ESDU A-Z Index: A-AE

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Abandoned Take-off
see also
Ground Performance in Take-off and Landing
Landing
Take-off
Considerations With All Engines Operating or After Engine Failure, 85029
Detailed Example Calculation Procedure and Results for Typical Transport Aircraft
definition of segments and their end points, 87018
influence of airworthiness requirements on, 87018
taking account of all factors affecting applied forces and moments, 87018
Prediction of Aircraft Stopping Distance on Wet Runway
from statistical analysis of aircraft stopping distance data, 99015
from statistical analysis of friction ground-test machine, 99015
Reaction Times
sequence and values for typical transport aircraft, 85029
Absorption
Acoustic
see
Acoustic Absorption Coefficient
Effect of Water on Dimensions of Polymers and Thermosets, 87007
Spectroscopy Used for Temperature Measurement
see
Temperature Measurement
Absorptivity
Thermal
see
Thermal Absorptivity
Accelerate-stop
see also
Abandoned Take-off
Balanced Field Length
Definition of Distance, 87018
Acceleration
Determination of acceleration from analysis of flight test data, 15001
Effect on Climb Rate
see
Rate of Climb
Effect on Pressure Lag in Flight Instrumentation, 83029, 85011
Estimation for Aircraft in Climbing, Diving, Level and/or Turning Flight
aircraft performance program, ESDUperf, 13006
program using known drag and thrust characteristics, 00031, 00032, 00033, 00034, 00035, 00036, 00037, 00038, 00039, 13006
Lateral and Vertical Acceleration of Aircraft
see
Fatigue Loading
Acceleration Due To Gravity
see
Gravitational Acceleration
Accelerometers
Basic Equations for Behaviour and Transfer Functions, 85026
Determination of angle of attack using accelerometer, 17013
Use in Analysis of Flight-Measured Performance Data, 15001, 17013, 79018, 88025
body-mounted and inertial system, 79018
relationship between reading and load factor, 79018
Use With Rate Gyros to Determine Aircraft Motion Characteristics
using Euler attitude angles or quaternion representation, 98024
Acetone
see also
Heat Pipes
Density
pressure and temperature variation for saturated gas and liquid, 80017
Dynamic Viscosity
pressure and temperature variation for saturated gas and liquid, 80017
Specific Heat Capacity
pressure and temperature variation for saturated liquid, 80017
Specific Latent Heat of Vaporisation
pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
Surface Tension
pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
Thermal Conductivity
pressure and temperature variation for saturated liquid, 80017
Vapour Pressure
pressure and temperature variation at saturation, 80017
Acoustic Absorption Coefficient
Estimation for Fibrous Materials, 74003
Estimation for Perforated Sheet, 74004
Influence on Diffuse Sound Field, 15011
Acoustic Fatigue
see also
Acoustic Loading
Box Structures
Composite Structures
Curved Rectangular Plates
Curved Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Curved Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Damping
Flat Panels in General
Flat Rectangular Plates
Flat Sandwich Panels (Cores of Negligible Flexural Stiffness)
Flat Specially-orthotropic Rectangular Plates
Flat Specially-orthotropic Square Plates
Flat Square Plates
Integrally-machined Panels
Response of Lightweight Structures
Skin-rib Joints in Aluminium Alloys
Skin-rib Joints in Composite Structures
Skin-rib Joints in Titanium Alloys
Vibration and Acoustic Fatigue Series
Definitions of Terms, 66013
Factors of Importance in Design Against, 74037
General Considerations in Testing Endurance of Structural Elements Using Simulated Loading
definition of failure and likely locations, 93027
design of clamps, 93027
design of elements to represent features of full-size structure, 93027
dimensions of elements and tuning response, 93027
excitation and clipping, 93027
response behaviour and settling, 93027
simultaneous multi-element testing, 93027
Introduction to Design Information, 74037
Sources (Both Aerodynamic and Noise), 86025
Structural Considerations in Design Against
composite and metallic materials, and equipment fixings, 86025
