounding for various incidences, 71016
effect of incidence and turbulence, 71016
Two-Dimensional Stranded Cables Inclined to Flow, 80025
X-Section Beams, 82007
effect of incidence, yaw and velocity profile, 82007
Sideforce Due To Rolling (Yp or Cyp)
Contribution Due to Fin/Tailplane Combination
subsonic attached flow, 83006
Contribution Due to Wing (Zero Camber and Twist) in Attached Flow
discussion of edge forces, 81014
effect of compressibility, 81014
effect of dihedral, 85006
Use for Complete Aircraft of Data Items on Component Contributions
accuracy, 85010
comparison of experimental and predicted variation with incidence, 85010
example, 85010
Sideforce Due To Rudder Deflection (Yζ or Cy Δr)
Estimation at Low Speeds
from geometry of rear fuselage and empennage, 87008
Sideforce Due To Sideslip (Yv or Cy β)
End Plate Effect
fins on tailplane, 92007
tailplane on fin, 00025, 82010, AERO C.01.01.01
Estimation for Wing-Body Combination, 00025, 79006
Fin Contribution
single fin (fuselage height/width near one), 00025, 82010
single fin merging into fuselage including tailplane effects, AERO C.01.01.01
single or twin fins at supersonic speeds, 91031
single or twin fins (range of fuselage height/width), 93007
tailplane-mounted twin fins, 92007
Flap Contribution, 00025, 81013
Nacelle Contribution (Propeller Type) on Wing, 00025, TM 178
Nacelle Contribution (Turbine Engine Type)
rear-fuselage mounted/empennage interference, 73006
underwing mounted, 00025, 73006
Program to Calculate for Complete Aircraft, 00025
Tailplane Effects, 00025, 81032, 82010, 93007
Use for Complete Aircraft of Data Items on Component Contributions
accuracy, 82011
examples, 00025, 82011
Ventral Fin Contribution
single or twin at subsonic or supersonic speeds, 92029
Sideforce Due To Yawing (Yv or Cyr)
Body Contribution, 83026
Fin Contribution
single fin merging into fuselage including tailplane effects, AERO C.01.01.01
single fin mounted on fuselage including tailplane effects, 82010
single or twin fins at supersonic speeds, 91031
tailplane-mounted twin fins, 92007
Simplified Method of Estimation, 84002
Use for Complete Aircraft of Data Items on Component Contributions
accuracy, 84002
comparison of experimental and predicted variation with incidence, 84002
example, 84002
Sideslip
see
Asymmetric Flight
Nacelle
Propellers
Rolling Moment Due To Sideslip (Lv or Cl β)
Sideforce Due To Sideslip (Yv or Cy β)
Sideslipping Flight
Yawing Moment Due To Sideslip (Nv or Cnβ)
Derivation of Angle of Sideslip from Flight Test Data, TM 190
Determination of angle of sideslip using INS/GPS method, 17013, TM 185
Sideslipping Flight
Steady Level With or Without Failed Engine
calculation of aileron and rudder deflections and their order of magnitude, 01010
equations of motion, 01010
loading on fin, fuselage, tailplane and wing, 01010
Sidespillage
Rectangular External-Compression Double- or Single-Ramp Intakes
effect of sidewall shape on mass flow, 75005
Sidewash
Influence on sensor location, 17013
Silencers
In Air-Conditioning Duct Systems
see
Noise in Air-conditioning Duct Systems
Silicate Esters
see
Lubricants
Silicones
see
Lubricants
Similarity Laws
Application to Fan Performance, 79037
Application to Pump Performance, 80030
Derivation in Subsonic or Supersonic Two- or Three-Dimensional or Axisymmetric Flow
for pressure coefficient from linearised equation, 97025
Derivation in Transonic Two- or Three-Dimensional Flow
for pressure coefficient from non-linear equation, 97025
Example of Use in Correlating Experimental Results
base pressure on conical afterbodies in subsonic, transonic and supersonic flow, 98026
drag of wedge in subsonic and supersonic flow, 97025
Hypersonic, AERO B.S.02.03.01, AERO B.S.05.03.01
Supersonic-Hypersonic, AERO B.S.02.03.01
Transonic
use in correlation of pressure correction data for static pressure sensor, 95024
Use of Laws Applied to Pressure Coefficient
for correlating data on drag, lift and pitching moment coefficients, 97025
Similarity Parameters
see
Dynamical Similarity
Simple-wave Flow
Air in Dissociation Equilibrium
solution using Mollier chart, AERO S.00.03.27
Downstream Mach Number
low Mach numbers, AERO S.00.03.08, AERO W.S.00.03.05
Downstream Static Pressure
low Mach numbers, AERO W.S.00.03.05
Mach numbers from 1 to 20, AERO 00.03.31
Flow Deflection Angle
low Mach numbers, AERO S.00.03.08
Mach numbers from 1 to 20, AERO 00.03.31
Introduction to Simple-Wave Flow or Prandtl-Meyer Expansion, AERO S.00.03.06
Sintered Bearings
see
Dry Rubbing Bearings
Self-contained Bearing Assemblies
Si Units
