ESDU Aerodynamics Series
The ESDU Aerodynamics information contains a wide and everincreasing range of data and methods applicable to the project design of aircraft, guided weapons, space rockets, etc. Data are given concerning general aerodynamics, including properties of the atmosphere; aerodynamics of airframe components, including the effect of powerplant/airframe interactions for propellerpowered and jet aircraft; aerodynamics of the effect of surface imperfections on drag; aerodynamics of controls, flaps and leadingedge devices; aircraft stability, including derivative estimation; and aerodynamics of internal flow systems, including propulsion systems.

Section 1: Organisational Documents

ESDU 00001
Aerodynamics Series: Record of Documents 
ESDU CFA
Conversion factors.

ESDU 00001

Section 2: Properties of Gases

ESDU AERO 00.01.06
Thermodynamic properties of air in dissociation equilibrium. 
ESDU AERO 00.01.07
Approximate transport properties of hightemperature air in dissociation equilibrium. 
ESDU AERO 00.01.08
Specific heat capacities and their ratio as functions of temperature for several common gases. 
ESDU AERO 00.01.09
A simple model of a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect diatomic gas. Comparison with real gases. 
ESDU AERO 00.01.11
Mollier chart of the thermodynamic properties of argonfree air in dissociation equilibrium: T = 2 000 K to T = 13 000 K. 
ESDU AERO 00.01.12
Mollier chart of the thermodynamic properties of argonfree air in dissociation equilibrium: T = 100 K to T = 6 000 K. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.27
Examples in the use of the Mollier chart (isentropic flow and PrandtlMeyer expansion for air in dissociation equilibrium).

ESDU AERO 00.01.06

Section 3: Isentropic Flow and Shock Waves

ESDU AERO 00.03.05
Isentropic expansion of air from rest. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.06
Introductory sheet on isentropic flow and shock waves. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.08
Simplewave flow. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.09
Properties of plane steady shock waves. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.14
Approximate calculation of the pressure changes in twodimensional supersonic flow. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.15
Pitot and static tubes in supersonic flow. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.16
Conditions for shock wave detachment and for subsonic flow behind nose shock waves on cones at zero incidence and on wedges. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.22
Conditions behind normal shock waves in air in dissociation equilibrium. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.23
Conditions behind oblique shock waves for air in dissociation equilibrium. 
ESDU AERO 00.03.28
Conditions behind normal shock waves in a perfect gas for various values of γ. 
ESDU AERO 00.03.30
Solutions to the oblique shock wave relations for a range of specific heat ratios: pressure coefficient and detachment angle. 
ESDU AERO 00.03.31
Solutions to the PrandtlMeyer expansion relations for a range of specific heat ratios: pressure coefficient and maximum flow deflection angle. 
ESDU 70008
Inviscid supersonic flow past cones at zero incidence: (i) shock angle. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.13
Inviscid supersonic flow past cones at zero incidence: (ii) surface pressure coefficient and shock angle for circular cones. 
ESDU 70009
Inviscid supersonic flow past cones at zero incidence: (iii) flow deflection in the conical flow field. 
ESDU 70010
Inviscid supersonic flow past cones at zero incidence: (iv) Mach number in the conical flow field.

ESDU AERO 00.03.05

Section 4: Properties of the Atmosphere

ESDU 73017
Reynolds number, speed of sound, dynamic viscosity, kinetic pressure and total pressure coefficient in air. 
ESDU 77021
Properties of a standard atmosphere. 
ESDU 78008
Physical properties of design atmospheres. 
ESDU 78017
True airspeed in the International Standard Atmosphere and equivalent airspeed corresponding to Mach number and pressure altitude.

ESDU 73017

Section 5: Atmospheric Turbulence

ESDU 74030
Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part I: definitions and general information. 
ESDU 85020
Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part II: single point data for strong winds (neutral atmosphere). 
ESDU 86010
Characteristics of atmospheric turbulence near the ground. Part III: variations in space and time for strong winds (neutral atmosphere).

ESDU 74030

Section 6: Wind Speeds

ESDU 82026
Strong winds in the atmospheric boundary layer. Part 1: hourlymean wind speeds. 
ESDU 83045
Strong winds in the atmospheric boundary layer. Part 2: discrete gust speeds.

ESDU 82026

Section 7: Aerofoils and Wings  General

ESDU 76003
Geometrical properties of cranked and straighttapered wing planforms. 
ESDU TM 168
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Derivation of equations for the geometrical properties of straighttapered and multipanel wings 
ESDU 10023
Computer program for calculation of equivalent straighttapered wing planform 
ESDU 06020
Computer program for estimation of aerofoil characteristics at subcritical speeds: liftcurve slope, zerolift incidence and pitching moment, aerodynamic centre and drag polar minimum. 
ESDU TM 4
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Correlations for some aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils in incompressible inviscid flow.

