ESDU A-Z Index: SOL-STD

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Solar Absorptivity
Various Surfaces, 69012, 78029
Solar Heating
Effect on Equilibrium Surface Temperature Due to Aerodynamic Heating, 69009
Effect on Temperatures of Self-Contained Bearing Assemblies, 78029
Total Irradiance Within Atmosphere
scattering and absorption by ozone and water vapour, 69015
scattering by dry atmosphere and dust, 69015
solar constant, 69015
spectral distribution, 69015
variation with altitude, location, season and hour, 69015
Solidity
see
Porosity
Solutions
see
Aqueous Solutions
Sonic Boom
see
Airframe Noise (Aeroplanes Not Propeller Powered)
Sonic Fatigue
see
Acoustic Fatigue
Sonic Flow
Aerofoils
pressure distribution, 69013, TD MEMO 6511
Cones
conditions for existence on surface, 70008, 70009, 70010, AERO S.00.03.16
Wedges
conditions for existence on surface, AERO S.00.03.16
Sonic-range Pressure Distribution
Aerofoils, 69013, TD MEMO 6511
Sound
see also
Acoustic Absorption Coefficient
Acoustic Impedance
Aircraft Noise Series
Atmospheric Effects on Sound
Crossflow Heat Exchangers
Noise
Noise in Air-conditioning Duct Systems
Noise Limiting Curves
Noise Prediction for Aerospace Sources
Noise/sound Propagation
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Airframe noise, 90023
Boundary layer noise, 75021, TM 58
Buzz-Saw Tones
far-field, 75020
supersonic fan in duct, 74033
Cabin noise, internal noise, 07001
Coaxial Static Subsonic Jet Far-Field
database, 11002
program to interpolate in or extrapolate database, 11002
Combination of Levels, 17012, 79037
Combustor noise, combustion noise, 05001
Conversion to R.M.S. Fluctuating Pressure, 66018
Definitions of Intensity, Intensity Level, Power Level, Pressure and Pressure Level, 66013
Discrete Frequency Far- and Near-Field for Single Propeller With Axial or Non-Axial Inflow (Static or Flight)
estimation of unsteady lift coefficient for input to prediction program, 96027
program for estimation from steady or unsteady loading data, 11005
Discrete Frequency Far-Field for Single Static Propeller/Rotor
graphical estimation of maximum component of rotational noise, 76020
Estimation of Attenuation Due to Barriers
program in Fortran, 79011
Estimation of sideline noise in subjective noise metrics, 82027 Addendum
Fan noise, compressor noise, 98008
Fans
prediction at maximum efficiency point, 79037
Far-field jet noise, 11002, 89041, 98019
Ground reflection effects, 94035
Jet-by-jet noise shielding, 88023
Lateral attenuation, 81035, 82027
Near-field jet noise, 99006
Noise shielding by barriers, 79011
Prediction of Airframe Noise Component-by-Component
program for aeroplanes not propeller powered, 90023
Propeller noise, 11005, 76020, 96027
Section properties of fuselage stiffeners, 07001 Addendum
Shielding Effect of Two Identical Single-Stream Parallel Jets
program for estimation, 88023
Single-Stream Static Jet Far-Field, 89041, 98019
database, 98019
program to interpolate in or extrapolate database, 98019
use of data to predict under flight conditions, 87011
Single-Stream Static Jet Near-Field, 72002, 99006
databases, 99006
program for interpolation in or extrapolation of database, 99006
Sound absorption coefficients of liners, 74003, 74004
Sound attenuation due to air absorption, 78002, 78003
Sound attenuation in circular ducts, 00012
Sound attenuation in rectangular and annular ducts, 00024
Sound propagation, 94036
Sound propagation in the presence of wind and temperature gradients, 89036
Sound radiation from circular ducts, 01015
Static-to-flight effects, 87011
Turbine noise, 12001
Turbulent Boundary Layer
surface pressure fluctuations, 75021, TM 58
Spanwise Loading
Due to Change of Angle of Attack, TD MEMO 6403
Effect of Camber and Twist Distributions and Deflection of Leading- and/or Trailing-Edge Plain Flaps on
program for subsonic flow, 95010
Effect of Camber and Twist Distributions on, 83040
program for subsonic flow, 95010
Example of Alleviation by Active Controls, 84020
Spats
Undercarriage
see
