ESDU Performance Series

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  • Section 1: Explanatory and General Guidance
    • ESDU 99035
      Performance Series record of documents
    • ESDU Notation and Units
      Notation and units in Peformance Data Items
    • ESDU CFA
      Conversion factors.
    • ESDU 80009
      The use of Data Items on aircraft performance measurement.
    • ESDU 80026
      The use of Data Items on aircraft performance estimation.
    • ESDU 04008
      Use of Carpet Plots to represent functions of two variables.
    • ESDU 04012
      Examples of construction of carpet plots from experimental data.
  • Section 2: Equations of Motion
    • ESDU 78038
      Introduction to equations of motion for performance.
    • ESDU 80032
      Simplified forms of performance equations.
    • ESDU 86004
      Simplified forms of performance equations. Addendum A: effect on aeroplane level speed of small changes in thrust, drag, weight, power.
    • ESDU 92019
      Estimation of rate of climb.
    • ESDU 94039
      Effects of small changes on rate of climb.
    • ESDU 81046
      Acceleration factors for climb and descent rates at constant EAS, CAS, M.
    • ESDU 94040
      Effects of cabin pressure on climb and descent rates.
  • Section 3: Atmospheric Data
    • ESDU 68046
      Atmospheric data for performance calculations.
    • ESDU 72018
      Atmospheric data for performance calculations. Addendum: height in feet, data in SI units.
    • ESDU 77022
      Equations for calculation of International Standard Atmosphere and associated off-standard atmospheres.
    • ESDU 78012
      Height relationships for non-standard atmospheres.
  • Section 4: Airspeed Data
    • ESDU 69026
      Airspeed data for performance calculations.
  • Section 5: Drag of Airframes
    • ESDU 81026
      Representation of drag in aircraft performance calculations (with Addenda A to G).
    • ESDU 97016
      Estimation of airframe drag by summation of components: principles and examples.
    • ESDU 94044
      Excrescence drag levels on aircraft.
    • ESDU 88006
      Estimation of drag arising from asymmetry in thrust or airframe configuration.
  • Section 6: Drag of Engines
    • ESDU 84005
      Estimation of drag due to inoperative turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines using Data Item Nos 81009 and 84004.
    • ESDU 81009
      Estimation of windmilling drag and airflow of turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines.
    • ESDU 84004
      Estimation of spillage drag for a wide range of axisymmetric intakes at M less than 1.
  • Section 7: Estimation - Jet and Fan Engine Thrust
    • ESDU 76034
      Estimation of take-off thrust using generalised data for turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines.
    • ESDU 77001
      Effect of intake total pressure loss on net thrust at take-off: turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines.
  • Section 8: Estimation - Propellers
    • ESDU 83001
      Approximate parametric method for propeller thrust estimation.
    • ESDU 83028
      Approximate parametric method for propeller thrust estimation. Addendum A: application to fixed-pitch propellers.
    • ESDU PERF ED1/1
      Approximate estimation of drag of windmilling propellers.
    • ESDU PERF ED1/2
      Approximate estimation of braking thrust of propellers (piston engines).
  • Section 9: Tyre-Runway Forces
    • ESDU 16008
      Frictional and retarding forces on aircraft tyres -Introduction to the ESDU methods
    • ESDU 15002
      Definitions for runway contaminants and the classification and distribution of hard runway surfaces
    • ESDU 15003
      Planing of rib-tread aircraft tyres
    • ESDU 15009
      Determination of hydroplaning speeds and corresponding hydrodynamic forces for rib tread aircraft tyres.
      Application of ESDU 15003.
  • Section 10: Tyre Spray
    • ESDU 83042
      Estimation of spray patterns generated from the sides of aircraft tyres running in water or slush.
    • ESDU 98001
      Estimation of airframe skin-friction drag due to impingement of tyre spray.
  • Section 11: Airfield Performance - General
    • ESDU 85029
      Calculation of ground performance in take-off and landing.
    • ESDU 85030
      Force and moment components for take-off and landing calculations.
    • ESDU 99015
      Statistical analysis of wet runway friction for aircraft and ground-test machines
    • ESDU 99016
      Example of statistical analysis of wet runway friction: aircraft with extensive set of test data.