Conversion Factors
see
Conversion Factors
Size
see also
Screw Threads
Welded Joints in Steels
Effect on Fatigue Strength of Components
explanation using fracture mechanics, 87016
with or without a stress raiser, 87016
Skewness
Statistics
definition, 74030, 92040
Skew Panels
see
Flat Parallelogram Panels
Skew Plates
see
Flat Parallelogram Plates
Ski-jump Performance
Vectored-Jet-Thrust Aircraft
calculation of launch trajectory, 87037
end-speed limits imposed by ramp, 87037
height drop and relationship with launch speed, 87037
launch speed margins and comparison with those for flat deck, 87037
minimum launch speeds, 87037
non-dimensional parameters appropriate and their derivation, 87037
safety margins, 87037
Skin Friction Drag
Aerofoils
computation using VGK in subsonic or transonic flow, 96028, 96029
prediction in presence of pressure field, 06001
program to predict minimum for subcritical speeds, 06020
Bodies
brief discussion, AERO B.S.02.03.01
Definition, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.02.04.13
Discussion of Effect of Surface Finish, AERO W.02.04.00
Due to Impingement on Airframe of Tyre Sidespray for Runway Contaminated With Slush/Water
see
Impingement Drag
Flat Plates at Zero Incidence in Subsonic or Supersonic Flow
applied to circular-section cylinders at zero incidence in subsonic flow, 68019, 68020, 73016
applied to circular-section cylinders at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 68019, 68020, 73016
applied to cones at zero incidence in supersonic flow, 68019, 68020, 73016
applied to wedges in supersonic flow, 68019, 68020, 73016
equation for local for turbulent boundary layer on smooth surfaces, 94044
equation for mean for turbulent boundary layer on smooth surfaces, 78019, 94044
graph of local for laminar boundary layer on smooth surfaces, 68019
graph of local for turbulent boundary layer on smooth surfaces, 68020
graph of mean for laminar boundary layer on smooth surfaces, 68019
graph of mean for turbulent boundary layer on rough surfaces, 73016
graph of mean for turbulent boundary layer on smooth surfaces, 68020
graph of mean for varying transition position on smooth surfaces, 78019
Use of Form Factors to Calculate Profile Drag, 97016
aerofoils, 00027, 00027, AERO W.02.04.00
Skin-rib Joints in Aluminium Alloys
see also
Fretting Fatigue
Skin-rib Joints in General
Fatigue Strength Under Acoustic Loading
attachment method effects, 72015
cladding effects, 72015
design of test specimens and test techniques under simulated loading, 93027
endurance of integral or riveted skin-rib attachment (skin excited), 72015
endurance of riveted rib-flange (rib excited), 72015
location of failures, 72015
low temperature effects, 72015
material specification and jointing compound effects, 72015
mean stress effects, 72015
skin thickness effects, 72015
test frequency effects, 72015
Skin-rib Joints in Composite Structures
Fatigue Strength Under Acoustic Loading of Bonded, Co-cured or Riveted
aluminium-glass fibre epoxy (GLARE) stiffener and skin, 84027
boron- or carbon-epoxy or titanium rib, 84027
boron- or carbon-epoxy or titanium rib with carbon-epoxy or titanium doubler, 84027
Fatigue Testing Under Acoustic Loading
design of test specimens and test techniques for simulated conditions, 93027
Skin-rib Joints in General
see also
Skin-rib Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Skin-rib Joints in Composite Structures
Skin-rib Joints in Titanium Alloys
Effect of Bonding or Rivets on Local, Overall, Torsional or Torsional-Flexural Buckling
in panels under uniaxial compression, 98016
in panels under uniaxial compression, taking account of plasticity, 01001
Skin-rib Joints in Titanium Alloys
see also
Fretting Fatigue
Skin-rib Joints in General
Fatigue Strength Under Acoustic Loading
attachment method effects, 10011
design of test specimens and test techniques under simulated loading, 93027
endurance of plain specimens, 10011
endurance of riveted or spot-welded skin-rib attachment (skin excited), 10011
high temperature effects, 10011
location of failures, 10011
material specification effects, 10011
skin thickness effects, 10011
test frequency effects, 10011
Slagging
see
Fouling in Combustion Plant
Slats
see
Leading-edge High-lift Devices
Slender Wings
Aerodynamic Centre, Centre of Pressure and Pitching Moment, 71006
Axial Force and Lift Dependent Drag, 71006
Increments in Normal Force and Pitching Moment Due to Ground Effect, 71007
Normal Force and Normal-Force-Curve Slope, 71006
Slider-crank Mechanisms
see also
Balancing of Linkages