Undercarriage Drag Estimation
Specially Orthotropic
Definition, 82013, 83035, 94003
Specific Air Range
see also
Range
Analysis of Flight Test Data to Determine Guarantees
as illustration of use of statistical techniques, 91018
Introduction to Estimation, 73018, 80026
Piston-Engine Aircraft
flight conditions for maximum with parabolic drag law, 75018
practical flight conditions for maximum, 75018
typical variation with operational parameters, 75018
Program to Calculate for Any Power Plant
using known drag and engine characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Turbo-Fan and Turbo-Jet Aircraft
flight conditions for maximum, 73019
flight conditions for maximum with parabolic drag law, 73019
Turbo-Prop Aircraft
flight conditions for maximum with parabolic drag law, 75018
practical flight conditions for maximum, 75018
typical variation with operational parameters, 75018
Specific Endurance
see also
Endurance (Flight Time)
Introduction to Estimation, 73018, 80026
Piston-Engine Aircraft
flight conditions for maximum with parabolic drag law, 75018
Program to Calculate for Any Power Plant
using known drag and engine characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Turbo-Fan and Turbo-Jet Aircraft
flight conditions for maximum, 73019
flight conditions for maximum with parabolic drag law, 73019
Turbo-Prop Aircraft
flight conditions for maximum with parabolic drag law, 75018
Specific Enthalpy of Vaporisation
Specific Excess Power
Definition in Aircraft Performance
definition, 70023, 78038, 80026, 80032
Measurement in Flight
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Program to Calculate for Aircraft Performance
using known drag and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Specific Fuel Consumption
see
Aircraft Piston Engines
Range
Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
Turbo-prop Engines
Specific Gravity
see
Density
Specific Heat Capacity
see also
Aluminium Alloys
Copper Alloys
Magnesium Alloys
Nickel Steels
Steels
Titanium Alloys
Typical Values for Synthetic Lubricants, 94020
Values for Various Ceramic, Metallic and Polymer Materials, 84041
Specific Heat Capacity Ratio
Specific Latent Heat of Vaporisation
Specific Range
see
Specific Air Range
Specific Wear Rate
Various Dry Rubbing Bearing Materials
carbon, polymer, thermoset, solid lubricant impregnated metal, 87007
Spectral Analysis
General Introduction to Use in Study of Random Processes
see
Random Processes
Use in Calculating Response of Buildings and Structures
see
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Use in Representing Atmospheric Turbulence Properties
see
Turbulence
Turbulence Near Ground
Spectrum Level
see also
Power Spectral Density Function
Definition, 17011
Relation to Power Spectral Density Function, 17011
Speed
see also
Airspeed
Calibrated Airspeed
Equivalent Airspeed
Indicated Airspeed
Analysis of Measurements Made in Level Flight
piston-engine aircraft, 80009
turbine helicopters, 74042, 80009
turbo-fan and turbo-jet aircraft, 70020, 70021, 70022, 80009
Estimation in Level Flight
see also
Equations of Motion
aircraft performance program, ESDUperf
effect of small changes in drag, weight, thrust (or power) on, 86004
program using known drag, lift and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Estimation of Maximum in Level Flight
aircraft performance program, ESDUperf
program using known drag, lift and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Measurement in Flight
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Minimum Drag in Level Flight, 81026
Minimum Thrust Power in Level Flight, 81026
Reduction of Measurements Made in Level Flight
piston-engine aircraft, 80009, PERF RP1/0, PERF RP1/1, PERF RP2/0
turbo-fan and turbo-jet aircraft, 80009, PERF RJ2/0
turbo-prop aircraft, 80009, PERF RT1/0, PERF RT1/1
Sound
use in temperature measurement, 02006
Stability During Approach, PERF EG6/2
Spheres
Heat Transfer
see
Free Convection Heat Transfer
Radiation Heat Transfer
Spherical Forebody
see
Forebody