    • ESDU 99017
      Example of statistical analysis of wet runway friction: aircraft with limited set of test data.
    • ESDU 00018
      Example of statistical analysis of wet runway friction: ground-test machine data.
    • ESDU 08014
      Guide to contaminated runway testing
    • ESDU TM 95
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Impact forces resulting from wheel generated spray: a re-assessment of existing data
    • ESDU TM 96
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Operations on surfaces covered with slush
    • ESDU PERF RG2/1
      Reduction of take-off and landing measurements to standard conditions.
  • Section 12: Airfield Performance - Contaminated Runways
    • ESDU 05011
      Summary of the model for performance of an aircraft tyre rolling or braking on dry or precipitate contaminated runways.
    • ESDU 10015
      Model for performance of a single aircraft tyre rolling or braking on dry and precipitate contaminated runways
    • ESDU 11004
      Decelerating forces on multiple-wheel undercarriages rolling or braking on precipitate contaminated runways
    • ESDU 13007
      Side-force coefficients on aircraft tyres in yawed and unbraked motion on dry and wet pavements
    • ESDU 10002
      Introduction to worked examples of tyres rolling or braking on dry or precipitate contaminated runways.
      Application of ESDU 05011 and ESDU 13007
    • ESDU 10003
      Worked example for tyre in linear motion on a contaminated runway surface. Application of ESDU 05011.
    • ESDU 10004
      Worked example of ground-test machine operating on a dry or contaminated runway surface.
      Application of ESDU 05011.
    • ESDU 13002
      Worked example for aircraft with multiple-wheel undercarriages braking on water-covered runway. Application of ESDU 11004.
    • ESDU 15007
      Worked example for tyre in yawed motion on a dry or wet runway surface.
      An application of ESDU 13007
    • ESDU 15008
      Tyre in linear motion on a runway covered by various forms of loose snow.
      An application of ESDU 05011
    • ESDU TM 151
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Stresses in the tread material of an unloaded inflated tyre.
    • ESDU TM 161
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Calculation of coefficients of rolling, braking and yawed rolling resistance.
    • ESDU TM 165
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Analysis of ground-rolling tests through water with a Canberra aircraft
    • ESDU TM 192
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Analysis of aircraft tests on flooded runways: an empirical approach
    • ESDU TM 167
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Mumeter Mk 6: a continuous friction measuring device. Evaluation on test surfaces at Nantes.
    • ESDU TM 170
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Falcon 20: rolling on dry and snow-covered surfaces
    • ESDU TM 174
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM
      Correlation of the micro-texture sharpness parameter F1
    • ESDU TM 176
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Effective phase angle in tyre-friction modelling
    • ESDU TM 188
      Air and ground temperature
  • Section 13: Landing
    • ESDU 84040
      First approximation to landing field length for civil transport aeroplanes (50 ft, 15.24 m screen).
    • ESDU 91032
      Estimation of airborne performance in landing.
    • ESDU 92020
      Energy method for analysis of measured airspeed change in landing airborne manoeuvre.
    • ESDU PERF EG6/2
      Estimation of approach speed.
    • ESDU PERF EG6/4
      Estimation of ground run during landing.
  • Section 14: Estimation - Take-off
    • ESDU PERF EG5/1
      Estimation of take-off distance.
    • ESDU 76011
      First approximation to take-off field length of multi-engined transport aeroplanes.
    • ESDU 82033
      First approximation to take-off distance to 50 ft (15.2 m) for light and general aviation aeroplanes.
    • ESDU 87018
      Example of take-off field length calculations for a civil transport aeroplane.
    • ESDU 87037
      Take-off performance of vectored-jet-thrust V/STOL aircraft.
  • Section 15: Estimation - Range and Endurance
    • ESDU 73018
      Introduction to estimation of range and endurance.
    • ESDU 73019
      Approximate methods for estimation of cruise range and endurance: aeroplanes with turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines.
    • ESDU 74018
      Lost range, fuel and time due to climb and descent: aircraft with turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines.
    • ESDU 74041
      Example of the use of Data Items on range performance.