ESDU 76003

Section 8: Aerofoils at Subcritical Speeds  Pressure Distribution, Lift, Pitching Moment, Aerodynamic Centre

ESDU AERO W.01.01.05
Slope of lift curve for twodimensional flow. 
ESDU AERO W.01.01.07
Maximum lift coefficients for aerofoil sections at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.75. 
ESDU AERO A.08.01.05
Aerodynamic centre in twodimensional flow. 
ESDU 66034
The lowspeed stalling characteristics of aerodynamically smooth aerofoils. 
ESDU 71020
Aerofoils having a specified form of uppersurface pressure distribution: details and comments on design. 
ESDU 72024
Aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils in compressible inviscid airflow at subcritical Mach numbers. 
ESDU 84026
Aerofoil maximum lift coefficient for Mach numbers up to 0.4. 
ESDU 97020
Slope of aerofoil lift curve for subsonic twodimensional flow. 
ESDU 98011
Aerofoil incidence for zero lift in subsonic two dimensional flow. 
ESDU 99003
Generation of GUNACA 23series of lowdrag aerofoils.

ESDU AERO W.01.01.05

Section 9: Aerofoils at Subcritical Speeds  Drag

ESDU AERO W.02.04.00
Information on the use of Data Items in the series Wings 02.04. 
ESDU AERO W.02.04.01
Drag of a smooth flat plate at zero incidence. 
ESDU AERO W.02.04.02
Profile drag of smooth wings. 
ESDU AERO W.02.04.03
Profile drag of smooth aerofoils with straight trailing edges at low speeds. 
ESDU AERO W.02.04.09
Limit of grain size for laminar flow over wings or bodies. 
ESDU AERO W.02.04.11
Limit of surface waviness for laminar flow over wings. 
ESDU 67011
Profile drag at the dragrise condition of aerofoils having a specified form of uppersurface pressure distribution at this condition. 
ESDU 00027
Aerofoil profile drag for Mach numbers below the drag rise condition. 
ESDU 06001
Aerofoil skin friction drag for Mach numbers below the dragrise condition. 
ESDU 10017
A guide to the alleviation of the base drag of a twodimensional flat plate with a blunt trailing edge

ESDU AERO W.02.04.00

Section 10: Aerofoils at Supersonic Speeds  Pressure Distribution, Lift, Pitching Moment, Drag

ESDU AERO W.S.00.03.03
Introductory Item on twodimensional aerofoils at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO W.S.00.03.04
Theoretical properties of twodimensional supersonic aerofoils of simple section. 
ESDU AERO W.S.00.03.05
The calculation of the theoretical characteristics of twodimensional aerofoils at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO W.S.02.03.07
Base pressure on aerofoil sections with a blunt trailing edge in supersonic flow. 
ESDU AERO W.S.02.03.10
Wave drag of flat plates with blunt noses at zero incidence. 
ESDU AERO W.S.02.04.12
Skin friction drag coefficients for a flat plate in twodimensional flow with zero heat transfer. 
ESDU AERO W.S.02.04.13
Profile drag coefficients for twodimensional biconvex aerofoil with zero heat transfer at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO W.S.05.03.01
Pressure distribution on blunt noses of twodimensional sections at zero incidence in supersonic flow.

ESDU AERO W.S.00.03.03

Section 11: Critical Mach Number and Pressure Coefficient

ESDU 74008
Estimation of critical Mach number for an aerofoil from its lowspeed pressure distribution. 
ESDU 75027
Critical pressure coefficient and component of local Mach number normal to the surface isobar for a swept wing. 
ESDU AERO W.00.03.01
Critical Mach number for high speed aerofoil sections.

ESDU 74008

Section 12: Flat Plates  Boundary Layers, Skin Friction and Surface Roughness

ESDU 68019
The compressible twodimensional laminar boundary layer, both with and without heat transfer, on a smooth flat plate, with application to wedges, cylinders, and cones. 
ESDU 68020
The compressible twodimensional turbulent boundary layer, both with and without heat transfer, on a smooth flat plate, with application to wedges, cylinders, and cones. 
ESDU 73016
The mean skin friction coefficient for a rough flat plate with a turbulent twodimensional boundary layer in compressible adiabatic flow, with application to wedges, cylinders and cones.

ESDU 68019

Section 13: Wings  Lift, Pitching Moment, Aerodynamic Centre, Spanwise Loading

ESDU 70011
Liftcurve slope and aerodynamic centre position of wings in inviscid subsonic flow. 
ESDU TM 169
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Wing liftcurve slope in inviscid subsonic flow: Improvements to the HelmboldDiederich equation and comparison with data from ESDU 70011 
ESDU 70012
Liftcurve slope and aerodynamic centre position of wings in inviscid supersonic flow. 
ESDU 70015
Fluid forces and moments on flat plates. 
ESDU 71006
Lowspeed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of slender wings. 
ESDU 71007
Lowspeed normal force and pitching moment of slender wings in ground effect 
ESDU 83040
Method for the rapid estimation of spanwise loading of wings with camber and twist in subsonic attached flow. 
ESDU 87001
Wing pitching moment at zero lift at subcritical Mach numbers. 
ESDU 87031
Wing angle of attack for zero lift at subcritical Mach numbers. 
ESDU 88030
Boundaries of linear characteristics of cambered and twisted wings at subcritical Mach numbers. 
ESDU 89034
The maximum lift coefficient of plain wings at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 90013
Normal force and pitching moment of low aspect ratio croppeddelta wings up to high angles of attack at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU 93015
Program for calculation of maximum lift coefficient of plain aerofoils and wings at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 93034
Normal force of lowaspectratio croppeddelta wings up to high angles of attack at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 95010
Computer program for estimation of spanwise loading of wings with camber and twist in subsonic attached flow. Liftingsurface theory. (With Appendix A: effect of plain flaps.) 
ESDU 95022
Pitching moment of lowaspectratio croppeddelta wings up to high angles of attack at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO W.01.01.01
Liftcurve slope of swept and tapered wings. 
ESDU AERO W.01.01.04
Effect of cutout on liftcurve slope.

