ESDU Transonic Aerodynamics Series

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  • Section 1: Explanatory and General Guidance
    • ESDU 99034
      Transonic Aerodynamics Series organisation: preface, location schedule, amendment record.
    • ESDU 90008
      Introduction to transonic aerodynamics of aerofoils and wings.
  • Section 2: Aerofoils - Estimation of Pressure Distribution
    • ESDU TD MEMO 6511
      A method for estimating the pressure distribution between the crest and the trailing edge on the surface of an aerofoil section in a sonic stream.
    • ESDU 69013
      A method for estimating the pressure distribution on the surface of a two-dimensional aerofoil in a sonic stream.
    • ESDU 72025
      Second-order method for estimating the subcritical pressure distribution on a two-dimensional aerofoil in compressible inviscid flow.
    • ESDU 76002
      First-order method for estimating the subcritical pressure distribution on a two-dimensional aerofoil in compressible viscous flow.
  • Section 3: Aerofoils - Computational Methods
    • ESDU 79009
      Numerical methods for solving the potential flow equations for two-dimensional aerofoils in subsonic and transonic flows: brief details, test cases and examples.
    • ESDU 81019
      Methods for estimating the pressure distribution on a two-dimensional aerofoil in viscous transonic flow.
  • Section 4: Aerofoils - Drag Rise, Designs, Separation
    • ESDU TD MEMO 6407
      A method of estimating drag-rise Mach number for two-dimensional aerofoil sections.
    • ESDU 71019
      Drag-rise Mach number of aerofoils having a specified form of upper-surface pressure distribution: charts and comments on design.
    • ESDU 71020
      Aerofoils having a specified form of upper-surface pressure distribution: details and comments on design.
    • ESDU 78010
      The lift achievable by aerofoils having a particular form of supercritical upper-surface pressure distribution that yields only small wave drag.
    • ESDU 81020
      A method of estimating a separation boundary for two-dimensional aerofoil sections in transonic flow.
    • ESDU 92008
      Direct prediction of a separation boundary for aerofoils using a viscous-coupled calculation method.
  • Section 5: Aerofoils - Excrescence Drag Magnification
    • ESDU 87004
      Calculation of excrescence drag magnification due to pressure gradients at high subsonic speeds.
    • ESDU TM 181
      An assessment of methods for estimation of turbulent boundary-layer profiles
  • Section 6: VGK Aerofoil Method
    • ESDU 96028
      VGK method for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. Part 1: Principles and results.
    • ESDU 96029
      VGK method for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. Part 2: user manual for operation with MS-DOS and UNIX systems.
    • ESDU 97030
      VGK method for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. Part 3: estimation of a separation boundary in transonic flow.
    • ESDU 98031
      VGK method for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. Part 4: estimation of excrescence drag at subsonic speeds.
    • ESDU 99032
      VGK method for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. Part 5: design to a specified upper-surface pressure distribution.
    • ESDU 01033
      VGK method for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. Part 6: aerofoil with simple hinged flaps.
    • ESDU 03015
      Transonic data memorandum. VGK method for two-dimensional aerofoil sections. Part 7: VGK for Windows.
  • Section 7: Wings - Aerodynamic Design
  • Section 8: Wings - Spanwise Loading
    • ESDU TD MEMO 6309
      Graphical method for estimating the spanwise distribution of aerodynamic centre on wings in subsonic flow.
    • ESDU TD MEMO 6403
      Method for the rapid estimation of theoretical spanwise loading due to a change of incidence.
    • ESDU 73012
      Method for predicting the pressure distribution on swept wings with subsonic attached flow.
  • Section 9: Wings - Drag Rise, Wave Drag, Separation
    • ESDU 72027
      Adaptation of drag-rise charts in T.D. Memor. 71019 to the mid-semi-span portion of swept and tapered planforms.
    • ESDU 78009
      A framework relating the drag-rise characteristics of a finite wing/body combination to the those of its basic aerofoil.
    • ESDU 87003
      A method of determining the wave drag and its spanwise distribution on a finite wing in transonic flow.
    • ESDU 91021
      A method of estimating a flow breakdown boundary for aerofoils and swept wings in transonic flow.
  • Section 10: VFP Wing Method
    • ESDU 02013
      Full-potential (FP) method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations - inviscid flow. Part 1: Principles and results.
    • ESDU 02014
      Full-potential (FP) method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations - inviscid flow. Part 2: Use of FP and related programs.
    • ESDU 06015
      Full-potential method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations - inviscid flow. Part 3: Method with improved estimates of body lift and drag contributions (FPIBE).
    • ESDU 06016
      Full-potential method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations - inviscid flow. Part 4: Evaluation of trailing-vortex drag and wave components.
    • ESDU 10014
      Full-potential method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations Part 5: Pre-processor to represent effect of fore- and aft-body shape on wing flow
    • ESDU 11007
      Full-potential method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations Part 6: Full-potential with frozen boundary layer
    • ESDU 13013
      Viscous full-potential (VFP) method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations. Part 1: Validation of VFP results with experiment and comparisons with other methods.