Testing of Structures at High Sound Frequencies, 15011
Test Methods Used in Specific Skin-Rib Joint Endurance Experiments
description of test methods and details of specimens, 10011, 72015, 84027
truncation of loads, 10011, 72015, 84027
Acoustic Impedance
Estimation for Fibrous Materials, 74003
Estimation for Perforated Sheet, 74004
Ground
effective flow resistivity and inverse effective surface depth values, various surfaces, 94035, 94036
in terms of effective flow resistivity and inverse effective surface depth, 94035, 94036
Introduction to Concept, 02020
Use in Estimating Sound Power Attenuation in Lined Annular or Rectangular Straight Ducts
including effect of subsonic flow and boundary layer, 00024
Use in Estimating Sound Power Attenuation in Lined Circular Straight Ducts
including effect of subsonic flow and boundary layer, 00012
Acoustic Lag
see
Anemometric Data Correction
Acoustic Linings
see also
Acoustic Absorption Coefficient
Acoustic Impedance
Introduction to Method of Noise Absorption by Local or Extended Reaction, 02020
Acoustic Loading
see also
Acoustic Fatigue
Boundary Layer
Crossflow Heat Exchangers
Jet Noise
Pressure Correlation
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Turbomachinery Noise
Calculation of High Frequency Response of Lightweight Structures to
see
Statistical Energy Analysis
Sources for Aircraft, 74037, 86025
Acoustics
see
Acoustic Absorption Coefficient
Acoustic Impedance
Acoustic Linings
Acoustic Loading
Acoustic Test Methods
Aircraft Noise Series
Airframe Noise (Aeroplanes Not Propeller Powered)
Atmospheric Effects on Sound
Boundary Layer
Cavities
Crossflow Heat Exchangers
Fan Noise
Ground Reflection Effect on Noise
Helicopter Noise
Jet Noise
Lateral Noise Attenuation
Noise
Noise in Air-conditioning Duct Systems
Noise Prediction for Aerospace Sources
Noise/sound Propagation
Propeller Noise
Shell-and-tube Heat Exchangers
Turbomachinery Noise
Acoustic Supression Devices
see
Cavities
Acoustic Test Methods
Acoustics of Reverberation Chambers, 15011
Anechoic Chambers, 15011
Measurement of Sound Power Level, 15011
Use in Non-Destructive Examination for Flaws, 91027
Use of Speed of Sound Measurement in Temperature Measurement, 02006
Active Controls
see also
Indicial Aerodynamics
Use to Alleviate Buffeting, 87012
Actuator Disc Theory
Results for Axial Variation of Various Quantities Across Propeller Disc
axial velocity, static pressure and streamtube diameter, 85015
Added Mass
see
Response of Buildings and Structures
Additive Drag
see
Pre-entry Drag
Adhesives for Bonded Joints
Materials Properties
guidance on test methods, 81022
moduli of elasticity and typical stress-strain curves, 81022
test methods for shear and tensile properties, 81022
Adiabatic Efficiency
Intakes, 66028
Adiabatic Flow
Compressible Single-Phase Flow Equations and Curves
see
One-dimensional Flow
Adjacent Circular Holes in Flat Plates
Stress Concentration Due to Biaxial Loading
two circular and optimised shape holes in large plates, 15005
Stress Concentration Due to Biaxial or Uniaxial Loading With or Without Shear
two equal diameter holes in a wide flat plate, 67023
Stress Concentration Due to Shear
two equal or unequal diameter holes in a wide flat plate, 75007
Stress Concentration Due to Uniaxial Tension
two equal diameter holes across a strip, 85045
two equal or unequal diameter holes in a wide flat plate, 75007
Aerials
see
Antennas
Aerodynamic Centre
see also
Pitching Moment
Slender Wings
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Wings
Aerofoils
in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024
in subsonic flow, AERO A.08.01.05
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series, 99003
program to predict for subcritical speeds, 06020
Biconvex and Double-Wedge Aerofoils, AERO W.S.00.03.04
Definition, 70011
Position for Missile-Type Wing-Body Combination (Truncated Rear Body)
effect of wing height at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 95009
mid-wing configuration at low incidence in subsonic or supersonic flow, 92024
Position for Transport Aircraft Type Wing-Body Combination (Smoothly Tapered Rear Fuselage)
effect of fuselage geometry and wing sweep, 76015