ESDU 70011

Section 14: Wings  Drag

ESDU 66031
Introductory sheet on subcritical liftdependent drag of wings. 
ESDU 66032
Subsonic liftdependent drag due to boundary layer of plane, symmetrical section wings. 
ESDU 74035
Subsonic liftdependent drag due to the trailing vortex wake for wings without camber or twist. 
ESDU 75004
Wave drag of wings at zero lift in inviscid airflow. 
ESDU 94037
Leadingedge suction distribution for plane thin wings at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 94038
Computer program for estimation of leadingedge suction distribution for plane thin wings at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 95025
Drag due to lift for plane swept wings, alone or in combination with a body, up to high angles of attack at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 96025
Drag due to lift for nonplanar swept wings up to high angles of attack at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 07002
Wing viscous drag coefficient in shockfree attached flow. 
ESDU 07003
Modelling of wing viscous drag coefficient in shockfree attached flow. 
ESDU 10022
Trailingvortex drag coefficient in shockfree attached flow  cambered and twisted wings 
ESDU AERO W.S.02.03.02
Theoretical liftdependent drag of wings at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO W.S.02.03.09
Transonic drag rise of rectangular symmetrical section wings at zero lift. NACA 65 series sections.

ESDU 66031

Section 15: Bodies  General

ESDU 77028
Geometrical characteristics of typical bodies. 
ESDU 78037
The influence of body geometry and flow conditions on axisymmetric velocity distributions at subcritical Mach numbers. 
ESDU 79020
The influence of body geometry and flow conditions on axisymmetric boundary layers at subcritical Mach numbers.

ESDU 77028

Section 16: Bodies  Drag

ESDU AERO B.S.02.03.01
Introductory notes on the drag at zero incidence of bodies at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO B.S.02.03.02
External wave drag at zero incidence in inviscid flow of simple ducted forebodies and truncated afterbodies. 
ESDU AERO B.S.02.03.08
Forebodyafterbody interference wave drag of simple pointed or ducted body shapes with short midbodies. 
ESDU AERO B.S.02.03.12
Supersonic base pressure of cylindrical bodies. 
ESDU 68021
Foredrag of sphericallyblunted conical forebodies at zero incidence in supersonic flow for Mach numbers up to 5. 
ESDU 76033
Subsonic base drag of cylindrical bodies with conical boattails. 
ESDU 77020
Subsonic pressure drag of conical boattails. 
ESDU 78019
Profile drag of axisymmetric bodies at zero incidence for subcritical Mach numbers 
ESDU 78041
Transonic base and boattail pressure drag of cylindrical bodies with conical boattails. 
ESDU 79022
Supersonic base drag of cylindrical bodies with conical boattails. 
ESDU 80006
Drag increment due to rear fuselage upsweep. 
ESDU 80021
Pressure drag of blunt forebodies at zero incidence for Mach numbers up to 10. 
ESDU 82028
Pressure drag of sphericallyblunted conical forebodies at zero incidence for Mach numbers of 3 and above. 
ESDU 96012
Subsonic and transonic base and boattail pressure drag of cylindrical bodies with circulararc boattails 
ESDU 96033
Effect of angle of attack on the base axial force and drag of cylindrical bodies with conical boattails. 
ESDU 97022
Effect of stabilising fins on base drag of cylindrical bodies at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU 99010
Supersonic base drag of cylindrical bodies with a central propulsive jet. 
ESDU 00017
Supersonic base and boattail pressure drag of cylindrical bodies with a conical boattail and a central propulsive jet 
ESDU 00026
Supersonic pressure drag of conical, circulararc and parabolic boattails. 
ESDU 01012
Subsonic pressure drag of boattails with negligible annular base area in the presence of a central propulsive jet. 
ESDU 02012
Subsonic base and boattail pressure drag of cylindrical bodies with circulararc boattails and a central propulsive jet.

ESDU AERO B.S.02.03.01

Section 17: Bodies  Pressure Distribution, Normal Force, Pitching Moment, Centre of Pressure

ESDU 82018
The pressure distribution at zero incidence over selected families of blunt axisymmetric forebodies. 
ESDU 87033
Normal force and pitching moment of conical boattails. 
ESDU 89008
Normalforcecurve and pitchingmomentcurve slopes of forebodycylinder combinations at zero angle of attack for Mach numbers up to 5. 
ESDU 89014
Normal force, pitching moment and side force of forebodycylinder combinations for angles of attack up to 90 degrees and Mach numbers up to 5. 
ESDU 90034
Computer program for the calculation of normal force and pitching moment of forebodycylinder combinations at angles of attack up to 90 degrees and Mach numbers up to 5, including the effects of conical boattailing. 
ESDU 00028
Supersonic pressure and Mach number distributions over conical, circulararc and parabolic boattails. 
ESDU 04007
Normal force and pitching moment of nonaxisymmetrical bodies: square and triangular crosssections without corner rounding. 
ESDU 05015
Normal force and pitching moment of noncircular bodies: elliptical crosssections at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU 07005
Normal force and pitching moment of nonaxisymmetric bodies: square crosssections with corner rounding. 
ESDU AERO B.S.05.03.01
Pressure distribution on forebodies and afterbodies of revolution at zero incidence in inviscid flow.

