ESDU Wind Engineering Series
Damage by the wind can be extreme. The Wind Engineering Series provides reliable methods and data for predicting the loads on, and the response of, buildings and structures to the wind. In order to do this the information includes methods and a computer program for estimating design wind speeds and turbulence properties for all types of terrain including topographic effects on wind speed.
Comprehensive prediction procedures are provided for estimating force and pressure coefficients for structures such as stacks, masts, towers (including those with polygonal sections), lattice structures, beams, plates, boundary walls, aerials and regular building shapes. Particular attention has been afforded (where appropriate) to surface roughness effects and high Reynolds number applications. These data are required for estimating both the mean loading and the fluctuating loading due to turbulence in the wind.
Methods and computer programs are included for predicting dynamic effects associated with the oscillation of a structure induced by wind effects (such as buffeting by turbulence, vortex shedding and galloping) close to one, or more, of the structure's natural frequencies of vibration. Guidance is also given on the interaction effects of closely-spaced circular cross-section structures.
Methods for obtaining the natural vibration characteristics of frame, shear and sway buildings, needed for the prediction of their response to wind or earthquake, are given in simple procedures or computer programs, and a method of estimating the damping of buildings is included.
Section 1: Organisational Documents
Section 2: Wind Speeds and Turbulence - Mean Hourly and Gust Speeds, Extreme Speeds, Turbulence Characteristics
Strong winds in the atmospheric boundary layer. Part 1: hourly-mean wind speeds.
Strong winds in the atmospheric boundary layer. Part 2: discrete gust speeds.
Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part I: definitions and general information.
Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part II: single point data for strong winds (neutral atmosphere).
Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part III: variations in space and time for strong winds (neutral atmosphere).
World-wide extreme wind speeds. Part 1: origins and methods of analysis.
World-wide extreme wind speeds. Part 2: examples using various methods of analysis.
Estimation of hours per year when mean wind speed exceeds specified thresholds.
- ESDU 82026
Section 3: Wind Speeds and Turbulence - Effect of Terrain Roughness and Local Topography
Wind speed profiles over terrain with roughness changes.
Longitudinal turbulence intensities over terrain with roughness changes.
Integral length scales of turbulence over flat terrain with roughness changes.
Mean wind speeds over hills and other topography.
Computer program for wind speeds and turbulence properties: flat or hilly sites in terrain with roughness changes.
Estimation of shelter provided by solid and porous fences.
- ESDU 84011
Section 4: Mean Loads on Structures - Single Circular and Multi-Sided Cylinders, Cylinder Groups
Fluid forces on non-streamline bodies - background notes and description of the flow phenomena.
Mean forces, pressures and flow field velocities for circular cylindrical structures: single cylinder with two-dimensional flow.
Mean forces, pressures, and moments for circular cylindrical structures: finite-length cylinders in uniform and shear flow.
Mean fluid forces and moments on cylindrical structures: polygonal sections with rounded corners including elliptical shapes.
Cylinder groups: mean forces on pairs of long circular cylinders.
- ESDU 71012
Section 5: Mean Loads on Structures - Rectangular-Section Cylinders, Paraboloidal Antennas, Wind-Tunnel Blockage
Fluid forces, pressures and moments on rectangular blocks.
Mean fluid forces and moments on rectangular prisms: surface-mounted structures in turbulent shear flow.
Blockage corrections for bluff bodies in confined flows.
Paraboloidal antennas: wind loading. Part 1: mean forces and moments.
Paraboloidal antennas: wind loading. Part 2: surface pressure distribution.
Boundary walls, fences and hoardings: mean and peak wind loads and overturning moments.
- ESDU 71016
Section 6: Mean Loads on Structures - Lattice Frames and Towers, Beams of Various Sections
Section 7: Dynamic Response - Background, Turbulence Buffeting
Fluctuating loads and dynamic response of bodies and structures in fluid flows - background information.
Calculation methods for along-wind loading. Part 2. Response of line-like structures to atmospheric turbulence.
Calculation methods for along-wind loading. Part 3. Response of buildings and plate-like structures to atmospheric turbulence.
Response of structures to atmospheric turbulence. Computer programs A9236 and B9236.
- ESDU 77032
Section 8: Dynamic Response - Across-Wind Buffeting, Vortex Shedding (Non-Circular Sections), Galloping
Response of structures to atmospheric turbulence. Response to across-wind turbulence components.
Structures of non-circular cross section: dynamic response due to vortex shedding.
Response of structures to galloping excitation. Background and approximate estimation.
'Lift-curve slope' for structural response calculations.
- ESDU 89049
Section 9: Dynamic Response - Vortex Shedding and Turbulence (Single Circular Section), Cylinder Groups
Fluctuating response of circular cylinders in small groups in fluid flow - discussion and guide to data available.
Response of structures to vortex shedding. Structures of circular or polygonal cross section.
Computer programs for response of structures to vortex shedding. Structures of circular or polygonal cross section. Part 1. Microsoft Excel module.
- ESDU 79025
Section 10: Natural Vibration Parameters of Structures - Core, Shear, Frame Buildings, Towers, 2D Frameworks
Undamped natural vibration of shear buildings.
Undamped natural vibration of core buildings.
Undamped natural vibration of sway frame buildings and frame structures.
Damping of structures. Part 1: tall buildings.
Structural parameters used in response calculations. Estimation of numerical values.
- ESDU 79005
- Aircraft Noise
- Fatigue - Endurance Data
- Fatigue - Fracture Mechanics
- Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow
- Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow (Aerospace)
- Heat Transfer
- Physical Data, Chemical Engineering
- Stress and Strength
- Transonic Aerodynamics
- Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue
- Wind Engineering