ESDU Performance Series
The information provides data and methods both for the estimation of the performance of a proposed aircraft at every stage of its design, from project stage to operation, and for performance measurement.
The information on performance estimation can be used for design and development, project and research studies, preflight specification and, finally, the synthesis of precise operational data based on flight test results. In many cases the data give three levels of estimation method: a first approximation requiring minimum data input, a "project" method considering the major variables, and a comprehensive calculation framework for detailed estimates and synthesis of operational data.
Performance measurement information covers methods of handling flighttest measurements, including analysis using the equations of motion, reduction to standard conditions by incremental adjustment and presentations in the form of nondimensional groups. Information is given on the correction of airdata measurements and methods of inflight thrust measurement for turbojet and turbofan engines.

Section 1: Explanatory and General Guidance

ESDU 99035
Performance Series record of documents 
ESDU Notation and Units
Notation and units in Peformance Data Items 
ESDU CFA
Conversion factors. 
ESDU 80009
The use of Data Items on aircraft performance measurement. 
ESDU 80026
The use of Data Items on aircraft performance estimation. 
ESDU 04008
Use of Carpet Plots to represent functions of two variables. 
ESDU 04012
Examples of construction of carpet plots from experimental data.

ESDU 99035

Section 2: Equations of Motion

ESDU 78038
Introduction to equations of motion for performance. 
ESDU 80032
Simplified forms of performance equations. 
ESDU 86004
Simplified forms of performance equations. Addendum A: effect on aeroplane level speed of small changes in thrust, drag, weight, power. 
ESDU 92019
Estimation of rate of climb. 
ESDU 94039
Effects of small changes on rate of climb. 
ESDU 81046
Acceleration factors for climb and descent rates at constant EAS, CAS, M. 
ESDU 94040
Effects of cabin pressure on climb and descent rates.

ESDU 78038

Section 3: Atmospheric Data

ESDU 68046
Atmospheric data for performance calculations. 
ESDU 72018
Atmospheric data for performance calculations. Addendum: height in feet, data in SI units. 
ESDU 77022
Equations for calculation of International Standard Atmosphere and associated offstandard atmospheres. 
ESDU 78012
Height relationships for nonstandard atmospheres.

ESDU 68046

Section 4: Airspeed Data

ESDU 69026
Airspeed data for performance calculations.

ESDU 69026

Section 5: Drag of Airframes

ESDU 81026
Representation of drag in aircraft performance calculations (with Addenda A to G). 
ESDU 97016
Estimation of airframe drag by summation of components: principles and examples. 
ESDU 94044
Excrescence drag levels on aircraft. 
ESDU 88006
Estimation of drag arising from asymmetry in thrust or airframe configuration.

ESDU 81026

Section 6: Drag of Engines

ESDU 84005
Estimation of drag due to inoperative turbojet and turbofan engines using Data Item Nos 81009 and 84004. 
ESDU 81009
Estimation of windmilling drag and airflow of turbojet and turbofan engines. 
ESDU 84004
Estimation of spillage drag for a wide range of axisymmetric intakes at M less than 1.

ESDU 84005

Section 7: Estimation  Jet and Fan Engine Thrust

ESDU 76034
Estimation of takeoff thrust using generalised data for turbojet and turbofan engines. 
ESDU 77001
Effect of intake total pressure loss on net thrust at takeoff: turbojet and turbofan engines.

ESDU 76034

Section 8: Estimation  Propellers

ESDU 83001
Approximate parametric method for propeller thrust estimation. 
ESDU 83028
Approximate parametric method for propeller thrust estimation. Addendum A: application to fixedpitch propellers. 
ESDU PERF ED1/1
Approximate estimation of drag of windmilling propellers. 
ESDU PERF ED1/2
Approximate estimation of braking thrust of propellers (piston engines).

ESDU 83001

Section 9: TyreRunway Forces

ESDU 16008
Frictional and retarding forces on aircraft tyres Introduction to the ESDU methods 
ESDU 15002
Definitions for runway contaminants and the classification and distribution of hard runway surfaces 
ESDU 15003
Planing of ribtread aircraft tyres 
ESDU 15009
Determination of hydroplaning speeds and corresponding hydrodynamic forces for rib tread aircraft tyres.
Application of ESDU 15003.

ESDU 16008

Section 10: Tyre Spray

ESDU 83042
Estimation of spray patterns generated from the sides of aircraft tyres running in water or slush. 
ESDU 98001
Estimation of airframe skinfriction drag due to impingement of tyre spray.