ESDU 82018

Section 18: WingBody Combinations  Lift, Normal Force, Pitching Moment, Aerodynamic Centre, Upwash

ESDU 13009
Computer program for calculation of aerodynamic centre of wingfuselagenacelle combinations 
ESDU 76015
Aerodynamic centre of wingfuselage combinations. 
ESDU 77012
Aerodynamic centre of wingfuselagenacelle combinations: effect of wingpylon mounted nacelles 
ESDU 78013
Aerodynamic centre of wingfuselagenacelle combinations: effect of rearfuselage pylonmounted nacelles. 
ESDU 89042
Body effect on wing angle of attack and pitching moment at zero lift at low speeds. 
ESDU 90020
Airframeinduced upwash at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 91007
Liftcurve slope of wingbody combinations. 
ESDU 91042
Normal force of low aspect ratio wingbody combinations up to high angles of attack at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU 92024
Aerodynamic centre of wingbody combinations. 
ESDU 92043
Pitching moment of low aspect ratio wingbody combinations up to high angles of attack at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU 95009
Effect of wing height on lift and aerodynamic centre for a slender wingbody combination.

ESDU 13009

Section 19: WingBody Combinations  Drag

ESDU AERO A.S.02.03.01
Explanatory notes on transonic and supersonic area rules. 
ESDU AERO A.02.03.02
Optimum area distribution and associated theoretical transonic dragrise for aircraft at zero lift.

ESDU AERO A.S.02.03.01

Section 20: Controls  Lift, Pitching Moment, Rolling Moment, Drag

ESDU AERO C.01.01.03
Rate of change of lift coefficient with control deflection in incompressible twodimensional flow, (a_{2})_{0} 
ESDU AERO C.01.01.04
Effect of gap on the slope of lift curve and slope of lift increment curve due to control surface deflection. 
ESDU AERO C.08.01.01
Rate of change of pitching moment coefficient with control deflection for a plain control in incompressible twodimensional flow, m_{0} 
ESDU 74011
Rate of change of lift coefficient with control deflection for fullspan plain controls. 
ESDU 74012
Conversion of lift coefficient increment due to flaps from full span to part span. 
ESDU TM 172
Derivation of part span factors for lift and rolling moment 
ESDU 76026
Lift and drag due to spoiler operation in the ground run. 
ESDU 87008
Rudder sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment control derivatives at low speeds: Y_{ζ} , N_{ζ} and L_{ζ} 
ESDU 88013
Rolling moment derivative, L_{ξ} for plain ailerons at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 88029
Yawing moment coefficient for plain ailerons at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 88040
Program for the calculation of aileron rolling moment and yawing moment coefficients at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 14004
Lift and rolling moment due to spoilers on wings at subsonic speeds with trailingedge flaps undeployed 
ESDU 14005
Lift and rolling moment due to spoilers on wings at subsonic speeds with trailingedge flaps deployed 
ESDU 96026
Drag and yawing moment due to spoilers.

ESDU AERO C.01.01.03

Section 21: Controls  Hinge Moment

ESDU AERO C.04.01.00
Introduction to Data Items on control hinge moments. 
ESDU AERO C.04.01.01
Rate of change of hingemoment coefficient with incidence for a plain control in incompressible twodimensional flow, (b_{1})_{0} 
ESDU AERO C.04.01.02
Rate of change of hingemoment coefficient with control deflection for a plain control in incompressible twodimensional flow, (b_{2})_{0} 
ESDU AERO C.04.01.03
Effect of nose balance on twodimensional control hingemoment coefficients. 
ESDU AERO C.04.01.04
Effect of Irving internal balance on hingemoment coefficient in twodimensional flow. 
ESDU AERO C.04.01.06
Fullspan control hingemoment coefficient derivatives for unswept wings in incompressible flow with allowance for spanwise variation of sectional properties. 
ESDU AERO C.04.01.08
Control hingemoment coefficient derivative due to tab. 
ESDU 88003
Effect of unshielded and shielded horn balances on hinge moment coefficients for controls at low speeds. 
ESDU 89009
Hinge moment coefficient derivatives for trailingedge controls on wings at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 89010
Example of procedure in calculation of control hinge moments.

ESDU AERO C.04.01.00

Section 22: Flaps  General

ESDU 97002
Information for the use of Data Items on highlift devices. 
ESDU 97003
Fuselage interference effects on flap characteristics.