effect of rear-fuselage nacelle geometry and position, 78013
effect of underwing nacelle geometry and position, 77012
program for wing-body-nacelle combinations, 13009
Sharp-Edged Delta, Cropped Delta or Rectangular Wings of Low Aspect Ratio
supersonic flow to high angles of attack, 90013
Spanwise Distribution
subsonic flow, TD MEMO 6309
Wings
subsonic flow, 70011
supersonic flow, 70012
Aerodynamic Derivatives
see
Derivatives
Aerodynamic Forces
see
Forces
Similarity Laws
Aerodynamic Heating
Equilibrium Temperature Under Forced Convection and Radiation
laminar and turbulent boundary layers, 69012, 69015
Introduction to Calculation, 69009
Local and Mean Stanton Numbers on Cones, Plates and Wedges
forced convection with laminar boundary layer, 69010
forced convection with turbulent boundary layer, 69011
Temperature and Stress Distribution Due to
laminated cylinders and shells, 89027
plates, 89023, 89024, 89025, 89026
Aerodynamic Loading
see also
Pressure Distribution
Bodies of Revolution
oscillating in bending, heave or pitch, 83010
Calculation of High Frequency Response of Lightweight Structures to
see
Statistical Energy Analysis
Complete Flexible Aircraft From Component Contributions Due to Incidence and Pitch Rate
use to calculate deformation of wing and tailplane using orthogonal modes, 97032
use to calculate deformation using normal modes, 99033
Complete Rigid Aircraft From Component Contributions Due to Incidence and Pitch Rate
equations for lift and moment due to wing/fuselage/nacelle, 94009
sources of data required, 94009
Effect on Their Loading Distribution of Tailplane and Wing Static Deformation, 96037
Effects of Inboard or Outboard on Benefits of Adding Winglets to Existing Wing, 98013
In Steady Level Asymmetric Flight (Sideslipping, Turning or With Failed Engine)
on fin, fuselage, tailplane and wing, 01010
Rectangular Planform Cavity With Closed Flow
end walls in subsonic or supersonic flow, 00006
Use to Obtain Forces and Moments in Rigid Airframe Structure Due to Incidence and Pitch Rate
bending moment and shear force in fuselage, 94045
bending moment, shear force and torque in wing of medium to high aspect ratio, 94045
Wings With Camber and Twist
program for spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
spanwise distribution by graphical method in subsonic flow, 83040
Wings With Camber and Twist and With Plain Leading- and/or Trailing-Edge Flaps Deflected
program for spanwise distribution in subsonic flow, 95010
Wings With Symmetric Sections
spanwise distribution due to change of angle of attack, TD MEMO 6403
Aerodynamic Mean Chord
see also
Geometric Mean Chord
Standard Mean Chord
Length and Position
straight-tapered wing planforms, or wing planforms with cranks or sawteeth, 10023, 76003, TM 168
Aerodynamic Noise
see
Airframe Noise (Aeroplanes Not Propeller Powered)
Aerodynamics Series
see also
Transonic Aerodynamics Series
Location of Items in ESDU Series, 00001
Record of Amendments to Items in ESDU Series, 00001
Section Titles for ESDU Series, 00001
Aeroelasticity
see
Flutter
Static Aeroelasticity
Aerofoil Coordinates
Data for Thirteen Sections on Disc, 96029
Families Designed for Given Drag-Rise Mach Number, 71020
Program for Geometry of Low-Drag GUNACA-Series, 99003
Sources of (Catalogue 4), TD MEMO 6407
Aerofoils
see also
Aerofoil Coordinates
Aerofoils with Roof-top Pressure Distribution
Aerofoils with Supercritical Pressure Distribution
Biconvex Aerofoils
Boundary Layer
Centre of Pressure
Double-wedge Sections
Excrescences
Indicial Aerodynamics
Magnification of Excrescence Drag By Pressure Gradient
Normal Force
Pressure Distribution
Pressure Drag
Wind-tunnel Corrections for Aerofoils
Wings
Aerodynamic Centre
in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024
in subsonic flow, AERO A.08.01.05
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series, 99003
program to predict for subcritical speeds, 06020
Angle of Attack for Maximum Lift
program to predict, 99031
with or without leading- and/or trailing-edge high-lift devices deployed, 96003
Angle of Attack for Zero Lift
correction factor for compressibility and viscosity to apply to inviscid value, 98011