ESDU 83042

Section 11: Airfield Performance  General

ESDU 85029
Calculation of ground performance in takeoff and landing. 
ESDU 85030
Force and moment components for takeoff and landing calculations. 
ESDU 99015
Statistical analysis of wet runway friction for aircraft and groundtest machines 
ESDU 99016
Example of statistical analysis of wet runway friction: aircraft with extensive set of test data. 
ESDU 99017
Example of statistical analysis of wet runway friction: aircraft with limited set of test data. 
ESDU 00018
Example of statistical analysis of wet runway friction: groundtest machine data. 
ESDU 08014
Guide to contaminated runway testing 
ESDU TM 95
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Impact forces resulting from wheel generated spray: a reassessment of existing data 
ESDU TM 96
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Operations on surfaces covered with slush 
ESDU PERF RG2/1
Reduction of takeoff and landing measurements to standard conditions.

ESDU 85029

Section 12: Airfield Performance  Contaminated Runways

ESDU 05011
Summary of the model for performance of an aircraft tyre rolling or braking on dry or precipitate contaminated runways. 
ESDU 10015
Model for performance of a single aircraft tyre rolling or braking on dry and precipitate contaminated runways 
ESDU 11004
Decelerating forces on multiplewheel undercarriages rolling or braking on precipitate contaminated runways 
ESDU 13007
Sideforce coefficients on aircraft tyres in yawed and unbraked motion on dry and wet pavements 
ESDU 10002
Introduction to worked examples of tyres rolling or braking on dry or precipitate contaminated runways.
Application of ESDU 05011 and ESDU 13007 
ESDU 10003
Worked example for tyre in linear motion on a contaminated runway surface. Application of ESDU 05011. 
ESDU 10004
Worked example of groundtest machine operating on a dry or contaminated runway surface.
Application of ESDU 05011. 
ESDU 13002
Worked example for aircraft with multiplewheel undercarriages braking on watercovered runway. Application of ESDU 11004. 
ESDU 15007
Worked example for tyre in yawed motion on a dry or wet runway surface.
An application of ESDU 13007 
ESDU 15008
Tyre in linear motion on a runway covered by various forms of loose snow.
An application of ESDU 05011 
ESDU TM 151
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Stresses in the tread material of an unloaded inflated tyre. 
ESDU TM 161
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Calculation of coefficients of rolling, braking and yawed rolling resistance. 
ESDU TM 165
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Analysis of groundrolling tests through water with a Canberra aircraft 
ESDU TM 167
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Mumeter Mk 6: a continuous friction measuring device. Evaluation on test surfaces at Nantes. 
ESDU TM 170
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Falcon 20: rolling on dry and snowcovered surfaces 
ESDU TM 174
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM
Correlation of the microtexture sharpness parameter F_{1} 
ESDU TM 176
ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Effective phase angle in tyrefriction modelling

ESDU 05011

Section 13: Landing

ESDU 84040
First approximation to landing field length for civil transport aeroplanes (50 ft, 15.24 m screen). 
ESDU 91032
Estimation of airborne performance in landing. 
ESDU 92020
Energy method for analysis of measured airspeed change in landing airborne manoeuvre. 
ESDU PERF EG6/2
Estimation of approach speed. 
ESDU PERF EG6/4
Estimation of ground run during landing.

ESDU 84040

Section 14: Estimation  Takeoff

ESDU PERF EG5/1
Estimation of takeoff distance. 
ESDU 76011
First approximation to takeoff field length of multiengined transport aeroplanes. 
ESDU 82033
First approximation to takeoff distance to 50 ft (15.2 m) for light and general aviation aeroplanes. 
ESDU 87018
Example of takeoff field length calculations for a civil transport aeroplane. 
ESDU 87037
Takeoff performance of vectoredjetthrust V/STOL aircraft.

ESDU PERF EG5/1

Section 15: Estimation  Range and Endurance

ESDU 73018
Introduction to estimation of range and endurance. 
ESDU 73019
Approximate methods for estimation of cruise range and endurance: aeroplanes with turbojet and turbofan engines. 
ESDU 74018
Lost range, fuel and time due to climb and descent: aircraft with turbojet and turbofan engines. 
ESDU 74041
Example of the use of Data Items on range performance. 
ESDU 75018
Estimation of cruise range: propellerdriven aircraft. 
ESDU 77015
Lost range, fuel and time due to climb and descent: propellerdriven aeroplanes.

ESDU 73018

Section 16: Flight Path Optimisation

ESDU 89015
Introduction to Data Items on flight path optimisation. 
ESDU 90012
Energy height method for flight path optimisation. 
ESDU 91016
Energy height method for flight path optimisation. Addendum A: numerical method suitable for rapid use on IBM PC compatible computers. 
ESDU 93021
Examples of flight path optimisation using a multivariate gradientsearch method. 
ESDU 94016
Examples of flight path optimisation using a multivariate gradientsearch method. Addendum A: variation of optimum flight profile parameters with range. 
ESDU 94012
Application of multivariate optimisation techniques to determination of optimum flight trajectories.