ESDU 97002

Section 23: Flaps  Lift: Aerofoils

ESDU 94026
Introduction to the estimation of the lift coefficients at zero angle of attack and at maximum lift for aerofoils with highlift devices at low speeds. 
ESDU 94027
Increments in aerofoil lift coefficient at zero angle of attack and in maximum lift coefficient due to deployment of various leadingedge highlift devices at low speeds. 
ESDU 94028
Increments in aerofoil lift coefficient at zero angle of attack and in maximum lift coefficient due to deployment of a plain trailingedge flap, with or without a leadingedge highlift device, at low speeds. 
ESDU 94029
Increments in aerofoil lift coefficient at zero angle of attack and in maximum lift coefficient due to deployment of a trailingedge split flap, with or without a leadingedge highlift device, at low speeds. 
ESDU 94030
Increments in aerofoil lift coefficient at zero angle of attack and in maximum lift coefficient due to deployment of a singleslotted trailingedge flap, with or without a leadingedge highlift device, at low speeds. 
ESDU 94031
Increments in aerofoil lift coefficient at zero angle of attack and in maximum lift coefficient due to deployment of a doubleslotted or tripleslotted trailingedge flap, with or without a leadingedge highlift device, at low speeds. 
ESDU AERO F.05.01.01
Normal force on flaps and controls.

ESDU 94026

Section 24: Flaps  Lift: Wings

ESDU 74009
Lift coefficient increment at low speeds due to fullspan split flaps. 
ESDU 91014
Maximum lift of wings with trailingedge flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU 92031
Maximum lift of wings with leadingedge devices and trailingedge flaps deployed. 
ESDU 93019
Wing lift increment at zero angle of attack due to deployment of singleslotted flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU 95021
Wing lift coefficient increment at zero angle of attack due to deployment of doubleslotted or tripleslotted flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU 96032
Wing lift coefficient increment at zero angle of attack due to deployment of leadingedge devices at low speeds. 
ESDU 97009
Wing lift coefficient increment at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailingedge split flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU 97011
Wing lift coefficient increment at zero angle of attack due to deployment of plain trailingedge flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU AERO F.01.01.08
Lift coefficient increment due to fullspan slotted flaps. 
ESDU AERO F.01.01.09
Lift coefficient increment due to fullspan double flap (main flap slotted).

ESDU 74009

Section 25: Flaps  Lift Curve

ESDU 96003
Lift curve of wings with highlift devices deployed at low speeds. 
ESDU 99031
Computer program for estimation of lift curve to maximum lift for wingfuselage combinations with highlift devices at low speeds.

ESDU 96003

Section 26: Flaps  Pitching Moment

ESDU 98009
Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailingedge split flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU 98017
Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailingedge plain flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU 99004
Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailingedge singleslotted flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU 99014
Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of trailingedge doubleslotted and tripleslotted flaps at low speeds. 
ESDU 00029
Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient at zero angle of attack due to deployment of leadingedge highlift devices. 
ESDU 01013
Aerofoil and wing pitching moment coefficient increment at zero angle of attack due to deployment of leadingedge and trailingedge highlift devices in combination at low speeds. 
ESDU 03017
Pitching moment curve of wings with leadingedge and trailingedge highlift devices deployed at low speeds. 
ESDU AERO F.08.01.01
Pitching moment coefficient increment due to flaps for unswept wings. 
ESDU AERO F.08.01.02
Increment to C_{m} _{0} due to flaps on sweptback wings.

ESDU 98009

Section 27: Flaps  Drag

ESDU AERO F.02.01.06
Profile drag coefficient increment due to fullspan singleslotted flaps (Handley Page and NACA types). 
ESDU AERO F.02.01.07
Conversion factor for profile drag increment for partspan flaps. 
ESDU AERO F.02.01.08
Vortex drag coefficient of wing with partspan flap and central cutout. 
ESDU 74010
Lowspeed drag coefficient increment at zero lift due to fullspan split flaps. 
ESDU 87005
Increment in aerofoil profile drag coefficient due to the deployment of a singleslotted flap. 
ESDU 87024
Lowspeed drag coefficient increment at constant lift due to fullspan plain flaps. 
ESDU 01007
Trailing vortex drag factors for wings with partspan trailingedge plain flaps. 
ESDU 06014
Zerolift drag coefficient increment due to fullspan plain flaps. 
ESDU 08013
Increment in wing profile drag coefficient due to the deployment of a singleslotted flap.

ESDU AERO F.02.01.06

Section 28: Excrescence Drag

ESDU 90029
An introduction to aircraft excrescence drag. 
ESDU 71018
Approximate wave drag of rectangular planform fairings at zero incidence in supersonic flow. 
ESDU 75028
Drag due to grooves in a flat plate with a turbulent boundary layer, at subsonic and supersonic speeds 
ESDU 75031
Drag of twodimensional steps and ridges immersed in a turbulent boundary layer for Mach numbers up to 3. 
ESDU 76008
Drag of transverse rows of sphericallyheaded rivets immersed in a turbulent boundary layer at subsonic and supersonic speeds. 
ESDU 83025
Drag of circular cylinders normal to a flat plate with a turbulent boundary layer for Mach numbers up to 3. 
ESDU 84035
Drag of stub wings and fairings on a flat plate with a turbulent boundary layer at subsonic and supersonic speeds. 
ESDU 91028
Simplified method for the prediction of aerofoil excrescence drag magnification factor for turbulent boundary layers at subcritical Mach numbers. 
ESDU 91029
Excrescence drag magnification factors at the dragrise condition for aerofoils with a specified form of uppersurface pressure distribution. 
ESDU 92039
Drag due to gaps round undeflected trailingedge controls and flaps at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 93032
Examples of excrescence drag prediction for typical wing components of a subsonic transport aircraft at the cruise condition. 
ESDU 16005
Mass flow rate of a leak into an external stream 
ESDU 16006
Drag due to a leak discharging into an external stream

ESDU 90029

Section 29: Cavity Drag

ESDU 74036
Drag due to a circular cavity in a plate with a turbulent boundary layer at subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds 
ESDU 00006
Drag of rectangular planform cavity in a flat plate with a turbulent boundary layer for Mach numbers up to 3. Part I: Closed flow 
ESDU 00007
Drag of a rectangular planform cavity in a flat plate with a turbulent boundary layer for Mach numbers up to 3. Part II: Open and transitional flows. 
ESDU 10016
Drag of a rectangular planform cavity in a flat plate with a turbulent boundary layer for Mach numbers up to 3. Part III : Effect of doors

ESDU 74036

Section 30: Undercarriage Drag

ESDU 79015
Undercarriage drag prediction methods.