    • ESDU 75018
      Estimation of cruise range: propeller-driven aircraft.
    • ESDU 77015
      Lost range, fuel and time due to climb and descent: propeller-driven aeroplanes.
  • Section 16: Flight Path Optimisation
    • ESDU 89015
      Introduction to Data Items on flight path optimisation.
    • ESDU 90012
      Energy height method for flight path optimisation.
    • ESDU 91016
      Energy height method for flight path optimisation. Addendum A: numerical method suitable for rapid use on IBM PC compatible computers.
    • ESDU 93021
      Examples of flight path optimisation using a multivariate gradient-search method.
    • ESDU 94016
      Examples of flight path optimisation using a multivariate gradient-search method. Addendum A: variation of optimum flight profile parameters with range.
    • ESDU 94012
      Application of multivariate optimisation techniques to determination of optimum flight trajectories.
  • Section 17: Estimation - Manoeuvres
  • Section 18: Statistical Techniques
    • ESDU 91017
      Statistical methods applicable to analysis of aircraft performance data.
    • ESDU 91018
      Example of statistical techniques applied to cruise performance guarantees (Student's "t" distribution).
    • ESDU 91019
      Example of statistical techniques applied to autoland touchdown dispersion (confidence intervals for normal and skew distributions).
    • ESDU 91020
      Variability of standard aircraft performance parameters.
    • ESDU 92021
      Example of statistical techniques applied to analysis of landing ground roll distance measurements. (Linear regression, correlation coefficient and F test.)
    • ESDU 92022
      Example of statistical techniques applied to analysis of measurements of the landing airborne manoeuvre. (Multiple linear regression with two independent variables and one dependent variable.)
    • ESDU 93023
      Example of statistical techniques applied to analysis of effects of small changes.
    • ESDU 96024
      Example of statistical techniques applied to analysis of paved runway sizes (Bivariate Normal Distribution).
  • Section 19: Similarity Methods
    • ESDU 97025
      Similarity rules for application in aircraft performance work.
    • ESDU 98026
      Example of similarity methods applied to base drag coefficient of conical afterbodies in axisymmetric flow (jet off).
    • ESDU 08010
      Example of similarity methods applied to aircraft drag data from flight test
  • Section 20: Fitting of Functions
    • ESDU 01011
      Compendium of curves and approximating algebraic functions.
    • ESDU 06025
      Guide to linear Least Squares curve fitting techniques
  • Section 21: Air Data - Flight Test Measurement
    • ESDU 86031
      Introduction to air data system parameters, errors and calibration laws.
    • ESDU 83029
      The correction of flight-test anemometric data.
    • ESDU 88025
      Derivation of primary air-data parameters for hypersonic flight.
    • ESDU 93020
      Computation of static pressure downstream of a normal shock for hypersonic flight (ambient temperature known).
  • Section 22: Air Data - Sensor Calibrations and Errors
    • ESDU 86006
      Pitot and static errors in steady level flight.
    • ESDU 95024
      Example of analysis and representation of static pressure correction data in steady flight.
    • ESDU 85011
      Pitot and static errors due to non-steady flight.
    • ESDU 87038
      Calibration of anemometric pressure systems for lag.
    • ESDU 85036
      Conversion of air-data system pressure errors into height and speed corrections.
    • ESDU 84007
      The treatment of calibrations of total air temperature probes for use in flight-test analysis work.
  • Section 23: Thrust Determination
    • ESDU 69006
      Introduction to the measurement of thrust in flight. (Air breathing ducted-flow engines.)
    • ESDU 69007
      The determination of gross thrust and mass flow in flight. (Air breathing ducted-flow engines with convergent nozzles.)
    • ESDU 69008
      Curves for use in the determination of gross thrust and mass flow in flight. (Air breathing ducted-flow engines with convergent nozzles.)
  • Section 24: Analysis - Jet Aeroplanes
    • ESDU 70020
      Non-dimensional approach to engine thrust and airframe drag for the analysis of measured performance data: aircraft with turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines.
    • ESDU 70021
      Graphical method for the analysis of measured performance data using drag determination: aircraft with turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines.