Spherical Roller Bearings
see
Contact Phenomena
Grease in Rolling Bearings
Rolling Bearings
Spherical Shells of Laminated Construction
Under Differential Temperature Across Thickness
steady state temperature and stress distributions, 89027
Spillage Drag
see also
Sidespillage
Axi-Symmetric Cowls at Subsonic Speeds
prediction of onset for all types (NACA 1-series, conical, elliptical, parabolic, other), 84004
prediction of onset (NACA 1-series and with larger lip radius), 81024
variation with geometry and Mach number (NACA 1-series and with larger lip radius), 81024
variation with geometry, Mach number and incidence for all cowls, 84004
variation with Mach number and mass flow ratio (NACA 1-series and modified profiles), 94014
Definition, 81004, 84004, 97016
Flush Intakes
NACA convergent-divergent planform, 86002
rectangular planform, 03006, 86002
Scoop Intakes Immersed in Boundary Layer
with or without boundary layer diverter, 86002
Spiral Coils
see
Forced Convection Heat Transfer
Pressure Drop in Internal Flow
Spiral Mode
Aircraft Lateral Stability and Response
see also
Rolling
discussion of origin and characteristics, 86021
Splined Steel Shaft Assemblies
Fatigue Strength Under Reversed Torsion, 73002
effect of case hardening, form rolling or shot peening, 73002
effect of machining, 73002
effect of number of splines, spline form and spline height, 73002
effect of root radius, 73002
Stress Concentration for Splined Shafts Under Torsion, 73002
Split Flaps
see also
Downwash
Flaps
Interference
Introduction to Data Items on Effect of High-Lift Devices on Drag, Lift and Pitching Moment, 97002
Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils at Zero Angle of Attack
alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94026, 94027, 94029
Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Wings at Zero Angle of Attack
alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 96032, 97002, 97009
Maximum Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils
alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 94026, 94027, 94029
Maximum Lift Increment Due to Deployment on Wings, 91014
with leading-edge high-lift devices, 92031
Normal Force, AERO F.05.01.01
Pitching Moment Increment Due to Deployment on Aerofoils and Wings
alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 03017, 98009
flap chord ratio less than unity, AERO F.08.01.01, AERO F.08.01.02
Profile Drag Increment Due to Deployment on Wings, 74010, AERO F.02.01.07
Trailing Vortex Drag Increment Due to Deployment on Cambered and Twisted or Plane Wings
program for estimation for any flap and wing geometry, 01007
tabulated values for selected flap and wing geometries, 01007
Split Roller Bearings
see
Rolling Bearings for Specialised Applications
Splitters
In Bends
design information, 83037
optimum location for one or two in circular-arc, 83037
pressure drop in circular-arc with optimum splitter location, 83037
Use to Improve Diffuser Performance
recommendations for geometry, 87015
static pressure recovery improvement achieved, 87015
Spoilers
Derivation of Part-Span Factors, TM 172
Discussion of Effect of Spoiler Position on Lift-Curve Slope, 14004
Drag Increment in Ground Effect Due to Solid
flaps and slats deployed, 76026
Example of Calculation of Local Excrescence Contribution to Drag, 93032
Induced and Profile Drag Increments in Free Air Due to Perforated or Solid
including contribution to induced drag from flap-spoiler interference, 96026
Lift Decrement in Free Air Due to Perforated or Solid
trailing-edge flaps deployed, 14005
trailing-edge flaps undeployed, 14004
Lift Decrement in Ground Effect
flaps and slats deployed, 76026
Rolling Moment Due to Solid or Perforated
trailing-edge flaps deployed, 14005
trailing-edge flaps undeployed, 14004
Typical Time Delay in Response, 85029
Use with cavity flow, 08011, 08012
Yawing Moment Due to Perforated or Solid Used as Roll Control
including contributions from spoiler-wake-fin and flap-spoiler interferences, 96026
Spray