ESDU 79015

Section 31: Canopy Drag

ESDU 67041
Drag of fightertype canopies at subcritical Mach numbers.

ESDU 67041

Section 32: Cavity Aerodynamics and AeroAcoustics

ESDU 02008
Aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Part I: Timeaveraged flow. 
ESDU 04023
Aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Part II: Unsteady flow and aeroacoustics.

ESDU 02008

Section 33: Cavity Adverse Unsteady Flow Alleviation

ESDU 08011
Aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Part IIIA: Alleviation of unsteady flow effects  Introduction 
ESDU 08012
Aerodynamics and aeroacoustics of rectangular planform cavities. Part IIIB: Alleviation of unsteady flow effects  acoustic suppression using passive devices.

ESDU 08011

Section 34: Internal Flow Systems  Ducts

ESDU AERO S.00.01.10
Onedimensional isentropic flow of a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect diatomic gas. 
ESDU AERO S.00.03.07
Onedimensional isentropic gas flow. 
ESDU 81004
Mass flow and momentum functions for onedimensional flow of gas in ducts.

ESDU AERO S.00.01.10

Section 35: Internal Flow Systems  Nacelles, Intakes and Nozzles

ESDU AERO A.08.01.09
Flow field of subsonic axisymmetric jet in a parallel stream. 
ESDU 66028
Relationships between some common intake parameters. 
ESDU 67035
Jet flow parameters 
ESDU 75005
Performance data for the critical operation of nominally twodimensional doubleramp supersonic intakes. 
ESDU 80037
Pressure recovery of axisymmetric intakes at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 81024
Drag of axisymmetric cowls at zero incidence for subsonic Mach numbers. 
ESDU 86002
Drag and pressure recovery characteristics of auxiliary air inlets at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 03006
Subsonic drag and pressure recovery of rectangular planform flush auxiliary inlets with ducts at angles up to 90 degrees.

ESDU AERO A.08.01.09

Section 36: Powerplant/Airframe Interactions  Propeller Powered Aircraft

ESDU 85015
Introduction to installation effects on thrust and drag for propellerdriven aircraft. 
ESDU 85017
Thrust and drag accounting for propeller/airframe interaction. 
ESDU 86017
Propeller/body interaction for thrust and drag. 
ESDU 88031
Lift and longitudinal forces on propeller/ nacelle/ wing/ flap systems. 
ESDU 89047
Inplane forces and moments on installed inclined propellers at low forward speeds. 
ESDU 06012
The influence of propeller slipstream on aircraft rolling moment due to sideslip. 
ESDU 06013
Propeller slipstream modelling for incidence and sideslip.

ESDU 85015

Section 37: Powerplant/Airframe Interactions  Jet Powered Aircraft

ESDU 82034
Aircraft forces due to interference between a jet efflux and a slotted flap

ESDU 82034

Section 38: Stability of Aircraft  General

ESDU 86021
Introduction of aerodynamic derivatives, equations of motion and stability (including the classical criteria of longitudinal stability and control, and description of the lateral modes of motion) 
ESDU 86041
Conversion of stability derivatives for a general change of body axes. 
ESDU 13005
Information on the use of Data Items on the longitudinal stability of aircraft 
ESDU AERO A.06.01.00
Information on the use of Data Items on rolling moment derivatives of an aircraft. 
ESDU AERO A.07.01.00
Information on the use of Data Items on yawing moment and sideforce derivatives of an aircraft

ESDU 86021

Section 39: Stability of Aircraft  Longitudinal Stability  Ground Effect, Downwash, Tandem Lifting Surfaces, Tailplane

ESDU 72023
Lowspeed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft in ground effect. 
ESDU 80020
Average downwash at the tailplane at low angles of attack and subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 81023
Lift and drag of two staggered lifting surfaces at low speeds. 
ESDU 89029
Installed tailplane liftcurve slope at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 91009
Effect of twin fins on isolated tailplane liftcurve slope. 
ESDU 97021
Effect of trailingedge flap deployment on average downwash at the tailplane at low speeds. 
ESDU AERO W.05.01.01
Kinetic pressure in the wake behind a wing.

ESDU 72023

Section 40: Stability of Aircraft  Longitudinal Stability  Derivatives due to Rate of Pitch

ESDU 90010
Pitching moment and lift force derivatives due to rate of pitch for aircraft at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 91004
Pitching moment derivative due to rate of pitch for projectiles at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO W.S.08.03.02
Pitching velocity derivatives for wings at supersonic speeds Z_{q} and M_{q}

ESDU 90010

Section 41: Stability of Aircraft  PitchBreak Characteristics

ESDU 01005
Effect of geometry on low speed pitchbreak characteristics of swept wings.