    • ESDU 13012
      Viscous full-potential (VFP) method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations. Part 2: Use of VFP and related programs.
    • ESDU 13014
      Viscous full-potential (VFP) method for three-dimensional wings and wing-body combinations. Part 3: VFP error messages, failures and suggested remedies.
  • Section 11: Vortex Generators
    • ESDU 93024
      Vortex generators for control of shock-induced separation. Part 1: introduction and aerodynamics.
    • ESDU 93025
      Vortex generators for control of shock-induced separation. Part 2: guide to use of vane vortex generators.
    • ESDU 93026
      Vortex generators for control of shock-induced separation. Part 3: examples of applications of vortex generators to aircraft.
  • Section 12: Axisymmetric Bodies - Drag Rise
    • ESDU 74013
      A method for estimating drag-rise Mach number at zero incidence of smooth or bumpy non-ducted axisymmetric bodies without or with fins.
  • Section 13: Axisymmetric Forebodies - Wave Drag, Pressure Distribution
    • ESDU 79004
      Forebodies of fineness ratio 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0, having low values of wave drag coefficient at transonic speeds.
    • ESDU 80008
      Axial pressure coefficient distributions for forebodies of fineness ratio 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 at zero incidence in transonic flow.
    • ESDU 83017
      The wave drag coefficient of spherically blunted secant ogive forebodies of fineness ratio 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 at zero incidence in transonic flow.
    • ESDU 83018
      Axial pressure coefficient distributions for spherically blunted secant ogive forebodies of fineness ratio 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 at zero incidence in transonic flow.
    • ESDU 89033
      Pressure drag and lift contributions for blunted forebodies of fineness ratio 2.0 in transonic flow (M ≤ 1.4).
  • Section 14: Axisymmetric Forecowls - Wave Drag, Pressure Distribution
    • ESDU 94013
      NACA 1-series geometry representation for computational fluid dynamics.
    • ESDU 94014
      Wave drag coefficient for axisymmetric forecowls at zero incidence (M ≤ 1.5).
    • ESDU 94015
      Surface pressure coefficient distributions for axisymmetric forecowls at zero incidence (M ≤ 1.5)
  • Section 15: Design Optimisation
    • ESDU 99019
      Constrained multivariate optimisation techniques for the design of aerofoil sections
    • ESDU 99020
      Examples of the application of constrained multivariate optimisation techniques to the design of aerofoil sections. Design point: single, geometry variation: LE and TE flap deflection or camber line vars, initial aerofoil: RAE 2822
    • ESDU 99021
      Examples of the application of constrained multivariate optimisation techniques to the design of aerofoil sections. Design point: dual, geometry variation: LE and TE flap deflection and camber line vars, initial aerofoil: RAE 2822,
    • ESDU 00022
      Example of the application of constrained multivariate optimisation techniques to the design of aerofoil sections. Design point: single, geometry var: LE and TE flaps, initial aerofoil: combat aircraft section, CFD: BVGK (viscous flow)
    • ESDU 00023
      Examples of the application of constrained multivariate optimisation techniques to the design of aerofoil sections. Design point: single, geometry var: LE and TE flaps, initial aerofoil: combat aircraft section, CFD: BVGK (inviscid), Euler code.
    • ESDU 01024
      Example of the application of constrained multivariate optimisation techniques to the design of aerofoil sections. Dual design point, upper and lower surface shape geometry, leading and trailing edge flap deflections, RAE 2822, Euler code and BVGK.
    • ESDU 01025
      Examples of the application of constrained multivariate optimisation techniques to the design of aerofoil sections. Design point: single, upper and lower surfaces geometry and camber line variations, initial aerofoil: NACA 0012 and RAE 2822, CFD: BVGK.
  • Section 16: Surface Flow Visualisation
    • ESDU 03014
      Surface flow visualisation in aircraft design
  • Section 17: Extrapolating Wind-Tunnel Data
    • ESDU 05022
      Extrapolating wind-tunnel data to full-scale Reynolds number. Part 1: Principles
    • ESDU 07010
      Extrapolating wind-tunnel data to full-scale Reynolds number Part 2: Procedures
    • ESDU 09015
      Extrapolating wind-tunnel data to full-scale Reynolds number Part 3: Example (i) Choice of simulation criteria and transition-strip locations for the F4 Wing/Body combination at the design condition
    • ESDU 11006
      Extrapolating wind-tunnel data to full-scale Reynolds number Part 3: Example (ii) Comparison of extrapolated low-Reynolds-number lift measurements on the F4 wing/body with high-Reynolds-number measurements
    • ESDU 09016
      Use of local-flow conditions for calculation of roughness-particle height in transition strips on wings
    • ESDU 14007
      Selection of roughness bands to induce boundary-layer transition in wind-tunnel testing
    • ESDU 12006
      Method to determine surface finish required to minimise local skin friction in the presence of a turbulent boundary layer.
  • Section 18: Wind Tunnel Interference
    • ESDU 95014
      Upwash interference for wings in solid-liner wind tunnels using subsonic linearised-theory.