Prediction of Drag Due to Impingement on Airframe in Take-Off and Landing
see
Impingement Drag
Prediction of Sidespray Envelope From Aircraft Tyres
see
Aircraft Tyres
Springs
see
Disc Springs
Helical Springs of Round Wire
Linkages
Spur Gears
see
Gears
Square Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
see also
Reinforced Square Holes with Rounded Corners in Flat Plates
Various In-Plane Loadings
stress concentration data, 80027
Square Plates
see also
Boundary Walls and Fences
Flat Plates
Hoardings (Elevated Above Ground Level)
Inclined to Flow
centre of pressure, 70015
normal force, 70015
Normal to Flow
interference effects between pair, 70015
normal force, 70015
shear-flow and surface-mounting effects on forces, 70015
Stress Analysis
see
Curved Square Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Flat Square Plates
Flat Square Plates with Central Circular Hole
Flat Square Plates with Central Flanged Circular Hole
Stress Response to Acoustic Loading
see
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Vibration
see
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Flat Square Plates
Noise
Square-section Cylinders
Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Mean Forces, Moments and Pressures Due to Wind or Other Fluid Flows
see
Axial Force
Base Pressure
Bluff Bodies
Derivatives
Internal Pressure
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Pressure Distribution
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Torsional Moment on Structures
Square-section Diffusers
see
Plane-walled Diffusers with Single-plane Expansion
Stability
Boundaries
see
Dynamic Stability
Rolling
Derivatives
see
Derivatives
During Approach, PERF EG6/2
Dynamic
see
Dynamic Stability
In Intake Flow
see
Intakes
In Journal Bearings
see
Journal Bearings
Lateral
see
Lateral Stability and Response
Longitudinal
see
Longitudinal Stability and Response
Pitch-break (Pitch-up or Pitch-down)
Rotors
see
Rotors
Static
see
Longitudinal Stability and Response
Static Aeroelasticity
Structural
see
Buckling
Stacks
Dynamic Response to Turbulence and Wind
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Response of Buildings and Structures To Atmospheric Turbulence
Response of Buildings and Structures To Vortex Shedding
Mean Forces, Moments and Pressures Due to Wind
see
Base Pressure
Bluff Bodies
Internal Pressure
Normal Force
Overturning Moment on Surface-mounted Structures
Pressure Distribution
Profile Drag
Sideforce
Torsional Moment on Structures
Vortex Shedding
Mechanical Vibration Characteristics
see
Buildings
Stage Fuel, Length and Time
see
Range
Stagnation Conditions
Curves of as Function of Mach Number
calorically imperfect diatomic gases, AERO S.00.01.10
perfect air, 69026, 73017, 74028, 82018, AERO 00.03.05
perfect gases, 74028, AERO S.00.03.06, AERO S.00.03.07
real air, 73017
Equations for Estimation From Freestream Conditions
pressure only, 73017, 82018
various quantities, 69026, 74028, AERO 00.03.05, AERO S.00.03.06, AERO S.00.03.07
Stainless Steels
see
Austenitic Stainless Steels
Duplex Stainless Steels
High Alloy Steels
Maraging Steels
Martensitic Stainless Steels
Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels
Steels
Stalling
see also
Flow Separation
Maximum Lift
Considerations in Use of Stall Strips on Wings, 97017
Limitation on Approach Speed, PERF EG6/2
Limitation on Take-Off Safety Speed, 85029
Standard Atmosphere
see
Atmosphere
Equivalent Airspeed
Geopotential Altitude
Standard Deviation
Determination to Specified Confidence for Population From Sample Value
using Chi-Squared Distribution, 91041
Standard Fatigue Loading Sequences
ENSTAFF for Fighter Aircraft Including Environmental Factors
moisture management, 97018
temperature profiles used, 97018
FALSTAFF for Fighter Aircraft
characteristics and mission types, 97018
description of derivation, 97018
general principles in generation of loading, 97018
taxiing loading used, 97018
Felix and Helix for Helicopters
discussion of sortie types, durations and manoeuvres, 97018
landing and take-off loads, 97018