ESDU 01005

Section 42: Stability of Aircraft  Lateral Stability  Derivatives due to Sideslip

ESDU AERO A.06.01.03
Stability derivative (L_{v})_{ Γ} Contribution of fullspan dihedral to rolling moment due to sideslip. 
ESDU AERO A.06.01.09
Stability derivative (L_{v})_{ Γ} Contribution of partspan dihedral to rolling moment due to sideslip. 
ESDU 73006
Effects of isolated body and wingbody interference on rolling moment due to sideslip: L_{v} (with Addendum A for nacelle effects). 
ESDU 79006
Wingbody yawing moment and sideforce derivatives due to sideslip: N_{v} and Y_{v} (with Addendum A for nacelle effects). 
ESDU TM 184
Effects of rearmounted engine nacelles on sidewash at fin 
ESDU 80033
Contribution of wing planform to rolling moment derivative due to sideslip, (L_{v})_{w} , at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 80034
Effect of trailingedge flaps on rolling moment derivative due to sideslip, (L_{v})_{f} 
ESDU 81013
Effect of trailingedge flaps on sideforce and yawing moment derivatives due to sideslip, (Y_{v})_{f} and (N_{v})_{f} 
ESDU 81032
Estimation of rolling moment derivative due to sideslip for complete aircraft at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU TM 49
Contribution to rolling moment derivative due to sideslip resulting from interference effect of fin on tailplane, (L_{v})_{TH} 
ESDU 82010
Contribution of fin to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to sideslip, (Y_{v})_{F} , (N_{v})_{F} , (L_{v})_{F} , in the presence of body, wing and tailplane. 
ESDU 82011
Estimation of sideforce and yawing moment derivatives due to sideslip for complete aircraft at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 91031
Contribution of fin and tailplane to sideforce and yawing moment derivatives due to sideslip at supersonic speeds at low angle of attack. 
ESDU 92007
Contribution of tailplanemounted twin fins to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to sideslip at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU 92029
Contribution of ventral fins to sideforce and yawing moment derivatives due to sideslip at low angle of attack. 
ESDU 93007
Contribution of bodymounted fins and tailplanes to lateral derivatives due to sideslip at subsonic speeds for general body width to height ratio. 
ESDU 00025
Computer program for prediction of aircraft lateral stability derivatives in sideslip at subsonic speeds. 
ESDU TM 178
Effect of wingmounted engine nacelles of propellerdriven aircraft on lateral stability derivatives in sideslip 
ESDU AERO C.01.01.01
Liftcurve slope for single fin and rudder. (i) Body shape merging into fin. 
ESDU AERO A.S.01.03.02
Liftcurve slope of isolated lifting surface at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO A.S.06.03.04
Spanwise centre of pressure of isolated lifting surface at supersonic speeds.

ESDU AERO A.06.01.03

Section 43: Stability of Aircraft  Lateral Stability  Derivatives due to Rate of Roll

ESDU AERO A.06.01.01
Stability derivative L_{p} rolling moment due to rolling for swept and tapered wings. 
ESDU 81014
Contribution of wing planform to derivatives of yawing moment and sideforce due to roll rate at subsonic speeds (N_{p})_{w} and (Y_{p})_{w} 
ESDU 83006
Contribution of fin to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of roll, (Y_{p})_{F} , (N_{p})_{F} , (L_{p})_{F} , in the presence of body, wing and tailplane. 
ESDU 85006
Contribution of wing dihedral to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of roll at subsonic speeds, (Y_{p})_{Γ} , (N_{p})_{Γ} and (L_{p})_{Γ} 
ESDU 85010
Estimation of sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of roll for complete aircraft at subsonic speeds 
ESDU AERO A.S.06.03.01
Stability derivative L_{p} rolling moment due to rolling for wings at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO A.S.06.03.02
Stability derivative L_{p}. Effect of fuselage interference on rolling moment due to rolling at supersonic speeds. 
ESDU AERO A.S.06.03.03
Stability derivative L_{p}. Rolling moment due to rolling for radial multiplanar wing arrangements at supersonic speeds.

ESDU AERO A.06.01.01

Section 44: Stability of Aircraft  Lateral Stability  Derivatives due to Rate of Yaw

ESDU 71017
Aeronormalised stability derivatives: effect of wing on yawing moment due to yawing. 
ESDU 72021
Effect of wing on rolling moment due to yawing. 
ESDU 82017
Contribution of fin to sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of yaw, (Y_{r})_{F} , (N_{r})_{F} , (L_{r})_{F} 
ESDU 83026
Contribution of body to yawing moment and sideforce derivatives due to rate of yaw, (N_{r})_{B} and (Y_{r})_{B} 
ESDU 84002
Estimation of sideforce, yawing moment and rolling moment derivatives due to rate of yaw for complete aircraft at subsonic speeds.