in subcritical attached flow, 98011
Pankhurst's method in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024, 98011
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series, 99003
Base Pressure, AERO W.S.02.03.07
Boundary Layer Characteristics
estimation in subcritical flow, 76002
Buffeting Behaviour
variation with angle of attack and Mach number, 87012
Comparisons Against RAE 5225 Aerofoil for Program in 2D Mode, 13013
Construction of Lift Curve From Zero to Maximum Lift
program to predict, 99031
with or without leading- and/or trailing-edge high-lift devices deployed, 96003
Critical Mach Number
prediction from incompressible, inviscid pressure distribution, 74008
variation with thickness/chord ratio, AERO W.00.03.01
Design of Optimum Section Geometry (Multivariate Gradient Search Using CFD Codes)
varying camber line shape and high-lift device deflections (two design points), 99021
varying camber line shape or high-lift device deflections (single design point), 99020
varying high-lift device deflections on combat aircraft section (single design point), 00022, 00023
varying surface geometry and high-lift device deflections (two design points), 01024
Design of Section Geometry
considerations to achieve low-drag characteristics over a range of lift coefficient, 99003
to obtain desirable pressure distribution features in transonic flow, 97017
Design of Section Geometry to Provide Specified Upper-Surface Pressure Distribution
description of program extension made to create VGKD for this use, 99032
discussion of changes required to achieve required lift coefficient, 99032
example results illustrating features of method, 99032
explanation of features to be used to define pressure distribution, 99032
in transonic flow with or without weak shock, 99032
resulting drag, lift, and pitching moment coefficients, 99032
starting from specified thickness distribution, incidence and flow conditions, 99032
Discussion and Illustration of Transonic Flow Features and Effect on Aerodynamic Characteristics
effect of increasing angle of attack at constant freestream Mach number, 90008
effect of increasing freestream Mach number at constant angle of attack, 90008
Discussion of Behaviour With Fixed Transition of Lift-Drag Polar at Subsonic Speeds
existence of constant drag coefficient over range of lift coefficient, 00027
Drag-Creep
supercritical, TD MEMO 6407
Drag Estimation at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.05
Drag Estimation at Transonic Speeds Near Separation Using Viscous-Coupled Calculation Method, 92008
Drag Estimation in Viscous Subsonic or Transonic Flow Using VGK, 96028, 96029
comparison of results with experimental and other theoretical results, 96028
effect of leading- or trailing-edge sealed control or flap deflection, 96028, 96029
influence of values of variable parameters in program on results, 96028
Drag-Rise Mach Number
estimation, TD MEMO 6407
relationship with that of wing-body combination, 78009
Elliptical Section
centre of pressure position, 79026
critical Mach number, AERO W.00.03.01
lift, 79026
profile drag, 79026
Experimental Data
sources of (Tables 1 and 2), TD MEMO 6407
GUNACA Design for Low Drag Over a Range of Lift Coefficient
comparison of geometric and inviscid flow characteristics with those of NACA 6-series, 99003
program for geometric and inviscid flow characteristics, 99003
Introduction to Data Items on Effect of High-Lift Devices on Lift, 94026
Inverse Design (Multivariate Gradient Search Using CFD Codes)
to obtain complete or partial target pressure distribution, 01025
Leading-Edge Suction
correction of thin-leading-edge value to provide attainable value, 95025
Lift at Zero Angle of Attack, 72024, 97020, 98011
effect of double-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94031
effect of leading-edge high-lift devices alone, 94027
effect of plain flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94028
effect of single-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94030
effect of split flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94029
effect of triple-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94031