ESDU 89015

Section 17: Estimation  Manoeuvres

ESDU PERF EG8/1
Estimation of turning performance. 
ESDU PERF EG8/2
Estimation of rolling manoeuvrability.

ESDU PERF EG8/1

Section 18: Statistical Techniques

ESDU 91017
Statistical methods applicable to analysis of aircraft performance data. 
ESDU 91018
Example of statistical techniques applied to cruise performance guarantees (Student's "t" distribution). 
ESDU 91019
Example of statistical techniques applied to autoland touchdown dispersion (confidence intervals for normal and skew distributions). 
ESDU 91020
Variability of standard aircraft performance parameters. 
ESDU 92021
Example of statistical techniques applied to analysis of landing ground roll distance measurements. (Linear regression, correlation coefficient and F test.) 
ESDU 92022
Example of statistical techniques applied to analysis of measurements of the landing airborne manoeuvre. (Multiple linear regression with two independent variables and one dependent variable.) 
ESDU 93023
Example of statistical techniques applied to analysis of effects of small changes. 
ESDU 96024
Example of statistical techniques applied to analysis of paved runway sizes (Bivariate Normal Distribution).

ESDU 91017

Section 19: Similarity Methods

ESDU 97025
Similarity rules for application in aircraft performance work. 
ESDU 98026
Example of similarity methods applied to base drag coefficient of conical afterbodies in axisymmetric flow (jet off). 
ESDU 08010
Example of similarity methods applied to aircraft drag data from flight test

ESDU 97025

Section 20: Fitting of Functions

ESDU 01011
Compendium of curves and approximating algebraic functions. 
ESDU 06025
Guide to linear Least Squares curve fitting techniques

ESDU 01011

Section 21: Air Data  Flight Test Measurement

ESDU 86031
Introduction to air data system parameters, errors and calibration laws. 
ESDU 83029
The correction of flighttest anemometric data. 
ESDU 88025
Derivation of primary airdata parameters for hypersonic flight. 
ESDU 93020
Computation of static pressure downstream of a normal shock for hypersonic flight (ambient temperature known).

ESDU 86031

Section 22: Air Data  Sensor Calibrations and Errors

ESDU 86006
Pitot and static errors in steady level flight. 
ESDU 95024
Example of analysis and representation of static pressure correction data in steady flight. 
ESDU 85011
Pitot and static errors due to nonsteady flight. 
ESDU 87038
Calibration of anemometric pressure systems for lag. 
ESDU 85036
Conversion of airdata system pressure errors into height and speed corrections. 
ESDU 84007
The treatment of calibrations of total air temperature probes for use in flighttest analysis work.

ESDU 86006

Section 23: Thrust Determination

ESDU 69006
Introduction to the measurement of thrust in flight. (Air breathing ductedflow engines.) 
ESDU 69007
The determination of gross thrust and mass flow in flight. (Air breathing ductedflow engines with convergent nozzles.) 
ESDU 69008
Curves for use in the determination of gross thrust and mass flow in flight. (Air breathing ductedflow engines with convergent nozzles.)

ESDU 69006

Section 24: Analysis  Jet Aeroplanes

ESDU 70020
Nondimensional approach to engine thrust and airframe drag for the analysis of measured performance data: aircraft with turbojet and turbofan engines. 
ESDU 70021
Graphical method for the analysis of measured performance data using drag determination: aircraft with turbojet and turbofan engines. 
ESDU 70022
Nondimensional graphical method for the analysis of measurements of steady level speed, range and endurance: aircraft with turbojet and turbofan engines. 
ESDU 70023
The measurement and analysis of climb and excess power performance. 
ESDU PERF RJ1/2
Performance analysis for aircraft with turbojets. "Nondimensional" graphical method. Rate of climb. 
ESDU 79018
Example of performance analysis using data obtained concurrently in airpath, body and Earth axes. 
ESDU 15001
Aircraft performance from flight test Part 1: derivation of a mathematical model 
ESDU 16003
Aircraft performance from flight test Part 2: thrustdrag accounting 
ESDU 17013
Aircraft performance from flight test. Part 3: inflight calibration of an angle of attack sensor 
ESDU TM 185
Air data calibration using a GPS/INS (EGI)