    • ESDU 70022
      Non-dimensional graphical method for the analysis of measurements of steady level speed, range and endurance: aircraft with turbo-jet and turbo-fan engines.
    • ESDU 70023
      The measurement and analysis of climb and excess power performance.
    • ESDU PERF RJ1/2
      Performance analysis for aircraft with turbo-jets. "Non-dimensional" graphical method. Rate of climb.
    • ESDU 79018
      Example of performance analysis using data obtained concurrently in air-path, body and Earth axes.
    • ESDU 15001
      Aircraft performance from flight test Part 1: derivation of a mathematical model
    • ESDU 16003
      Aircraft performance from flight test Part 2: thrust-drag accounting
    • ESDU 17013
      Aircraft performance from flight test. Part 3: in-flight calibration of an angle of attack sensor
    • ESDU TM 185
      Air data calibration using a GPS/INS (EGI)
    • ESDU TM 189
      Analysis of tests on a convergent nozzle in an altitude test facility
  • Section 25: Reduction Methods - Aeroplanes
    • ESDU PERF RJ2/0
      Introductory sheet on the analytical method of performance reduction for aircraft with turbo-jets.
    • ESDU PERF RJ2/1
      Analytical method of performance reduction for aircraft with turbo-jets. Rate of climb.
    • ESDU PERF RT1/0
      Performance reduction for aircraft with turbo-props. "Non-dimensional" graphical method.
    • ESDU PERF RT1/1
      Performance reduction for aircraft with turbo-props. "Non-dimensional" graphical method. Level speed.
    • ESDU PERF RT1/2
      Performance reduction for aircraft with turbo-props. "Non-dimensional" graphical method. Rate of climb.
    • ESDU PERF RT1/3
      Performance reduction for aircraft with turbo-props. "Non-dimensional" graphical method. Range and endurance.
    • ESDU PERF RP1/0
      Standard British method of performance reduction for piston-engined aircraft with constant-speed propellers
    • ESDU PERF RP1/1
      Standard British method of performance reduction for piston-engined aircraft with constant-speed propellers. Level speed.
    • ESDU PERF RP1/2
      Standard British method of performance reduction for piston-engined aircraft with constant-speed propellers. Rate of climb.
    • ESDU PERF RP1/3
      Standard British method of performance reduction for piston-engined aircraft with constant-speed propellers. Fuel consumption.
    • ESDU PERF RP2/0
      General method of performance reduction for piston-engined aircraft with constant-speed propellers.
  • Section 26: Analysis - Turbine Helicopters
    • ESDU 73026
      Introduction to non-dimensional methods for the measurement of performance of turbine-engined helicopters.
    • ESDU 73027
      Non-dimensional methods for the measurement of hover performance of turbine-engined helicopters.
    • ESDU 74042
      Non-dimensional methods for the measurement of level-flight performance of turbine-engined helicopters.
  • Section 27: Aircraft Performance Program
    • ESDU 00031
      Aircraft Performance Program. Part 1: Introduction to the computer programs for aircraft performance evaluation.
    • ESDU 00032
      Aircraft performance program. Part 2: installing and running Programs APP02 and APP03.
    • ESDU 00033
      Aircraft performance program. Part 3: brief guide. Programs APP02, APP03.
    • ESDU 00034
      Aircraft performance program. Part 4: Brief form of input and output. Programs APP02 and APP03.
    • ESDU 00035
      Aircraft performance program. Part 5: detailed input and output. Program APP02.
    • ESDU 00036
      Aircraft performance program. Part 6: examples of application. Programs APP02 and APP03.
    • ESDU 00037
      Aircraft performance program. Part 7: Error messages. Programs APP02 and APP03.
    • ESDU 00038
      Aircraft performance program. Part 8: description of APP02.
    • ESDU 00039
      Aircraft Performance Program. Part 9: Testing programs APP02 and APP03.
  • Section 28: Risk - Treatment and Analysis
    • ESDU 08003
      Treatment of risk within commercial air transport
    • ESDU 08004
      Example of risk analysis applied to en-route flight path for large jet transport aircraft
    • ESDU 08005
      Example of risk analysis applied to aircraft landing distance
    • ESDU 08006
      Example of risk analysis for an aircraft subject to performance errors