introduction to Data Items on effect of high-lift devices on, 94026
Lift-Curve Slope
in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024
in subcritical compressible flow, 97020
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series, 99003
Lift-Curve Slope From Zero to Maximum Lift
behaviour when leading- and/or trailing-edge high-lift devices are deployed, 94026
program to predict, 99031
with or without leading- and/or trailing-edge high-lift devices deployed, 96003
Lift Estimation at Supersonic Speeds, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.05
Lift Estimation in Viscous Subsonic or Transonic Flow Using VGK, 96028, 96029
comparison of results with experimental results, with or without control deflection, 96028
comparison of results with other theoretical results, 96028
effect of leading- or trailing-edge sealed control or flap deflection, 96028, 96029
Low-Drag Design by CFD Techniques
using multivariate gradient search optimisation, 00022, 00023, 01024, 99019, 99020, 99021
Low-Drag Design by Maintaining Favourable Pressure Gradient on Forward Upper and Lower Surfaces
characteristics of NACA 6- and 6A-series and GUNACA-series, 99003
comparison of geometric and inviscid flow characteristics of NACA 6- and GUNACA-series, 99003
discussion of theoretical methods for inviscid flow, 99003
program for geometric and inviscid flow characteristics of GUNACA-series, 99003
Maximum Lift Coefficient at Mach Number 0.6 to 0.75, AERO W.01.01.07
Maximum Lift Coefficient in Low-Speed Flow, 84026, 93015
effect of double-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94031
effect of leading-edge high-lift devices alone, 94027
effect of leading-edge roughness, 84026, 93015
effect of plain flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94028
effect of single-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94030
effect of split flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94029
effect of triple-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge devices, 94027, 94031
introduction to Data Items on effect of high-lift devices on, 94026
NACA 6- and 6A-Series for Low Drag Over a Range of Lift Coefficient
comparison of geometric and inviscid flow characteristics with those of GUNACA-series, 99003
Normal Pressure Drag in Sonic Freestream, 69013
Optimisation for Minimum Drag (Multivariate Gradient Search Using CFD Codes)
introduction to method, 99019
varying camber line shape and high-lift device deflections (two design points), 99021
varying camber line shape or high-lift device deflections (single design point), 99020
varying high-lift device deflections on combat aircraft section (single design point), 00022, 00023
varying surface geometry and high-lift device deflections (two design points), 01024
Oscillating in Heave or Pitch or With an Oscillating Control
introduction to calculation methods in subsonic or supersonic flow, 82020
lift and pitching moment in subsonic flow, 81034
lift and pitching moment in supersonic flow, 82005
pressure distribution in subsonic flow, 81034
pressure distribution in supersonic flow, 82005
Pitching Moment at Angle of Attack
all high-lift devices, 03017
Pitching Moment at Zero Angle of Attack
effect of double-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 99014
effect of leading-edge high-lift devices, alone or with trailing-edge flaps, 00029, 01013
effect of plain flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 98017
effect of single-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift divices, 01013, 99004
effect of split flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 98009
effect of triple-slotted flaps, alone or with leading-edge high-lift devices, 01013, 99014
Pitching Moment at Zero Lift
in inviscid subcritical flow, 72024
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series, 99003
Pitching Moment Estimation in Viscous Subsonic or Transonic Flow Using VGK, 96028, 96029
comparison of results with experimental results, 96028
effect of leading- or trailing-edge sealed control or flap deflection, 96028, 96029
Pressure Distribution
comparison of experimental with calculated by viscous-coupled method, 92008