ESDU 70020

Section 25: Reduction Methods  Aeroplanes

ESDU PERF RJ2/0
Introductory sheet on the analytical method of performance reduction for aircraft with turbojets. 
ESDU PERF RJ2/1
Analytical method of performance reduction for aircraft with turbojets. Rate of climb. 
ESDU PERF RT1/0
Performance reduction for aircraft with turboprops. "Nondimensional" graphical method. 
ESDU PERF RT1/1
Performance reduction for aircraft with turboprops. "Nondimensional" graphical method. Level speed. 
ESDU PERF RT1/2
Performance reduction for aircraft with turboprops. "Nondimensional" graphical method. Rate of climb. 
ESDU PERF RT1/3
Performance reduction for aircraft with turboprops. "Nondimensional" graphical method. Range and endurance. 
ESDU PERF RP1/0
Standard British method of performance reduction for pistonengined aircraft with constantspeed propellers 
ESDU PERF RP1/1
Standard British method of performance reduction for pistonengined aircraft with constantspeed propellers. Level speed. 
ESDU PERF RP1/2
Standard British method of performance reduction for pistonengined aircraft with constantspeed propellers. Rate of climb. 
ESDU PERF RP1/3
Standard British method of performance reduction for pistonengined aircraft with constantspeed propellers. Fuel consumption. 
ESDU PERF RP2/0
General method of performance reduction for pistonengined aircraft with constantspeed propellers.

ESDU PERF RJ2/0

Section 26: Analysis  Turbine Helicopters

ESDU 73026
Introduction to nondimensional methods for the measurement of performance of turbineengined helicopters. 
ESDU 73027
Nondimensional methods for the measurement of hover performance of turbineengined helicopters. 
ESDU 74042
Nondimensional methods for the measurement of levelflight performance of turbineengined helicopters.

ESDU 73026

Section 27: Aircraft Performance Program

ESDU 13006
ESDUperf: Aircraft Performance Program. 
ESDU 00031
Aircraft Performance Program. Part 1: Introduction to the computer programs for aircraft performance evaluation. 
ESDU 00032
Aircraft performance program. Part 2: installing and running Programs APP02 and APP03. 
ESDU 00033
Aircraft performance program. Part 3: brief guide. Programs APP02, APP03. 
ESDU 00034
Aircraft performance program. Part 4: Brief form of input and output. Programs APP02 and APP03. 
ESDU 00035
Aircraft performance program. Part 5: detailed input and output. Program APP02. 
ESDU 00036
Aircraft performance program. Part 6: examples of application. Programs APP02 and APP03. 
ESDU 00037
Aircraft performance program. Part 7: Error messages. Programs APP02 and APP03. 
ESDU 00038
Aircraft performance program. Part 8: description of APP02. 
ESDU 00039
Aircraft Performance Program. Part 9: Testing programs APP02 and APP03.

ESDU 13006

Section 28: Risk  Treatment and Analysis

ESDU 08003
Treatment of risk within commercial air transport 
ESDU 08004
Example of risk analysis applied to enroute flight path for large jet transport aircraft 
ESDU 08005
Example of risk analysis applied to aircraft landing distance 
ESDU 08006
Example of risk analysis for an aircraft subject to performance errors

ESDU 08003
Users of this Series may find the following apps useful.
 International Standard Atmosphere app
The app evaluates, at a given pressure altitude, pressure, temperature and density (and their corresponding relative values) together with the absolute values of the speed of sound, kinematic and dynamic viscosity and thermal conductivity. It also determines V_{TAS}, V_{EASM}, kinetic pressure and unit Reynolds number for a specified Mach number at the given pressure altitude. Calculations are limited to the troposphere and stratosphere in the ISA.
 Wing liftcurve slope app
A modified version of the HelmboldDiederich equation is used to obtain the liftcurve slope of a wing of trapezoidal planform, provided the wing is thin and has an aspect ratio greater than 1.5. The wing may be planar or have only moderate camber and twist. Compressibility effects are catered for by means of the classic PrantlGlauert factor, but the flow must remain both attached and wholly subcritical. The original HelmboldDiederich equation was often used before there was general access to more soundly based methods such as the liftingsurface theory that has been used as the basis of ESDU 70011. However, the modified version used in this calculator provides estimates accurate to within a few per cent of those obtained by ESDU 70011. The full background to this method, and that of ESDU 70011, is given in ESDU TM 169 in the ESDU Aerodynamics Series.
ESDU Series:
 Aerodynamics
 Aircraft Noise
 Composites
 Dynamics
 Fatigue  Endurance Data
 Fatigue  Fracture Mechanics
 Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow
 Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow (Aerospace)
 Heat Transfer
 Mechanisms
 Performance
 Physical Data, Chemical Engineering
 Stress and Strength
 Structures
 Transonic Aerodynamics
 Tribology
 Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue
 Wind Engineering
ESDU Packages:
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