Force Balancing of Linkages
Linkages
Moment Balancing of Linkages
Analysis, 76005, 81033, ME1
Coupler Maximum End-Load and Corresponding Crank Angle, 76005, 81033, ME1
Crank Angle Between Dead Centres, 76005, ME1
Crank Maximum Inertia Torque and Corresponding Crank Angle, 76005, 81033, ME1
Design Practical Considerations, 76005, ME1
Extension, 76005, 81033, ME1
Extreme Transmission Angles, 76005, 81033, ME1
Offset Swinging Block, 76005, 81033, ME1
Performance Curves for One Complete Crank Rotation
connecting-rod acceleration, angle of swing and velocity, 81033
crank inertia torque, 81033
force on connecting rod, 81033
rocker angle of swing, 81033
slider acceleration and velocity, 81033
transmission angle, 81033
Pin Forces
equations for forces at all joints by kinetostatic method, 90022
equations for forces at coupler joints using simple idealisations, 76005, 81033, ME1
Return Ratio, 76005, ME1
Slider Maximum Velocity and Corresponding Crank Angle, 76005, 81033, ME1
Slider Stroke, 76005, 81033, ME1
Synthesis, 76005, ME1
Slideways
Machine Tools
guidance on typical behaviour of friction coefficient, 89044
Slip Ratio
Braked Tyre
definition and mechanism for existence, 16008
effect on friction coefficient, 16008
Slipstream
Interference With Airframe
discussion of thrust/drag accounting, 85015, 85017
effect on airframe drag, 85015, 85017
effect on propeller thrust, 85015, 85017
effect on rolling moment in sideslip, 06012
estimation of drag/thrust of propeller/body combination, 86017
estimation of lift on wing/flap/nacelle combination, 88031
estimation of longitudinal force on wing/flap/nacelle combination, 88031
modelling in incidence and sideslip, 06013
Slots in Bars or Strips
Axial Loading
stress concentration data, 09014
Slotted Flaps
see also
Downwash
Flaps
Interference
Jet/flap Interference
Contribution to Airframe Noise, 90023
Introduction to Data Items on Effect of High-Lift Devices on Drag, Lift and Pitching Moment, 97002
Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils at Zero Angle of Attack
double- or triple-element alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94026, 94027, 94031
single-element alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94026, 94027, 94030
Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Wings at Zero Angle of Attack
double- or triple-element alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 95021, 96032, 97002
single-element alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 93019, 96032, 97002
Maximum Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils
double- or triple-element alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94026, 94027, 94031
single-element alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94026, 94027, 94030
Maximum Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Wings
single- or multi-element, 91014
single- or multi-element with leading-edge high-lift devices, 92031
Normal Force on
single-element, AERO F.05.01.01
Pitching Moment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils and Wings
double- or triple-element, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 99014
single-element, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 99004
Profile Drag Increment Due to Deployment on Wings
single-element of NACA and Handley Page type, AERO F.02.01.06, AERO F.02.01.06
single-element of optimum geometry on aerofoils, 87005
single-element of optimum geometry on wings, 08013
Trailing Vortex Drag Increment Due to Deployment on Cambered and Twisted or Plane Wings
program for estimation for any flap and wing geometry, 01007
tabulated values for selected flap and wing geometries, 01007
Slotted-wall Wind-tunnels
see
Resonance in Wind-tunnels
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Aerofoils
Slug Flow
see
Condensing Flow in Pipes
Two-phase (Gas- or Vapour-liquid) Flow
Slush Drag
Due to Impingement on Airframe of Tyre Sidespray
see
Impingement Drag
Estimation for Aircraft Tyres
see
Aircraft Tyres
Small Perturbation Equation
see
Transonic Small Perturbation Equation
S-N Diagram
see also
Endurance (Fatigue Life)
Description, 70016
Sodium Chloride/water Eutectic Solution
Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity
temperature variation, 66024
Sodium Chloride/water Solution
see
Sea Water
Sodium/potassium Eutectic Solution
Dynamic and Kinematic Viscosity
temperature variation in liquid state, 66024
Softening and Melting
Use of Deforming Bars, Pyramids and Rings
to indicate peak temperature, 02006

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