load matrix used, 97018
rainflow analysis, 97018
TWIST and miniTWIST for Transport Aircraft
characteristics, 97018
description of derivation, 97018
flight types and number of cycles used, 97018
Standard Gross/net Thrust
Turbo-Jet Engines
see also
Thrust of Turbo-fan and Turbo-jet Engines
definition, 69006
Standard Mean Chord
see also
Aerodynamic Mean Chord
Geometric Mean Chord
Length and Position
straight-tapered wing planforms, or wing planforms with cranks or sawteeth, 10023, 76003, TM 168
Standard Momentum Drag
Turbo-Jet Engines
definition, 69006
Standard Normal Distribution
Definition, 91041
State Variable
Use in Control System Design, 80018
Static Aeroelasticity
Introduction to Influence of Flexibility on Static Stability
constant speed conditions, 96037
overall structural mode, 96037
Treatment of Conventional Transport With Flexible Tailplane/Wing Using Orthogonal Modes
angle of attack in trimmed level flight or a pull-out manoeuvre, 97032
conditions for aeroelastic static stability, 97032
deflections and twist of tailplane and wing, 97032
elevator angle in trimmed level flight or a pull-out manoeuvre, 97032
elevator trim margin in trimmed level flight or a pull-out manoeuvre, 97032
equilibrium equations in quasi-steady symmetric manoeuvres, 97032
Treatment of Flexibility for Conventional Transport With Swept or Unswept Cambered Wing
consideration of elevator trim divergence speed, 96037
effect on tailplane and wing load distribution, 96037
elevator manoeuvre trim margin in steady pull-out, 96037
elevator trim margin in level flight, 96037
Treatment of Flexible Conventional Transport Using Normal Modes
angle of attack in trimmed level flight or a pull-out manoeuvre, 99033
deformation of fuselage, wing, nacelle assembly and tailplane, 99033
elevator angle in trimmed level flight or a pull-up manoeuvre, 99033
equilibrium equations in quasi-steady symmetric manoeuvres, 99033
Static Discharge Wicks
Guidance on Contribution to Excrescence Drag, 94044
Guidance on Number Used on Transport Aircraft, 94044
Static Margin
see
Longitudinal Stability and Response
Static Pressure
see also
Anemometric Data Correction
In Steady, Spatially Non-Uniform Axial Compressible Flow
as part of reference set of average flow properties for calorically-perfect gas, 95011
as part of reference set of average flow properties for thermally-perfect gas, 97029
Relation With Total Pressure
see
Total Pressure
Variation With Altitude
model atmospheres, 00034, 00036, 68046, 69026, 72018, 77021, 77022, 78008
program to calculate in non-Standard conditions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
program to calculate in Standard conditions, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039
Static Pressure Recovery
see
Pressure Recovery
Static Pressure Sensors
see also
Pitot-static Probes
Measurement of Airspeed, Altitude and Mach Number
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Position (Pressure) Error, 83029, 85036, 86006
sources of, 86006
typical effects on measured airspeed and on measured altitude, 86006
Typical Flow Measurement Errors, 85011
Static Stability
see
Longitudinal Stability and Response
Static Temperature
see also
Ambient Temperature
In Steady, Spatially Non-Uniform Axial Compressible Flow
as part of reference set of average flow properties for calorically-perfect gas, 95011
as part of reference set of average flow properties for thermally-perfect gas, 97029
Relation With Total Temperature in Isentropic Flow
see
Total Temperature
Stationary Process
Definition, 83041
Statistical Energy Analysis
Coupling Loss Factors
equation for connected plates, 15010, 98020, 99009
prediction for curved or flat plates coupled directly or through a beam, 98020
Energy Flow Relationships, 15010
Estimation of Response of Lightweight Structures
advantages, features and limitations, 97033, 99009
commercial software, 15010, 99009
comparison of results for simple structure with those from finite element analysis, 99009
