ESDU Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow Series

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  • Section 1: Organisational Documents
    • ESDU 04021
      Fluid Mechanics, Internal Flow Series: Record of Documents.
  • Section 2: General
    • ESDU CFA
      Conversion factors.
    • ESDU FMI1
      Introductory memorandum on the pressure losses in internal flow systems.
    • ESDU 12003
      Pressure and Flow Measurements.
  • Section 3: Compressible Flow Relationships
    • ESDU 67035
      Jet flow parameters
    • ESDU 74028
      One-dimensional compressible gas flow in ducts.
    • ESDU 95011
      One-dimensional representation of steady, spatially non-uniform flow. An equivalent mean-value set for compressible flow. Part 1. Implementation for an ideal, calorically-perfect gas.
    • ESDU 97029
      One-dimensional representation of steady, spatially non-uniform flow. An equivalent mean-value set for compressible flow. Part 2. Implementation for an ideal, thermally-perfect gas.
    • ESDU 03012
      Computer program for calculation of mean value properties for non-uniform compressible flows.
    • ESDU TM 148
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM The implications of flow property profiles on determination and application of non-dimensional pressure loss coefficients for flow of incompressible fluids
  • Section 4: Straight Pipes
    • ESDU 66027
      Friction losses for fully-developed flow in straight pipes.
    • ESDU 74029
      Friction losses for fully-developed flow in straight pipes of constant cross section - subsonic compressible flow of gases.
    • ESDU 79014
      Losses caused by friction in straight pipes with systematic roughness elements.
    • ESDU TN 08008
      CFD studies for the validation of friction losses and flow characteristics in circular straight pipes with smooth walls
    • ESDU TN 08009
      CFD validation studies for transitional flow in circular straight pipes with smooth walls
  • Section 5: Bends, Branches and Junctions
    • ESDU 73022
      Pressure losses in three-leg pipe junctions: dividing flows.
    • ESDU 73023
      Pressure losses in three-leg pipe junctions: combining flows.
    • ESDU 83037
      Pressure losses in curved ducts: single bends.
    • ESDU 77009
      Pressure losses in curved ducts: interaction factors for two bends in series.
    • ESDU 77029
      Pressure losses in curved ducts: coils.
  • Section 6: Duct Fittings and Equipment
    • ESDU 66030
      Pressure losses in flowmetering devices.
    • ESDU 69022
      Pressure losses in valves.
    • ESDU 72009
      Pressure drop in ducts across round-wire gauzes normal to the flow.
    • ESDU 74040
      Pressure loss during crossflow of fluids with heat transfer over plain tube banks without baffles.
    • ESDU 79034
      Crossflow pressure loss over banks of plain tubes in square and triangular arrays including effects of flow direction.
    • ESDU 81021
      Pressure losses caused by obstructions in ducts or pipes.
    • ESDU 81039
      Flow of liquids. Pressure losses across orifice plates, perforated plates and thick orifice plates in ducts.
    • ESDU 82009
      Compressible flow of gases. Pressure losses and discharge coefficients of orifice plates, perforated plates and thick orifice plates in ducts.
    • ESDU TN 07007
      Incompressible flow through orifice plates - a review of the data in the literature.
    • ESDU TN 10013
      CFD validation studies for incompressible flow through square-edged orifice plates.
  • Section 7: Ejectors and Jet Pumps
    • ESDU 92042
      Ejectors and jet pumps: computer program for design and performance for compressible gas flow.
    • ESDU 93022
      Ejectors and jet pumps: computer program for design and performance for liquid flow.
    • ESDU 85032
      Ejectors and jet pumps. Design and performance for incompressible liquid flow.
    • ESDU 86030
      Ejectors and jet pumps. Design for steam driven flow.
    • ESDU 94046
      Ejectors and jet pumps: computer program for design and performance for steam/gas flow.
  • Section 8: Duct Expansions
    • ESDU 72011
      Flow through a sudden enlargement of area in a duct.
    • ESDU 76027
      Introduction to design and performance data for diffusers.
    • ESDU 73024
      Performance of conical diffusers in incompressible flow.
    • ESDU 74015
      Performance in incompressible flow of plane-walled diffusers with single-plane expansion.
    • ESDU 75026
      Performance of circular annular diffusers in incompressible flow.
    • ESDU 87015
      Performance improvement of axial diffusers for incompressible flow.
    • ESDU 90025
      Performance of conical diffusers in subsonic compressible flow.
    • ESDU TM 19
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Effects of truncation on diffuser performance.
  • Section 9: Duct Contractions
    • ESDU 05024
      Flow through sudden contractions of duct area: pressure losses and flow characteristics.
    • ESDU TN 06023
      CFD validation studies for pressure loss and flow characteristics in sudden contractions.