condition for equivalent streamwise distribution on swept wing, 78009
for given drag-rise Mach number, 71020
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series, 99003
section design to provide specified upper-surface values in transonic flow, 99032
supersonic flow, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.05
use of roof-top to inhibit transition and give low drag, 99003
wind-tunnel blockage effects in viscous transonic flow, 81019
Pressure Distribution Estimation in Inviscid Subsonic Flow, 72025, 79009
Pressure Distribution Estimation in Inviscid Transonic Flow, 79009
Pressure Distribution Estimation in Sonic Free Stream, 69013, TD MEMO 6511
Pressure Distribution Estimation in Viscous Subcritical Flow by First-Order Method, 76002
Pressure Distribution Estimation in Viscous Subsonic or Transonic Flow Using VGK, 96028, 96029
comparison of results with experimental results, with or without control deflection, 96028
comparison of results with other theoretical results, 96028
effect of leading- or trailing-edge sealed control or flap deflection, 96028, 96029
influence of grid size on results, 96028
influence of values of variable parameters in program on results, 96028
program user manual, 96029
use in prediction of shock-induced separation, 97030
Pressure Distribution Estimation in Viscous Transonic Flow, 81019
Profile Drag, AERO W.02.04.00, AERO W.02.04.02, AERO W.02.04.03, AERO W.S.02.04.13
estimation of minimum for cambered or uncambered with fixed transition, 00027
increment due to deployment of single-slotted flap, 87005
variation of minimum with Mach number below drag rise, 00027
Separation Characteristics
discussion and illustration of shock-induced separation types, 90008
effect at low speed on behaviour of lift curve, 66034
limits to control of shock-induced by vortex generators, 93024, 93025
reattachment point on upper surface, 91021
shock/boundary layer interaction length, 90008
shock-induced separation bubble length, 90008, 91021
types of separation at low and transonic speeds, 87012
upstream Mach number for flow breakdown at transonic speeds, 90008, 91021
Separation Prediction at Subcritical Speeds
method for leading- or trailing-edge separation, 88030
Separation Prediction at Transonic Speeds
application of VGK for, 97030
boundary layer criteria for shock-induced separation on upper-surface, 81020
bubble length and reattachment point, 91021
comparison of results obtained using VGK with experimental data, 97030
criteria for shock-induced flow breakdown, 91021
flow breakdown boundary from pressure distribution and boundary layer characteristics, 91021
separation boundary from computed pressure distribution/boundary layer, 81020, 97030
separation boundary obtained directly from computed pressure distribution, 92008
Shock Waves on
behaviour with varying Mach number or angle of attack at transonic speeds, 90008
oscillation at transonic speeds, 87012
Similarity Laws Applied to Lift, Pitching Moment, Pressure and Pressure Drag Coefficients
in subsonic, supersonic and transonic flows, 97025
Skin friction drag
in presence of pressure field, 06001
Supersonic Flow, AERO W.S.00.03.03, AERO W.S.00.03.05
Surface Finish
effect of roughness on transition, AERO W.02.04.09
effect of waviness on transition, AERO W.02.04.11
Velocity Distribution
program to predict for low-drag GUNACA-series, 99003
Wakes
see
Wakes
Wind-Tunnel Corrections
open-jet or perforated-, slotted- or solid-walled tunnels, 76028
Aerofoils with Roof-top Pressure Distribution
Charts of Drag-Rise Mach Number, 71019
adaptation to three-dimensions, 72027
Design of GUNACA-Series for Low Drag Over a Range of Lift Coefficient
geometric and inviscid flow characteristics, 99003
Designs for Given Drag-Rise Mach Number, 71020
influence of design parameters, 71020
profile drag at design condition, 67011
NACA 6- and GUNACA-Series for Low Drag Over a Range of Lift Coefficient
comparison of geometric and inviscid flow characteristics, 99003
Aerofoils with Supercritical Pressure Distribution
Charts of Drag-Rise Mach Number, 78010
Aero-normalised Derivatives
see
Derivatives

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