definition and sources of information on modal density, modal overlap and loss factors, 99009
ensemble, frequency and spatial averaging, 99009
experimental determination of parameters from measurements, 99009
introduction to method, 99009
procedure for modelling structure by subsystems and considerations in their definition, 99009
typical applications, 97033, 99009
use of power input, transmission and dissipation to arrive at power balance equations, 99009
variance and its importance in evaluating results, 99009
Modal Density, 11008, 13003, 99009
Statistics
see also
Random Processes
Regression
Anderson-Darling Test for Normality (Goodness of Fit), 91041
Approximate Estimation of Standard Deviation of Output Error From Known System Tolerances, 91017
Chi-Squared Distribution
approximate equations for percentiles, 91041
estimation with specified confidence of population standard deviation from sample value, 91041
table of percentiles, 91017, 91041
use as test for Normality (goodness of fit) 00932 (MMDH), 91017, 91019
Concept of Standard Distributions and Use of Distribution-Free Techniques, 92040
Estimation of Standard Deviation of Variable From Standard Deviation of its Components, 91017, 91020
Explanation of Confidence Level and Probability, FMI2
Extreme-Value Analysis
Gumbel, 87034
Lieblein, 87034
Weibull, 87034
Fisher's Variance Ratio F Distribution
approximate equations for percentiles, 91041
examples of use to establish significance of linear regressions, 92021, 92022
table of percentiles with 95 per cent confidence, 91017
table of percentiles with 97.5 per cent confidence, 91041
use as test for Normality (goodness of fit), 91017, 91018
use for comparison of standard deviations of two samples, 91017, 91018, 91041, 93023
Hypothesis Testing, 91017, 92040
Introduction to Analysis of Engineering Data, 92040
Measures of Dispersion and Location, 92040
Non-Central Student's t Distribution
use in estimation to specified confidence of population coefficient of variation, 91041
use in estimation to specified confidence of population percentiles, 91041
Normal or Gaussian Distribution
approximate equations for percentiles, 91041
Bartlett's test for homogeneity of several estimates of population variance, 91017
bivariate distribution, 91017, 96024
conditional probability distribution, 91017, 96024
estimation from sample of population coefficient of variation to specified confidence, 91041
estimation to specified confidence of population percentiles from sample mean, 91041
expression for cumulative distribution function, 91041
joint probability distribution, 86010, 91017, 96024
marginal probability distribution, 91017, 96024
probability density function, 85020, 92040
table of statistics for cumulative distribution function and percentiles, 91017, 91041
use of cumulative distribution function to compare means of samples, 93023
use of probability grids, 91017, 91019
Probability Definitions and Relations
random events, and discrete and continuous random variables, 92040
Sampling and Effects of Censoring, 92040
Skewed Distribution, 91017, 92040
Student's t Distribution
equations for percentiles, 91041
estimation to specified confidence of population mean from sample value, 91017, 91041
table of percentiles, 91017, 91041
use for comparison of means of two samples, 91017, 91018, 91041
Techniques of Interval and Point Estimation, and Hypothesis Testing, 92040
Use in Analysis of Atmospheric Turbulence, 74030, 85020, 86010
Use in Analysis of Extreme-Wind Speeds, 87034
Use in Analysis of Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop Data, FMI2
Use in Deriving Materials Design Data 00932 (MMDH)
Use in Determination of Pressure Error Correction, 95024
Use of Bivariate Distribution in Analysis of Data on Length and Width of US Paved Runways
conditional, joint and marginal distributions, 96024
Use to Analyse Aircraft/Ground-Test Machine Braked Experimental Friction Data
to predict wet stopping distance with chosen probability, 00018, 99015, 99016, 99017

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