  • Section 10: Rotating Machinery
  • Section 11: Two-Phase Flow - Guides to Pressure Drop Related Problems
    • ESDU CF2
      Conversion factors for fluid flows.
    • ESDU FMI2
      Guide to the flow relationships and statistical methods used in the Data Items on two-phase flow pressure gradients in straight pipes.
    • ESDU 78018
      Guide to calculation procedures for solving typical problems related to pressure drop in two-phase flow.
    • ESDU 88014
      Computer program for the prediction of air-lift pump performance.
  • Section 12: Two-Phase Flow - Pressure Losses in Pipes
    • ESDU 76018
      The frictional component of pressure gradient for two-phase gas or vapour/liquid flow through straight pipes.
    • ESDU 01014
      Frictional pressure gradient in adiabatic flows of gas-liquid mixtures in horizontal pipes: prediction using empirical correlations and database.
    • ESDU 04006
      Pressure gradient in upward adiabatic flows of gas liquid mixtures in vertical pipes.
    • ESDU 77016
      The gravitational component of pressure gradient for two-phase gas or vapour/liquid flow through straight pipes.
    • ESDU 78001
      The momentum-change component of pressure change in two-phase flow and other non-equilibrium effects.
    • ESDU 89012
      Two-phase flow pressure losses in pipeline fittings.
  • Section 13: Non-Newtonian Flow
    • ESDU 97034
      Non-Newtonian fluids: Guide to classification and characteristics.
    • ESDU 95012
      Non-Newtonian fluids: obtaining viscometric data for frictional pressure loss estimation for pipeflow.
    • ESDU 04005
      Non-Newtonian fluids: tube viscometry worked example
    • ESDU 91025
      Non-Newtonian fluids: frictional pressure loss prediction for fully-developed flow in straight pipes.
  • Section 14: Fans
    • ESDU 79037
      A guide to fan selection and performance.
  • Section 15: Pumps
    • ESDU 80030
      Radial, mixed and axial flow pumps. Introduction.
    • ESDU 80031
      Radial, mixed and axial-flow pumps. Size estimation, and specification.
    • ESDU 81001
      Radial, mixed and axial-flow pumps. Glossary of terms.
    • ESDU 81002
      Radial, mixed and axial-flow pumps. Conversion factors.
  • Section 16: Air-Conditioning Systems
    • ESDU TM 180
      ESDU TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM Modelling of ventilation for thermal comfort and indoor air quality
    • ESDU 82001
      An introduction and guide to noise in ventilation, air-conditioning and other ducting systems.
    • ESDU 82002
      Reduction of sound in ventilation and similar air distribution systems.
    • ESDU 82003
      Example to illustrate the use of Data Items on noise from ducted ventilation and air-conditioning systems.
    • ESDU 81043
      Sound in low velocity ventilation ducts.
  • Section 17: Fluid Transients in Pipes and Tunnels
    • ESDU 83046
      Fluid transients in pipes and tunnels. Speed of propagation of pressure waves.
    • ESDU 84013
      Fluid transients in pipes. Reduction and control of pressure surges in liquids.
    • ESDU 84038
      Fluid transients in pipes. Pressure surge following pump trip in rising mains and other similar discharge lines. Suppression using air vessels.
    • ESDU 85009
      Fluid transients in pipes. Use of air inlet/outlet valves as surge suppression devices.
    • ESDU 85044
      Fluid transients in pipes. Pressure surge following booster pump trip. Suppression using pump bypass.
  • Section 18: Fluid Transients
    • ESDU 86015
      Fluid transients in pipes. Estimation of maximum pressures and forces in steam lines.
    • ESDU 87027
      Computer program for the prediction of fluid transients in liquid-filled systems.
  • Section 19: Pipeline Vibrations
    • ESDU 88022
      Pipeline vibrations. Undamped natural vibration of pipelines.
    • ESDU 89030
      Pipeline vibrations. Fluid transients in non-rigid, unbranched planar piping systems.
    • ESDU 93031
      Pipeline vibrations. Computer program for the prediction of fluid transients in flexible, unbranched three-dimensional piping systems.
  • Section 20: CFD Guides
    • ESDU CFD-BPG 09010
      CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling friction losses and flow characteristics in straight pipes.
    • ESDU CFD-BMK 09011
      CFD Benchmarks for predicting friction losses and flow characteristics in straight pipes.
    • ESDU CFD-BPG 07008
      CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling pressure loss and flow characteristics. Incompressible flow in sudden contractions.
    • ESDU CFD-BMK 07009
      CFD Benchmarks for predicting pressure loss and flow characteristics. Incompressible flow in sudden contractions.
    • ESDU CFD-BPG 11010
      CFD Best Practice Guidelines for modelling pressure losses and flow characteristics in square- and knife-edged orifice plates