ESDU 71017

Section 45: Unsteady Aerodynamics

ESDU 82020
Introduction to unsteady aerodynamics. 
ESDU 81034
Linearised twodimensional oscillatory airforce coefficients and load distributions on thin aerofoils in subsonic flow. 
ESDU 82005
Linearised twodimensional oscillatory airforce coefficients and load distributions on thin aerofoils in supersonic flow. 
ESDU 83010
Oscillatory aerodynamics of slender bodies. 
ESDU 84020
An introduction to timedependent aerodynamics of aircraft response, gusts and active controls. 
ESDU 87012
An introduction to aircraft buffet and buffeting. 
ESDU 90005
Frequencies of resonance in wind tunnels with ventilated walls and plenum chamber.

ESDU 82020

Section 46: Parachute Aerodynamics

ESDU 09012
Aerodynamics of Parachutes

ESDU 09012

Section 47: Bluff Bodies and Structures  Mean Forces

ESDU 71012
Fluid forces on nonstreamline bodies  background notes and description of the flow phenomena. 
ESDU 71016
Fluid forces, pressures and moments on rectangular blocks. 
ESDU 79026
Mean fluid forces and moments on cylindrical structures: polygonal sections with rounded corners including elliptical shapes. 
ESDU 80003
Mean fluid forces and moments on rectangular prisms: surfacemounted structures in turbulent shear flow. 
ESDU 80025
Mean forces, pressures and flow field velocities for circular cylindrical structures: single cylinder with twodimensional flow. 
ESDU 81017
Mean forces, pressures, and moments for circular cylindrical structures: finitelength cylinders in uniform and shear flow.

ESDU 71012

Section 48: Bluff Bodies and Structures  Fluctuating Forces and Response

ESDU 77032
Fluctuating loads and dynamic response of bodies and structures in fluid flows  background information. 
ESDU 79025
Fluctuating response of circular cylinders in small groups in fluid flow  discussion and guide to data available. 
ESDU 87035
Calculation methods for alongwind loading. Part 2. Response of linelike structures to atmospheric turbulence.

ESDU 77032

Section 49: Aerodynamic Heating and Heat Transfer

ESDU 69009
Heat balance for flight vehicles. 
ESDU 69010
Heat transfer by forced convection between a twodimensional laminar boundary layer and a smooth flat plate, with application to wedges, cylinders and cones. 
ESDU 69011
Heat transfer by forced convection between a twodimensional turbulent boundary layer and a smooth flat plate, with application to wedges, cylinders and cones. 
ESDU 69012
Effects of kinetic heating on equilibrium temperature of flight vehicles. 
ESDU AERO 00.02.05
Heat transfer under conditions of forced convection for the subsonic turbulent flow of gases in smooth straight ducts of constant cross section. 
ESDU AERO 00.03.26
Wall and average gas temperatures for subsonic turbulent flow with heat transfer in ducts of constant circular cross section. 
ESDU AERO W.S.00.03.18
Aerodynamic heating: temperatures at a perfectly insulated surface neglecting radiation.

ESDU 69009

Section 50: WindTunnel Corrections

ESDU 76028
Liftinterference and blockage corrections for twodimensional subsonic flow in ventilated and closed windtunnels. 
ESDU 80024
Blockage corrections for bluff bodies in confined flows.

ESDU 76028
Users of this Series may find the following apps useful.
 International Standard Atmosphere app
The app evaluates, at a given pressure altitude, pressure, temperature and density (and their corresponding relative values) together with the absolute values of the speed of sound, kinematic and dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity. It also determines V_{TAS}, V_{EASM}, kinetic pressure and unit Reynolds number for a specified Mach number at the given pressure altitude. Calculations are limited to the troposphere and stratosphere in the ISA.
 Wing liftcurve slope app
A modified version of the HelmboldDiederich equation is used to obtain the liftcurve slope of a wing of trapezoidal planform, provided the wing is thin and has an aspect ratio greater than 1.5. The wing may be planar or have only moderate camber and twist. Compressibility effects are catered for by means of the classic PrantlGlauert factor, but the flow must remain both attached and wholly subcritical. The original HelmboldDiederich equation was often used before there was general access to more soundly based methods such as the liftingsurface theory that has been used as the basis of ESDU 70011. However, the modified version used in this calculator provides estimates accurate to within a few per cent of those obtained by ESDU 70011. The full background to this method, and that of ESDU 70011, is given in ESDU TM 169 in the ESDU Aerodynamics Series.
 Local and mean skin friction coefficients on a flat plate
This App uses the semiempirical method of Spalding and Chi to obtain the local and mean skin friction coefficients for a turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate with zero pressure gradient and zero heat transfer.
The data are applicable to flows with Reynolds numbers based on streamwise distance over the range 100 thousand to 1000 million and for Mach numbers up to 5.
The equations used are taken from Appendix A of ESDU 78019, which itself is based on the method described in ESDU 68020. Both of these Items are to be found in the Aerodynamics Series.
ESDU Series:
 Aerodynamics
 Aircraft Noise
 Composites
 Dynamics
 Fatigue  Endurance Data
 Fatigue  Fracture Mechanics
 Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow
 Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow (Aerospace)
 Heat Transfer
 Mechanisms
 Performance
 Physical Data, Chemical Engineering
 Stress and Strength
 Structures
 Transonic Aerodynamics
 Tribology
 Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue
 Wind Engineering
ESDU Packages:
 Home  AZ index  Contact Us  Help  About Us  Terms of Use  Privacy Policy  How we use cookies  How to Subscribe 
© 19992018 IHS ESDU, part of IHS Inc.